Users Guide to the Ecliptic Calendar by Damon Scott, Author of the Ecliptic System

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Users Guide to the Ecliptic Calendar by Damon Scott, Author of the Ecliptic System"

Transcription

1 Users Guide to the Ecliptic Calendar by Damon Scott, Author of the Ecliptic System Introduction The currently prevalent method of marking time is called the Gregorian Calendar and is filled with arbitrary conventions. The lengths of the months make no sense. The names of the months are arbitrary as well, and even nonsensical, in that the ninth month is called September. The year begins on an arbitrary day in winter. To keep things aligned, a counting rule is adopted for leap years: divisible by four, unless divisible by 100, unless divisible by 400. Even this rule will not keep the Gregorian calendar aligned properly for thousands of years to come, as a good calendar should. In addition to all this, Daylight Savings Time obtrudes to let one know just how much one s sense of time is dictated by civil authorities. In the Ecliptic System, one s sense of time is restored to the operations of celestial mechanics. No parliament, prince or prelate can change the sense of time conferred by the Ecliptic Calendar. One s days begin at 6:00 a.m. Sundial Time. One s months are named after the constellation one sees overhead at night. Years begin at sunrise on the day of the Vernal Equinox, the first day of Spring for those in the Northern Hemisphere. Years themselves are grouped into Saturnia, the course of which one may see by noting the position of Saturn as it moves across the constellations in the sky. Such are the timescales one can live one s life by, but for mankind at large two other timescales are made available, the age and the cycle, again defined using celestial mechanics. The current calendar, though familiar, is arbitrary and capricious. With the Ecliptic Calendar, one may mark time in a manner that is sensible, natural, and beautiful. The Ecliptic Calendar Website The official website of the Ecliptic Calendar is at It contains calendars at all scales in printer-friendly versions. Locating Today s Date The first thing to do is find out where you are in time. First, locate the age for today s date. Go to the page Our Cycle and look at the boxes. At the bottom of each box you will see when each Age began. Find the Age for today. Unless you are reading this long, long after this text is written, it should be the Age of Aquarius. At the very top of the box, you will see the Ecliptic Number for the age, Aevum 04. Next, locate the saturnium. Now go to the page marked Age of Aquarius and see the various boxes there. Each box represents a saturnium, a span of time that is either 29 or 30 years long. Each orbit of Saturn begins on the day of the Vernal Equinox (about March 21) in the year printed at the bottom of the box. Find the orbit of Saturn (O.S.) in which today s date falls. If you are reading this between the years 1988 and 2016, then you are in the first orbit of Saturn of the Age of Aquarius. Notice the Ecliptic number at the top of the box.

2 Next, locate the year. Now go to the sheet that lists that orbit of Saturn. The whole page should have at the very top the Ecliptic number as the box on the other page. You will see listed various years. Notice that the years do not start on January 1 as in the traditional calendar. By looking at the dates at the bottom, determine in what year today s date falls. Again, note the Ecliptic number for that year. You will notice that the Ecliptic number makes sense as you go further and further into the calendar. Next, locate the month. Now go to the page that has that year as its title. You will see twelve months. Each box has the Ecliptic number of the month printed at the very top of the box, and also the constellation-name of the month. At the bottom of the box is found the day when the month begins. Find out which month today s date falls and note its Ecliptic number. Finally, locate the day. Go to the page that has that Ecliptic number at the very top. Find today's date on that page. There it is. In the process of finding this Day, you have found out as well the Age, Saturnium, the Year and the Month in the system of the Ecliptic Calendar. Writing the day in Ecliptic Notation The day I am writing this User s Guid just happens to be the 12 th day of Leo in the 18 th year of the 01 st saturnium of the Age of Aquarius. The Age of Aquarius is itself the 04 th age. The long form for the day is to write these numbers, always with longer spans before shorter ones: 04 / 01 / 18 / 01 / 12 A shorter way of writing the is to leave off the first two numbers: 18 / 01 / 12. A more beautiful way to write it is as 18 Leo 12 or, if one wants to specify the year with less ambiguity, 14 / 01 / 18 Leo 12. Writing other timespans in Ecliptic Notation. One of the more important advantages of the Ecliptic Calendar is that one can write longer scale timespans as easily as writing dates. An age is not often referred to, because its 2,150-year span is a bit unwieldy. Nevertheless, one may write, for example, Aevum 03 or Aev 03 to mean the Age of Pisces. Saturnia are named with two numbers and the word saturnium to say what these numbers mean. For example, the First World War occurred in Sat. 03 / 71, and the Second World War occurred in Sat. 03 / 72. The year in which the American Declaration of Independence was signed (1776) may be written as Annus 03 / 66 / 24 or Ann 03 / 66 / 24 or, in English, as the year 03 / 66 / 24. Similarly, a month may be written with four numbers, preceded with the words Mensis (from the Latin) or Men or, in English, the month.

