# Analysis of Data. Organizing Data Files in SPSS. Descriptive Statistics

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1 Analysis of Data Claudia J. Stanny PSY 67 Research Design Organizing Data Files in SPSS All data for one subject entered on the same line Identification data Between-subjects manipulations: variable to identify group level for that subject Measures for Within-subjects manipulations: each level of a within subject variable appears as a new variable in the data file ID SEX AGE HAND WD WD WD3 PIC PIC PIC3 RTW RTW RTW3 RTP RTP RTP Descriptive Statistics Biased and Unbiased Estimates of Population parameters Measures of Central Tendency Operational definitions of a typical score Mean, median, mode Measures of Variability Range, interquartile range Variance Standard deviation

2 Measures of Association Pearson product-moment correlation (r) Point-biserial correlation Equivalent to a between-subjects t-test Spearman rank order correlation (r s ) Phi coefficient Interpreting Correlations College GPA ATM transactions HS GPA Temperature in Pensacola Crop Yield (bushels) Days in Therapy Patient's Belief in Doctor's Competence Inches of Rainfall per Month Effects of Outliers 3 3 Scores on a Test Scores on a Test 4 6 Hours Studied 4 6 Hours Studied

3 Effects of Outliers Restricted Range Height (in) 4 3 Height (in) 4 3 Age in years Age in years Combining Data From Different Groups Weight (lbs) Height (inches) Weight (lbs) Women Men 6 7 Height (inches) 3

4 Data From Different Groups Interest in Remarriage Interest in Remarriage Widowers Widows Age at Death of Spouse Age at Death of Spouse Inferential Statistics Logic of Inferential Statistical Tests Assume that all participants are selected from the same population Score (DV) = µ + random error H : µ = µ Assume that the experimental conditions produce systematic changes in the scores of participants on the dependent measure Score (DV) = µ + treatment effect + random error H : µ µ Types of Statistical Errors Type I Error Probability = alpha Rejection of H when H is true Type II Error Probability = beta Failure to reject H when H is true Failure to detect a true treatment effect 4

5 Parametric Statistics Random selection and/or random assignment of scores from the population of interest Sampling distribution is normal Central Limit Theorem: sampling distribution will become normal as sample size increases, even when raw data are not distributed normally Homogeneity of variances within groups Problems can arise when observations in one condition are more variable than observations in other conditions Testing these assumptions statistically Analysis of Variance One-way designs One independent variable (factor) two levels of a factor a t-test will give equivalent results three or more levels of a factor requires use of ANOVA Partitioning Variance Between-groups variability Within-groups variability Partitioning Variance in ANOVA Total Variability Systematic Variability (Between Groups) Error Variability (Within Groups)

6 Creating an F Ratio for ANOVA SS total = SS treatment + SS error Mean Square = SS / df Expected MS BG = Var TX + Var error Expected MS WG = Var error F Ratio = MS BG / MS WG = (Var TX + Var error )/Var error Value of F ratio when H is true? Value of F ratio when H is false? Interpreting a Significant F Ratio Need to evaluate pair-wise comparisons of means following a significant F ratio Planned comparisons A priori comparisons Comparisons based on specific predictions hypothesized before data collection Unplanned comparisons Post hoc tests Need to control Experiment-wide Error Rate (familywise error rate) Probability of at least one Type I Error increases as the number of comparisons increases Planned Comparisons Contrasts should be orthogonal Outcome of each contrast should be independent Knowing the result for one comparison does not constrain the decision for other comparisons Example: Planned comparisons for a three group design: Drug A, Drug B, Control Contrast : Average of Drug versus No Drug Combines mean for drug A and drug B Contrast : Drug A versus Drug B 6

7 Orthogonal Contrasts Produce Independent Outcomes Assume that the comparison of the Drugs versus Control produces no difference Mean for Drugs = Mean for Control = 3 outcomes possible for the comparison of Drug A with Drug B No Difference Drug A = Drug B = Drug A > Drug B Drug A = 7 Drug B = 3 Drug A < Drug B Drug A = Drug B = 8 Knowing the decision about the first contrast does not provide information about the outcome of the second contrast Independence of Contrast Outcomes (continued) Assume that the comparison of the Drugs versus Control produces a significant difference Mean for Drugs = 4 Mean for Control = 8 3 outcomes possible for the comparison of Drug A with Drug B No Difference Drug A = 4 Drug B = 4 Drug A > Drug B Drug A = 6 Drug B = Drug A < Drug B Drug A = Drug B = 7 Knowing the decision about the first contrast does not provide information about the outcome of the second contrast Post Hoc Tests Scheffe Corrects for all possible comparisons, whether or not these are examined Bonferroni procedure Divide alpha by the number of comparisons to be made Use the critical value for the smaller alpha value for all tests Dunnett Specifically designed to compare each experimental group with a single control group 7

