Physics 41 HW Set 1 Chapter 15

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1 Physics 4 HW Set Chapter 5 Serway 8 th OC:, 4, 7 CQ: 4, 8 P: 4, 5, 8, 8, 0, 9,, 4, 9, 4, 5, 5 Discussion Problems:, 57, 59, 67, 74 OC CQ P: 4, 5, 8, 8, 0, 9,, 4, 9, 4, 5, 5 Discussion Problems:, 57, 59, 67, 74 P4 In an engine, a piston oscillates with simple harmonic motion so that its position varies according to the expression x = (5.00 cm) cos(t + /6) where x is in centimeters and t is in seconds. At t = 0, find (a) the position of the piston, its velocity, and (c) its acceleration. (d) Find the period and amplitude of the motion. (a) x 5.00 cm cos t 6 t, x At cm cos 4. cm 6 dx 0.0 cm s sin t dt 6 v dv (c) a (d) 0.0 cm s cos t dt 6 A 5.00 cm and At t 0, v 5.00 cm s At t 0, a 7. cm s T.4 s

2 P 5 The position of a particle is given by the expression x = (4.00 m) cos(.00 t + ), where x is in meters and t is in seconds. Determine (a) the frequency and period of the motion, the amplitude of the motion, (c) the phase constant, and (d) the position of the particle at t = 0.50 s. x 4.00 m cos.00 t Compare this with x A cos t to find (a) f.00 or f.50 H z T f s (c) A 4.00 m rad (d) xt 0.50 s 4.00 m cos.75.8 m P8. A simple harmonic oscillator takes.0 s to undergo five complete vibrations. Find (a) the period of its motion, the frequency in hertz, and (c) the angular frequency in radians per second. (a).0 s T 5.40 s f T Hz (c) f rad s P8. A 00-g block is attached to a horizontal spring and executes simple harmonic motion with a period of 0.50 s. If the total energy of the system is.00 J, find (a) the force constant of the spring and the amplitude of the motion. m 00 g, T 0.50 s, E.00 J; 5. rad s T 0.50 (a) k m 0.00 kg 5. rad s 6 N m ka E E A.00 k m

3 P0. A.00-kg object is attached to a spring and placed on a horizontal, smooth surface. A horizontal force of 0.0 N is required to hold the object at rest when it is pulled 0.00 m from its equilibrium position (the origin of the x axis). The object is now released from rest with an initial position of xi = 0.00 m, and it subsequently undergoes simple harmonic oscillations. Find (a) the force constant of the spring, the frequency of the oscillations, and (c) the maximum speed of the object. Where does this maximum speed occur? (d) Find the maximum acceleration of the object. Where does it occur? (e) Find the total energy of the oscillating system. Find (f) the speed and (g) the acceleration of the object when its position is equal to one third of the maximum value. F 0.0 N (a) k 00 N m x 0.00 m k 50.0 rad s so f. H z m (c) v A m ax m s at x 0 (d) a A m ax m s at x A E ka J (e) 8 (f) (g) v A x m s a x m s P9 A physical pendulum in the form of a planar body moves in simple harmonic motion with a frequency of Hz. If the pendulum has a mass of.0 kg and the pivot is located 0.50 m from the center of mass, determine the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the pivot point. T ; f f H z, d 0.50 m, and m.0 kg I T ; m gd T 4 I m gd m gd m gd kg m I T 4 f s FIG. P5.5

4 P A simple pendulum has a mass of 0.50 kg and a length of.00 m. It is displaced through an angle of 5.0 and then released. What are (a) the maximum speed, the maximum angular acceleration, and (c) the maximum restoring force? What If? Solve this problem by using the simple harmonic motion model for the motion of the pendulum, and then solve the problem more precisely by using more general principles. Using the simple harmonic motion model: A r m m 80 g 9.8 m s. rad s L m FIG. P5. (a) vm ax A 0.6 m. s 0.80 m s am ax A 0.6 m. s.57 m s (c) atan r atan.57 m s r m F m a 0.5 kg.57 m s 0.64 N.57 rad s More precisely, (a) m gh m v and hl cos vm ax gl cos 0.87 m s I m gl sin m gl sin g sin i ml L m ax.54 rad s (c) Fm ax m gsin i sin N

5 4. A very light rigid rod with a length of m extends straight out from one end of a meter stick. The stick is suspended from a pivot at the far end of the rod and is set into oscillation. (a) Determine the period of oscillation. Suggestion: Use the parallel-axis theorem from Section 0.5. By what percentage does the period differ from the period of a simple pendulum.00 m long? 4. A.00-kg object attached to a spring moves without friction and is driven by an external force F = (.00 N) sin( t). If the force constant of the spring is 0.0 N/m, determine (a) the period and the amplitude of the motion.

6 9. An 0.6-kg object oscillates at the end of a vertical spring which has a spring constant of N/m. The effect of air resistance is represented by the damping coefficient b =.00 N s/m. (a) Calculate the frequency of the damped oscillation. By what percentage does the amplitude of the oscillation decrease in each cycle? (c) Find the time interval that elapses while the energy of the system drops to 5.00% of its initial value.