3 Stargazer s Guide to the Ecliptic Calendar The sensibility of the Ecliptic Calendar is taken from stargazing. If one is observant of celestial motions, then one will find the Ecliptic Calendar a very harmonious way of marking time. Days in the Ecliptic Calendar start at 6:00 a.m. Local Solar Time. This moment is called daystart. One way to find daystart is to take the average of sunrise and sunset as printed in the newspaper (this gives you Solar Noon) and subtract six. In the summer months, the sun rises before daystart, and in the winter months the sun rises later. If you want one single time to anchor your own personal sleep cycles and rhythms on, daystart is the anchor to choose. Months tell you which constellation is most prominent in the night-time sky. Conversely, anyone who looks at the stars a fair amount will develop strong associations of time-of-year to the various constellations. For persons in the northern hemisphere, the very sight of Leo will make one think of Spring, Scorpio and Sagittarius will make one think of summer, Aquarius will make one think of autumn, and Gemini will make one think of winter. In this way, the Ecliptic Calendar is in harmony with associations that one will naturally devlop about the zodiacal calendar. Years are strictly calibrated from the Earth s annual orbit. Like the Persian Calendar, years start on the day of the Boreal Vernal Equinox. (Note to novices: Boreal means in the Northern Hemishpere, and Austral means in the Southern Hemisphere. Spring in the Northern Hemisphere is Autumn for those who live in the Southern Hemisphere. Thus, the Boreal Vernal Equinox is the first day of Spring for those in the Northern Hemisphere, but it is the first day of Autumn in the Southern Hemisphere.) The saturnium is perhaps the most poignant span of time. Each person lives to see two or three saturnia and that s it. One can see the years of one s life by seeing the slow motion of Saturn in the sky. The planet Saturn is not faint: it is brighter than nearly every star except Sirius. If one goes to the Saturnium chart, one can see in which constellation the planet Saturn is in that year; the month for best viewing that constellation is itself given in the Ecliptic Calendar. One may therefore see Saturn slowly move throughout the zodiac in its 29 or 30 year circuit. And one may see the years of one s accordingly. Ages are more theoretical. If one goes out and sights the zodiacal constellation that is directly overhead at midnight on the day of the Boreal Vernal Equinox, one will see it to be Leo. It was not always so. Due to a phenomenon called the Precession of the Equinoxes, the constellation overhead at midnight on the day of the equinox used to be Pisces, and before that Aries, and before that Taurus, and so forth. One is living in the Era of Leo because one can check which constellation is directly overhead on the first day of Spring. In order to maintain continuity with the ancient usage of the age concept, the names of the ages are six constellations removed from the names of the eras. Thus, this text is presently written in the Age of Aquarius, which is the as the Era of Leo. Cycles are very long spans of time: 25,800 years give or take 10. It is the length of time for the Precession of the Equinoxes to go through all twelve zodiacal constellations and come back to the point again. Cycles change when the plane

