# Linear Motion vs. Rotational Motion

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1 Linear Motion vs. Rotational Motion Linear motion involves an object moving from one point to another in a straight line. Rotational motion involves an object rotating about an axis. Examples include a merry-go-round, the rotating earth, a spinning skater, a top, and a turning wheel. What causes rotational motion? Does Newton s second law apply?

2 There is a useful analogy between linear motion and rotational motion. Rotational velocity is how fast the object is turning. Units: revolutions per minute (rpm); degrees per second Analogous to linear velocity

3 Rotational displacement is how far the object rotates. Units: fractions of a complete revolution; degrees; radians 1 complete revolution = 360º = 2 radians Analogous to linear displacement: the straight-line distance traveled by an object (including direction of travel)

4 Rotational acceleration is the rate of change of rotational velocity. Units: revolutions per second per second (rev/s 2 ); radians per second per second (rad/s 2 ) Analogous to linear acceleration

5 Constant acceleration equations for linear and rotational motion v v 0 at 0 t d v 0 t 1 2 at 2 0 t 1 2 t 2

6 Relationship between linear and rotational velocity On a merry-go-round, a rider near the edge travels a greater distance in 1 revolution than one near the center. The outside rider is therefore traveling with a greater linear speed. v r

7 A merry-go-round is accelerated at a constant rate of rev/s 2, starting from rest. What is its rotational velocity at the end of 1 min? a) radian/s b) 0.3 radian/s c) 0.05 radian/s d) 1.88 radian/s = rev/s 2 0 = 0 t = 60 s = 0 + t = 0 + (0.005 rev/s 2 )(60 s) = 0.30 rev/s = 0.3*2*3.14 radian/s = 1.88 radian/s

8 How many revolutions does the merry-go-round make in 1 minute? a) 1.5 rev b) 3.0 rev c) 9.0 rev d) 18.0 rev = rev/s 2 0 = 0 t = 60 s, = 0.30 rev/s = 0 t + 1/2 t 2 = 0 + 1/2 (0.005 rev/s 2 )(60 s) 2 = 9 rev

9 1C-05 Velocity of Rifle Bullet How can we measure the speed of a bullet? We know that the distance between two disks is L. If the second disk rotates an angle Δθ before the bullet arrives, the time taken by this rotation is t = Δθ / 2πn, where n is the angular frequency of the shaft. Therefore we come up with v = L / t = 2πn L / Δθ. 2/21/2011 9

10 Torque and Balance What causes the merry-go-round to rotate in the first place? What determines whether an object will rotate? If an unbalanced force causes linear motion, what causes rotational motion?

11 Torque and Balance When is a balance balanced? Consider a thin but rigid beam supported by a fulcrum or pivot point. If equal weights are placed at equal distances from the fulcrum, the beam will not tend to rotate: it will be balanced.

12 To balance a weight twice as large as a smaller weight, the smaller weight must be placed twice as far from the fulcrum as the larger weight. Both the weight and the distance from the fulcrum are important. The product of the force and the distance from the fulcrum is called the torque.

13 The distance from the fulcrum to the point of application of the force must be measured in a direction perpendicular to the line of action of the force. This distance is called the lever arm or moment arm. For a force F and a lever arm l, the resulting torque is: Fl A longer lever arm produces a greater torque.

14 Which of the forces pictured as acting upon the rod will produce a torque about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the diagram at the left end of the rod? a) F 1 b) F 2 c) Both. d) Neither. F 2 will produce a torque about an axis at the left end of the rod. F 1 has no lever arm with respect to the given axis.

15 The two forces in the diagram have the same magnitude. Which force will produce the greater torque on the wheel? a) F 1 b) F 2 c) Both. d) Neither. F 1 provides the larger torque. F 2 has a smaller component perpendicular to the radius.

16 A 50-N force is applied at the end of a wrench handle that is 24 cm long. The force is applied in a direction perpendicular to the handle as shown. What is the torque applied to the nut by the wrench? a) 6 N m b) 12 N m c) 26 N m d) 120 N m 0.24 m 50 N = 12 N m

17 What would the torque be if the force were applied half way up the handle instead of at the end? a) 6 N m b) 12 N m c) 26 N m d) 120 N m 0.12 m 50 N = 6 N m

18 What s the lever arm between F and the fulcrum? A. l B. a C. b a b

19 When the applied force is not perpendicular to the crowbar, for example, the lever arm is found by drawing the perpendicular line from the fulcrum to the line of action of the force. We call torques that produce counterclockwise rotation positive, and torques that produce clockwise rotation negative.

20 Two forces are applied to a merry-go-round with a radius of 1.2 m as shown. What is the torque about the axle of the merry-go-round due to the 80-N force? a) +9.6 N m b) -36 N m c) +96 N m d) -36 N m 1.2 m 80 N = +96 N m (counterclockwise)

21 What is the torque about the axle of the merry-go-round due to the 50-N force? a) +60 N m b) -60 N m c) +120 N m d) -120 N m -(1.2 m 50 N) = -60 N m (clockwise)

22 What is the net torque acting on the merrygo-round? a) +36 N m b) -36 N m c) +96 N m d) -60 N m e) +126 N m 96 N m (counterclockwise) - 60 N m (clockwise) = +36 N m (counterclockwise)

23 We want to balance a 3-N weight against a 5-N weight on a beam. The 5-N weight is placed 20 cm to the right of a fulcrum. What is the torque produced by the 5-N weight? a) +1 N m b) -1 N m c) +4 N m d) +4 N m F = 5 N = - Fl l = 20 cm = 0.2 m = - (5 N)(0.2 m) = -1 N m

24 Quiz: How far do we have to place the 3- N weight from the fulcrum to balance the system? a) 2 cm b) 27 cm c) 33 cm d) 53 cm F = 3 N l = / F = +1 N m = (+1 N m) / (3 N) = 0.33 m = 33 cm

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