7 P 5A small ball of mass M is attached to the end of a uniform rod of equal mass M and length L that is pivoted at the top (Fig. P5.5). (a) Determine the tensions in the rod at the pivot and at the point P when the system is stationary. Calculate the period of oscillation for small displacements from equilibrium, and determine this period for L =.00 m. (Suggestions: Model the object at the end of the rod as a particle and use Eq. 5.8.) Let F represent the tension in the rod. (a) At the pivot, F M g M g M g y A fraction of the rod s weight Mg L as well as the weight of the ball pulls down on point P. Thus, the tension in the rod at point P is y y F M g M g M g L L. 4 Relative to the pivot, I Irod Iball M L M L M L pivot P L y M FIG. P5.5 I For the physical pendulum, T where m M and d is the distance from the pivot m gd to the center of mass of the rod and ball combination. Therefore, For L.00 m, L M M L 4 L ML 4 L d and T. M M 4 L M g g 4.00 m T.68 s m s 4

8

9 Discussion Problems:, 57, 59, 67, 74. Consider the physical pendulum of Figure 5.8. (a) If its moment of inertia about an axis passing through its center of mass and parallel to the axis passing through its pivot point is T I CM md mgd ICM, show that its period is where d is the distance between the pivot point and center of mass. Show that the period has a minimum value when d satisfies md = ICM.

10 5.57 A horizontal plank of mass m and length L is pivoted at one end. The plank s other end is supported by a spring of force constant k. The plank is displaced by a small angle from its horizontal equilibrium position and released. (a) Show that it moves with simple harmonic motion with an angular frequency = k/m. Evaluate the frequency if the mass is 5.00 kg and the spring has a force constant of 00 N/m. P5.57 (a) The problem tells us that the plank and spring are at equilibrium when the plank is horizontal. Then: L mg 0 mg kx0l x0 k where x 0 is the equilibrium compression distance from the unstretched spring. The plank is then displaced upwards by a small angle, a distance: Lsin above equilibrium. The system will oscillate about the equilibrium position with an amplitude: x Lsin x0. Both the plank and the spring produce clockwise and negative torques: L L mg cos cos cos sin 0 cos kxl mg k L x L L mg mg cos k Lsin Lcos k L L mg cos mg cos kl sin cos k L mg where we substituted x0 and used the small angle approximations cos, sin. k Using the parallel axis thm for the plank rotated about the pivot we get: Combining we derive: Rearranging: d I ml k L. dt d k. dt m I ml,. The angular acceleration is opposite in direction and proportional to the displacement, so we have simple harmonic motion with make sense? k m. Notice how the torque due to the plank canceled out!! Why does this k 00 N m f m 5.00 kg. H z

11 59.Review problem. A particle of mass 4.00 kg is attached to a spring with a force constant of 00 N/m. It is oscillating on a horizontal frictionless surface with an amplitude of.00 m. A 6.00-kg object is dropped vertically on top of the 4.00-kg object as it passes through its equilibrium point. The two objects stick together. (a) By how much does the amplitude of the vibrating system change as a result of the collision? By how much does the period change? (c) By how much does the energy change? (d) Account for the change in energy. As it passes through equilibrium, the 4-kg object has speed k 00 N m vm ax A A m 0.0 m s. m 4 kg In the completely inelastic collision momentum of the two-object system is conserved. So the new 0-kg object starts its oscillation with speed given by m ax vm ax 4 kg 0 m s 6 kg 0 0 kg v 4.00 m s (a) The new amplitude is given by m v m ax ka 0 kg 4 m s 00 N m A.6 m A Thus the amplitude has decreased by.00 m.6 m 0.75 m The old period was The new period is m 4 kg T.6 s k 00 N m 0 T s.99 s 00 The period has increased by.99 m.6 m 0.70 s mv 4 kg 0 m s 00 J m ax (c) The old energy was 0 kg 4 m s 80 J The new mechanical energy is The energy has decreased by 0 J. (d) The missing mechanical energy has turned into internal energy in the completely inelastic collision.

12 P.67 A block of mass m is connected to two springs of force constants k and k as shown In each case, the block moves on a frictionless table after it is displaced from equilibrium and released. Show that in the two cases the block exhibits simple harmonic motion with periods (a) T m k k k k T m k k When the mass is displaced a distance x from equilibrium, spring is stretched a distance x and spring is stretched a distance x. By Newton s third law, we expect kx kx. When this is combined with the requirement that x x x, we find The force on either spring is given by where a is the acceleration of the mass m. k x x k k kk F x ma k k This is in the form and F keff x ma m m k k T k k k eff In this case each spring is distorted by the distance x which the mass is displaced. Therefore, the restoring force is F k k x and keff k k so that T m k k

13 74. Review problem. Imagine that a hole is drilled through the center of the Earth to the other side. An object of mass m at a distance r from the center of the Earth is pulled toward the center of the Earth only by the mass within the sphere of radius r. (a) Write Newton's law of gravitation for an object at the distance r from the center of the Earth, and show that the force on it is of Hooke's law form, F = kr, where the effective force constant is k = (4/) Gm. Here is the density of the Earth, assumed uniform, and G is the gravitational constant. Show that a sack of mail dropped into the hole will execute simple harmonic motion if it moves without friction. When will it arrive at the other side of the Earth? (a) Newton s law of universal gravitation is Thus, Which is of Hooke s law form with GM m Gm 4 F r r r 4 F Gm r 4 k Gm The sack of mail moves without friction according to 4 Gm rm a 4 a Gr r Since acceleration is a negative constant times excursion from equilibrium, it executes SHM with 4G and period T G The time for a one-way trip through the earth is We have also T 4G e e e Re GM G 4 R 4 g GR R e so 4G g and Re R e 6 T m.5 0 s 4. m in. g 9.8 m s Recall from physics 40 Chapter that the period of an object in orbit around the Earth at the surface is twice this 84 minutes and the orbital velocity is 7.9 km/s.

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