4 of the Earth s Equator, the plane of the Earth s Orbit, and the plane of the Galactic Equator all intersect in a common line (or, intersect in a point when projected onto the Celestial Sphere in spherical geometry). The last such intersection happened about six thousand years ago, and the next such intersection will occur over twenty thousand years into the future. You may look at the chart Our Cycle for exact details. Other Aspects of the Ecliptic Calendar Passing by of the Lunar Month In creating the timespans of the Ecliptic Calendar (day, month, year, saturnium, age, and cycle), all other timespans had to be passed over. One may not feel much loss that the cycle of Jupiter, for example, is not made its own timespan, but definitely there is some sense of loss that the lunar month simply does not get a timespan of its own. If one reckons one s time in the Ecliptic System, then the phase of the moon is just there, like the day of the week. One can see the phase of the moon by looking at the moon-phase notations on printed calendars, but one does not use it to mark spans of time that fall into other spans of time in a systematic fashion. Improved New Days In the system currently present, days begin at midnight. In the new system, days start at 6:00 a.m. local solar time, and if one gets up early at all, one can see the new day come into being. Improved New-Years Event Given that days start at 6:00 a.m. Local Solar Time, and that on the day of the equinox the sun rises right at this time, neither earlier nor later, it turns out that one celebrates the coming of a new year at dawn of the first day of spring. This is certainly a more beautiful time to mark than in the middle of the night in winter on a day of no particular astronomical significance. Clean Division of the Astronomical Seasons Astronomical Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter fall into neat three-month segments. Note that these are the astronomical seasons. When Spring occurs in terms of daffodils being in bloom and so forth depends on ones climate and even in the place can be different by as much as three weeks depending on that year s weather. Clearer Delineation of the Hours of Sunlight The twelve months in the Ecliptic System keep track of when the of daylight are many or few, and when the amount of daylight is lengthening or shortening. Light can be strongly connected to mood and outlook. The chart on the Interpretation of Months gives more complete details. Continuous Self-Calibration Because the celestial motions are taken as the definition of the Ecliptic Calendar, the calendar is continuously self-calibrating. As long as the Earth continues to spin on its axis, go around the Sun, and so forth, so long will the Ecliptic Calendar remain in perfect working order. Celebrating Birthdays and Anniversaries Because the Ecliptic Calendar has four variables months in it, and because these months can vary more than once every four years, there is a lot more occurrence of days being there on some years and not being there on others, in the manner as February 29ths of the Gregorian calendar. When this occurs, one uses a system of equations of days. That is, two notations are considered equal if they point to the day. These equations are not necessarily formulas, but rather are a way of keeping track of which day will be called the as which. For example, in a year in which Leo has only 30 days, then Leo 31 is equal to

5 (that is, the day as) Virgo 01. In terms of the Gregorian Calendar, it is the equivalent to people born on February 29 th celebrating their birthdays on March 01 st. For people celebrating their birthdays and anniversaries, that is all one needs to know about the Equation of Days. For technical professionals, though, the equationof-days concept allows for one to adopt unambiguous conventions concerning the numbering of days. For example, 04 / 01/ 01 / 01 / 2532 is the 2,532 nd day after March 19, The computer would be programmed to convert this day into more conventional ecliptic notation, and from days in conventional notation into this particular, somewhat strange, format. Chart on How to Interpret the Months The following chart shows how to interpret the months for persons in the northern hemisphere. The names of the months are for the Age of Aquarius; they are all shifted by one during the Age of Pisces: Month Amount of daylight Change of the length of daylight each day Astronomical Season Leo About 12 or a Quickly increasing Early Spring bit more Virgo More than 12 Slowly increasing Middle Spring Libra Much more than 12 Staying about the Late Spring Scorpio Much more than 12 Staying about the Early Summer Sagittarius More than 12 Slowly decreasing Middle Summer Capricornus About 12 or a Quickly decreasing Late Summer bit more. Aquarius About 12 or a Quickly decreasing Early Autumn bit less Pisces Less than 12 Slowly decreasing Middle Autumn Aries Much less than 12 Staying about the Late Autumn Taurus Much less than 12 Staying about the Early Winter Gemini Less than 12 Slowly increasing Middle Winter Cancer About 12 or a bit less Quickly increasing Late Winter