8 Post Hoc Tests Tukey HSD (default post hoc in SPSS) Controls EER over a set of pair-wise comparisons (adjusts critical value for significance) Specialized procedures available for calculation for means based on unequal sample sizes Newman-Keuls Less conservative than Tukey HSD Means in a comparison set are rank ordered Critical value for a pair-wise comparison varies with the number of steps between means in the ordered set Duncan ANOVA Two Factor Designs Additional factors require partitioning variance in different ways Nature of the partitioning will change depending on the type of design Both factors manipulated between-subjects Both factors manipulated within-subjects Mixed designs Logic of the test remains the same: Isolate the systematic effect in the numerator of the F ratio Partitioning Variance in the Between- Subjects Design 8

9 Partitioning Variance in the Within- Subjects Design Partitioning in a Mixed Design Fixed Effects & Random Effects Fixed Effects All levels of a factor are in the design men & women All relevant levels of a factor are in the design zero stress, moderate stress, high stress Random Effects Levels of a factor represent a sample of the possible levels in the design Individual subjects as levels of a factor Unique stimulus materials (e.g., photos, sentences, etc. used to create a manipulation) Analysis problems when or more factors are random effects 9

10 Interaction Effects Additive Model (no interaction) Score = µ + TXa + TXb + error Non-Additive Model (interaction) Score = µ + TXa + TXb + TXab + error Meaning of interactions: effect of a treatment varies depending on conditions created by manipulation of a second variable x 3 Factorial with No Interaction Mean Words Recalled Men Women sad neutral happy Emotional Value of Words x Factorial with Significant Interaction 3 Mean Recall 3 sad at test happy at test sad Mood at Study happy

11 Other Forms of Interactions Factors that Affect Statistical Power Selection of alpha level Comparing alpha =. to alpha =. Comparing one tailed tests to two-tailed tests Size of the treatment effect produced Variability of the sampling distribution for the statistical test Effects of changes in sample size Effects of changes in control of extraneous variables Power Changes with Size of Effect Created

12 Power Changes with Variability in the Sampling Distribution Measuring Effect Sizes (Abelson) Raw effect size Differences created measured in the same units of measurement used for the dependent measure Difference in IQ, number of words recalled, etc. Difficulty of knowing what counts as a large effect Standardized effect size Effect sizes converted to z-scores Creates equivalent scales for comparing different dependent measures Useful for meta-analysis Cohen s d, variance explained (r ), omega squared Interpreting Statistical Significance Large sample sizes can provide powerful tests in which small numeric differences are statistically reliable How should these be interpreted? Numerically small effects can be impressive Created with minimal manipulation of the IV Created when the DV is difficult to change at all Effects of any size have an important theoretical interpretation

13 Statistical Significance vs Practical Significance What are the practical implications of an effect? An educational program reliably produces a point increase in the IQ of -year-old children A medical intervention reduces the risk of heart attack from per, (p(heart attack) =.) by half (to p(heart attack) =.) In a population of million people, this will translate into a change from, heart attacks to heart attacks Data Transformations Linear transformations Add a constant value Shifts location of distribution without changing the variance of the distribution Can make data analysis easier (K vs ) Other transformations change both the mean and the variance of the distribution Transforming data can produce data that meet the distribution assumptions for statistical tests Non-Linear Data Transformations Square Root transformation Used when larger means correlate with larger variances (common with count data) Makes variances more homogeneous Reduces skew of distributions Arcsine transformation Used when data consist of proportions (e.g., percent correct data) 3

14 Non-Linear Data Transformations Log transformation Reduces skew in distributions Common with sensory data gives manageable ranges for plotting results Reciprocal transformation X = /X Reciprocal data are less variable than raw data Transforms alter the interpretation of the measure Reciprocal of a time measure is a speed measure New measure is sometimes easier to interpret GSR gets smaller as stress increases EDR (/GSR) increases with increased stress Non-Parametric Tests Do not make assumptions about the underlying distributions to compute probabilities Useful when data do not meet assumptions for normality, etc. Can be more powerful tests than parametric tests when assumptions have been violated Non-parametric analogs exists for nearly every parametric test 4

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