6 Uses of the Ecliptic Calendar for Historians The ability to see time at the various scales may be likened to seeing land using topographic maps of various scales. The Ecliptic Calendar is useful for mapping out time, especially large-scale time, which currently do not have very good maps or calendars. The Ecliptic Calendar also equips each duration with its own name. One may say Sat. 03 / 63 to represent the generation when Newton s Principia Mathematica was published. The actual year, 1685, conveys some digits more information than usually is needed here, but if one wants the extra accuracy one can append the extra digits in the Ecliptic system: Annus 03 / 63 / 22. Saying 17 th Century is also a bit too crude for a lot of historical work, in addition to the annoyance that all they years that start with 16 are in century 17. The Ecliptic system is simply more convenient to use, once one gets used to it, and has large-scale calendars at hand so as to see time at this scale. Historians frequently are called upon to name dates or times in non-western Civilizations. This has caused some consternation, because it sometimes appears as a foreign imposition to affix Western-style dates on events that use different calendars. The Ecliptic Calendar, by being relentlessly scientific in its construction, is a calendar that is approximately most free of cultural baggage. It marks the beginning of the Cycle not by a political or religious event, but by the event of the plane of the Earth s Equator, Earth s Orbit, and Galactic Equator intersecting in a line, something that occurs only once every 25,800 years. By naming dates using the Ecliptic system, especially if one numbers ages and avoids the constellation-names for them, one is then naming time with as little cultural baggage as possible. The Ecliptic Calendar can help also with the teaching of history. Just as basic geography is taught in school using maps of entire continents on a single sheet of paper (a scale too crude, for example, to serve for making road maps), just so a basic study of history may use the calendars of the various ages so that students can locate events on that calendar with some accuracy. These calendars then help students see time at this scale in a manner that is unwieldy if time is stretched out in one long line. Seeing a saturnium in an age then looks like seeing a day of a month; it has something of the feel to it. And if the events of a certain saturnium need to be studied in more detail, then that calendar can be generated and printed out for students to look at, just as if one wishes to study the geography of a certain region one uses maps that cover less area on a single page. Conclusion After the course of many years, it may be that the Ecliptic Calendar will develop a following. Perhaps historians will at first slowly and then more generally use the Ecliptic Calendar in their work or teach history with students mapping out events on large-scale Ecliptic calendars. Perhaps astronomers and others inclined to a natural-law or scientific sensibilities will adopt the Ecliptic Calendar in their own professional work. Perhaps eventually poets will be writing ditties about the Merry Merry Month of Virgo. Perhaps. Until then, the Ecliptic Calendar will be very much a personal calendar, a way for those individuals who use the system to feel their place in time both brief and long. There is music in the spheres, and the Ecliptic Calendar is a way of marking time in harmony with the celestial motions.

CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS

CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS INTRODUCTION CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS This is a scientific presentation to provide you with knowledge you can use to understand the sky above in relation to the earth. Before

More information

Reasons for Seasons. Question: TRUE OR FALSE. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? What causes the seasons? What causes the seasons?

Reasons for Seasons. Question: TRUE OR FALSE. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? What causes the seasons? What causes the seasons? Reasons for Seasons Question: TRUE OR FALSE? Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther from the Sun in winter. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther from the

More information

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault CELESTIAL MOTIONS Stars appear to move counterclockwise on the surface of a huge sphere the Starry Vault, in their daily motions about Earth Polaris remains stationary. In Charlottesville we see Polaris

More information

FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Describing the Universe. LAB: Comparing and contrasting bodies that reflect light. POST: Exploring

More information

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Seasons & Calendars Monday, January 8 Season & Calendars: Key Concepts (1) The cause of the seasons is the tilt of the Earth s rotation axis relative

More information

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d.

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d. Chapter 1 1-1. How long does it take the Earth to orbit the Sun? a.) one sidereal day b.) one month c.) one year X d.) one hour 1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.)

More information

Motions of Earth LEARNING GOALS

Motions of Earth LEARNING GOALS 2 Patterns in the Sky Motions of Earth The stars first found a special place in legend and mythology as the realm of gods and goddesses, holding sway over the lives of humankind. From these legends and

More information

Today. Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME

Today. Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Today Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME The Reason for Seasons Hypothesis check: How would seasons in the northern

More information

Astrock, t he A stronomical Clock

Astrock, t he A stronomical Clock Astrock, t he A stronomical Clock The astronomical clock is unlike any other clock. At first glance you ll find it has similar functions of a standard clock, however the astronomical clock can offer much

More information

The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading:

The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: Seasons Vocabulary: The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: sphere any round object that has a surface that is the same distance from its center

More information

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME. Seasons/Precession Recap. Phases of the Moon. Eclipses. Lunar, Solar. Ancient Astronomy

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME. Seasons/Precession Recap. Phases of the Moon. Eclipses. Lunar, Solar. Ancient Astronomy Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Seasons/Precession Recap Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy How do we mark the progression of the seasons? We define four special points: summer

More information

1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram?

1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram? 1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram? 5. During how many days of a calendar year is the Sun directly overhead

More information

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2 Lecture 2 Theory of the Tropics Earth & Solar Geometry, Celestial Mechanics The geometrical relationship between the earth and sun is responsible for the earth s climates. The two principal movements of

More information

Celestial Sphere. Celestial Coordinates. Lecture 3: Motions of the Sun and Moon. ecliptic (path of Sun) ecliptic (path of Sun)

Celestial Sphere. Celestial Coordinates. Lecture 3: Motions of the Sun and Moon. ecliptic (path of Sun) ecliptic (path of Sun) Lecture 3: Motions of the and Moon ecliptic (path of ) ecliptic (path of ) The 23.5 degree tilt of Earth s spin axis relative to its orbital axis around the causes the seasons Celestial Sphere Celestial

More information

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking

More information

The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases

The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases The Four Seasons A Warm Up Exercise What fraction of the Moon s surface is illuminated by the Sun (except during a lunar eclipse)? a) Between zero and one-half b) The whole surface c) Always half d) Depends

More information

CELESTIAL EVENTS CALENDAR APRIL 2014 TO MARCH 2015

CELESTIAL EVENTS CALENDAR APRIL 2014 TO MARCH 2015 CELESTIAL EVENTS CALENDAR APRIL 2014 TO MARCH 2015 *** Must See Event 2014 ***April 8 - Mars at Opposition. The red planet will be at its closest approach to Earth and its face will be fully illuminated

More information

Cycles in the Sky. Teacher Guide: Cycles in the Sky Page 1 of 8 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC

Cycles in the Sky. Teacher Guide: Cycles in the Sky Page 1 of 8 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC Cycles in the Sky What is a Fun damental? Each Fun damental is designed to introduce your younger students to some of the basic ideas about one particular area of science. The activities in the Fun damental

More information

www.mhhe.com/fix Sunrise from Earth orbit by the crew of the STS-47 Space Shuttle Mission. I pray the gods to quit me of my toils,

www.mhhe.com/fix Sunrise from Earth orbit by the crew of the STS-47 Space Shuttle Mission. I pray the gods to quit me of my toils, Confirming Proofs I pray the gods to quit me of my toils, To close the watch I keep this livelong year; For as a watch-dog lying, not at rest, Propped on one arm, upon the palace roof Of Atreus race, too

More information

Proffessor: J. C. Cersosimo

Proffessor: J. C. Cersosimo Proffessor: J. C. Cersosimo Objectives Student will: Recognize the Solar and Lunar calendar Demonstrate the how the Moon phases form Explain the main elements of an orbits Describe the orbit of the Earth

More information

COASTLINING THE ZODIAC

COASTLINING THE ZODIAC COASTLINING THE ZODIAC Astronomy books and skywatching guides offer a wide variety of charts for naked-eye observation of the skies. What works best for each person will depend on various factors such

More information

Motions of the Earth. Stuff everyone should know

Motions of the Earth. Stuff everyone should know Motions of the Earth Stuff everyone should know Earth Motions E W N W Noon E Why is there day and night? OR Why do the Sun and stars appear to move through the sky? Because the Earth rotates around its

More information

Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons

Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Objectives When you have completed this lab you

More information

EARTH'S MOTIONS. 2. The Coriolis effect is a result of Earth's A tilted axis B orbital shape C revolution D rotation

EARTH'S MOTIONS. 2. The Coriolis effect is a result of Earth's A tilted axis B orbital shape C revolution D rotation EARTH'S MOTIONS 1. Which hot spot location on Earth's surface usually receives the greatest intensity of insolation on June 21? A Iceland B Hawaii C Easter Island D Yellowstone 2. The Coriolis effect is

More information

POPULATION AND ZODIAC RHYTHMS

POPULATION AND ZODIAC RHYTHMS POPULATION AND ZODIAC RHYTHMS Didier CASTILLE 56 million French people, as estimated in 1990 from the General Population Census, have been analysed in a descriptive way according to the signs transited

More information

The Observed Calendar of the Second Temple Dates For 2014

The Observed Calendar of the Second Temple Dates For 2014 www.120jubilees.com The Observed Calendar of the Second Temple Dates For 2014 The Observed Calendar of the Second Temple Era was used by the official priests of the Second Temple from at least 520 BC to

More information

Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide

Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide Name: Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide There are three main sections to this module: terrestrial coordinates, celestial equatorial coordinates, and understanding how the ecliptic is related to

More information

Sun Earth Relationships

Sun Earth Relationships 1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. Spring (sun aims directly at equator) Winter (northern hemisphere tilts away from sun) 23.5 2 Solar radiation

More information

Note S1: Eclipses & Predictions

Note S1: Eclipses & Predictions The Moon's Orbit The first part of this note gives reference information and definitions about eclipses [14], much of which would have been familiar to ancient Greek astronomers, though not necessarily

More information

Solar energy and the Earth s seasons

Solar energy and the Earth s seasons Solar energy and the Earth s seasons Name: Tilt of the Earth s axis and the seasons We now understand that the tilt of Earth s axis makes it possible for different parts of the Earth to experience different

More information

Stellarium a valuable resource for teaching astronomy in the classroom and beyond

Stellarium a valuable resource for teaching astronomy in the classroom and beyond Stellarium 1 Stellarium a valuable resource for teaching astronomy in the classroom and beyond Stephen Hughes Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens

More information

Noon Sun Angle = 90 Zenith Angle

Noon Sun Angle = 90 Zenith Angle Noon Sun Angle Worksheet Name Name Date Subsolar Point (Latitude where the sun is overhead at noon) Equinox March 22 nd 0 o Equinox September 22 nd 0 o Solstice June 22 nd 23.5 N Solstice December 22 nd

More information

Observing the Constellations of the Zodiac

Observing the Constellations of the Zodiac Observing the Constellations of the Zodiac Activity UCIObs 3 Grade Level: 8 12 Source: Copyright (2009) by Tammy Smecker Hane. Contact tsmecker@uci.edu with any questions. Standards:This activity addresses

More information

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 Instructor: L. M. Khandro EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 1. An arc second is a measure of a. time interval between oscillations of a standard clock b. time

More information

Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy

Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy There is a theory which states that if ever anybody discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable.

More information

Celestial Observations

Celestial Observations Celestial Observations Earth experiences two basic motions: Rotation West-to-East spinning of Earth on its axis (v rot = 1770 km/hr) (v rot Revolution orbit of Earth around the Sun (v orb = 108,000 km/hr)

More information

Shadow vs. Horizon Archaeoastronomy

Shadow vs. Horizon Archaeoastronomy Shadow vs. Horizon Archaeoastronomy R. T. Bailey NASS 2003 Banff Ages in Astronomy: Prehistoric Archaeoastronomy Model? Flat earth Point of reference: Horizon, 2 D, megalithic Observations? Sun, moon,

More information

Homework Assignment #7: The Moon

Homework Assignment #7: The Moon Name Homework Assignment #7: The Moon 2008 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Chapter 21 Origins of Modern Astronomy Motions of the

More information

Astronomy. Introduction. Key concepts of astronomy. Earth. Day and night. The changing year

Astronomy. Introduction. Key concepts of astronomy. Earth. Day and night. The changing year Astronomy Introduction This topic explores the key concepts of astronomy as they relate to: the celestial coordinate system the appearance of the sky the calendar and time the solar system and beyond space

More information

Geometry and Geography

Geometry and Geography Geometry and Geography Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles March 12, 2011 1 Pedagogical Advice I have been leading mathematical circles using this topic for many years,

More information

Chapter 5 Astronomy 110 Motions of the Sun and the Moon 1

Chapter 5 Astronomy 110 Motions of the Sun and the Moon 1 Chapter 5 Positions of the Sun and Moon Objects in our Solar System appear to move over the course of weeks to months because they are so close. This motion caused ancient astronomers to use the name planets,

More information

Astronomy Club of Asheville October 2015 Sky Events

Astronomy Club of Asheville October 2015 Sky Events October 2015 Sky Events The Planets this Month - page 2 Planet Highlights - page 10 Moon Phases - page 13 Orionid Meteor Shower Peaks Oct. 22 nd - page 14 Observe the Zodiacal Light - page 15 2 Bright

More information

Local Sidereal Time is the hour angle of the First Point of Aries, and is equal to the hour angle plus right ascension of any star.

Local Sidereal Time is the hour angle of the First Point of Aries, and is equal to the hour angle plus right ascension of any star. 1 CHAPTER 7 TIME In this chapter we briefly discuss the several time scales that are in use in astronomy, such as Universal Time, Mean Solar Time, Ephemeris Time, Terrestrial Dynamical Time, and the several

More information

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons Earth-Sun Relationships The Reasons for the Seasons Solar Radiation The earth intercepts less than one two-billionth of the energy given off by the sun. However, the radiation is sufficient to provide

More information

Activity 3: Observing the Moon

Activity 3: Observing the Moon Activity 3: Observing the Moon Print Name: Signature: 1.) KEY. 2.). 3.). 4.). Activity: Since the dawn of time, our closest neighbor the moon has fascinated humans. In this activity we will explore the

More information

The Orbit TelleriumThe Orbit TelleriumThe Orbit Tellerium

The Orbit TelleriumThe Orbit TelleriumThe Orbit Tellerium The Orbit TelleriumThe Orbit TelleriumThe Orbit Tellerium 16 Appendix 4 Moon Chart: For each day draw the shape of the Moon, record the time and mark the position of the Moon in the sky in relation to

More information

Astronomical Clocks. ~ 1 day ~ 1 hour

Astronomical Clocks. ~ 1 day ~ 1 hour Astronomical Clocks ~ 1 day ~ 1 hour Calendar A calendar is just a really slow clock ticks = days Assign some names/ patterns to days Allow predictions of future Question: How do you check the performance

More information

Star signs and horoscopes

Star signs and horoscopes Star signs and horoscopes Looking at constellations * 54 time 70 minutes learning outcomes To: recognise the star signs in horoscopes know that the star signs are part of the zodiac know that the stars

More information

The ecliptic - Earth s orbital plane

The ecliptic - Earth s orbital plane The ecliptic - Earth s orbital plane The line of nodes descending node The Moon s orbital plane Moon s orbit inclination 5.45º ascending node celestial declination Zero longitude in the ecliptic The orbit

More information

INDEPENDENT PROJECT: The Spring Night Sky

INDEPENDENT PROJECT: The Spring Night Sky INDEPENDENT PROJECT: The Spring Night Sky Your Name: What is the difference between observing and looking? As John Rummel said to the Madison Astronomical Society, January 11, 2002: Looking implies a passive

More information

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy Periods of Western Astronomy Chapter 1 History of Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric (before 500 B.C.) Cyclical motions of Sun, Moon and stars observed Keeping time and determining

More information

Astrology: Fact or Fiction? 50-60 minutes, for 9th-12th grades

Astrology: Fact or Fiction? 50-60 minutes, for 9th-12th grades Astrology: Fact or Fiction? 50-60 minutes, for 9th-12th grades Notice This lesson plan was created by Digitalis Education Solutions (DigitalisEducation.com) and is provided free of charge as a public service

More information

Earth in the Solar System

Earth in the Solar System Copyright 2011 Study Island - All rights reserved. Directions: Challenge yourself! Print out the quiz or get a pen/pencil and paper and record your answers to the questions below. Check your answers with

More information

Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year

Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year Purpose To help students understand how solar radiation varies (duration and intensity) during

More information

Scale of the Solar System. Sizes and Distances: How Big is Big? Sizes and Distances: How Big is Big? (Cont.)

Scale of the Solar System. Sizes and Distances: How Big is Big? Sizes and Distances: How Big is Big? (Cont.) Scale of the Solar System Scale of the Universe How big is Earth compared to our solar system? How far away are the stars? How big is the Milky Way Galaxy? How big is the Universe? How do our lifetimes

More information

The Celestial Sphere. Questions for Today. The Celestial Sphere 1/18/10

The Celestial Sphere. Questions for Today. The Celestial Sphere 1/18/10 Lecture 3: Constellations and the Distances to the Stars Astro 2010 Prof. Tom Megeath Questions for Today How do the stars move in the sky? What causes the phases of the moon? What causes the seasons?

More information

MULTI-LEVEL LESSON PLAN GUIDE Earth, Moon, and Beyond

MULTI-LEVEL LESSON PLAN GUIDE Earth, Moon, and Beyond 1 MULTI-LEVEL LESSON PLAN GUIDE Earth, Moon, and Beyond Jeni Gonzales e-mail: JeniLG7@aol.com SED 5600 Dr. Michael Peterson December 18, 2001 1 2 Unit Plan: Multi-level- Earth, Moon, and Beyond Theme:

More information

Earth, Sun and Moon is a set of interactives designed to support the teaching of the QCA primary science scheme of work 5e - 'Earth, Sun and Moon'.

Earth, Sun and Moon is a set of interactives designed to support the teaching of the QCA primary science scheme of work 5e - 'Earth, Sun and Moon'. is a set of interactives designed to support the teaching of the QCA primary science scheme of work 5e - ''. Learning Connections Primary Science Interactives are teaching tools which have been created

More information

An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology. 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science

An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology. 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science Why study Astronomy 1 A fascinating subject in its own right. The origin and Evolution of the universe The Big Bang formation

More information

Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun

Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun Rotation A body turning on its axis The Earth rotates once every 24 hours in a counterclockwise direction. Revolution A body traveling around another The Earth

More information

The changing phases of the Moon originally inspired the concept of the month

The changing phases of the Moon originally inspired the concept of the month The changing phases of the Moon originally inspired the concept of the month Motions of the Moon The Moon is in orbit around the Earth, outside the atmosphere. The Moon `shines via reflected light (12%)

More information

Earth In Space Chapter 3

Earth In Space Chapter 3 Earth In Space Chapter 3 Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Earth casts a circular shadow on the moon during a lunar eclipse Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Ships were observed to disappear below the

More information

Celestial Timekeeping and Navigation

Celestial Timekeeping and Navigation BENN689_05_C_PR3_V6_TT.QXD 0/3/07 6:33 AM Page 92 Celestial Timekeeping and Navigation upplementary Chapter LEARNING GOAL. Astronomical Time Periods How do we define the day, month, year, and planetary

More information

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered

More information

ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS

ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS SYNOPSIS: The objective of this lab is to become familiar with the apparent motions of the Sun, Moon, and stars in the Boulder sky. EQUIPMENT:

More information

Renewable Energy. Solar Power. Courseware Sample 86352-F0

Renewable Energy. Solar Power. Courseware Sample 86352-F0 Renewable Energy Solar Power Courseware Sample 86352-F0 A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLAR POWER Courseware Sample by the staff of Lab-Volt Ltd. Copyright 2009 Lab-Volt Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this

More information

The following questions refer to Chapter 19, (PAGES 259 278 IN YOUR MANUAL, 7 th ed.)

The following questions refer to Chapter 19, (PAGES 259 278 IN YOUR MANUAL, 7 th ed.) GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Locating the Planets (Chapter 19) and the Moon and Sun (Chapter 21) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric

More information

AST 114 Spring 2016 Introduction to the Night Sky INTRODUCTION TO THE NIGHT SKY

AST 114 Spring 2016 Introduction to the Night Sky INTRODUCTION TO THE NIGHT SKY NAME: INTRODUCTION TO THE NIGHT SKY What will you learn in this Lab? This lab will introduce you to the layout of the night sky: constellations and stars, their names and the patterns they make, and the

More information

Lesson 1: Phases of the Moon

Lesson 1: Phases of the Moon Lesson 1: Phases of the Moon The moon takes 29.5 days to revolve around the earth. During this time, the moon you see in the sky appears to change shape. These apparent changes, which are called phases,

More information

Essential Question. Enduring Understanding

Essential Question. Enduring Understanding Earth In Space Unit Diagnostic Assessment: Students complete a questionnaire answering questions about their ideas concerning a day, year, the seasons and moon phases: My Ideas About A Day, Year, Seasons

More information

Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun

Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun Apparent Motions of Celestial Objects An apparent motion is a motion that an object appears to make. Apparent motions can be real or illusions. When you see a person spinning

More information

Moon Phases and Tides in the Planning the D-Day Invasion Part I: The Phases of the Moon

Moon Phases and Tides in the Planning the D-Day Invasion Part I: The Phases of the Moon The Science and Technology of WWII Moon Phases and Tides in the Planning the D-Day Invasion Part I: The Phases of the Moon Objectives: 1. Students will determine what causes the moon to go through a cycle

More information

Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation

Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation Coordinate Systems Orbits and Rotation Earth orbit. The earth s orbit around the sun is nearly circular but not quite. It s actually an ellipse whose average distance from the sun is one AU (150 million

More information

8.5 Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets

8.5 Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets 8.5 Motions of, the, and Planets axis axis North Pole South Pole rotation Figure 1 s axis is an imaginary line that goes through the planet from pole-to-pole. orbital radius the average distance between

More information

INDEPENDENT PROJECT: The Spring Night Sky

INDEPENDENT PROJECT: The Spring Night Sky INDEPENDENT PROJECT: The Spring Night Sky Your Name: What is the difference between observing and looking? As John Rummel said to the Madison Astronomical Society, January 11, 2002: Looking implies a passive

More information

Announcements. Due Monday, 11:59pm, Sept 9th. Can submit answers (and see score) more than once: persistence pays off!

Announcements. Due Monday, 11:59pm, Sept 9th. Can submit answers (and see score) more than once: persistence pays off! Announcements Homework 1 posted on Compass Due Monday, 11:59pm, Sept 9th. Can submit answers (and see score) more than once: persistence pays off! Register those iclickers! link on course site Venus/Saturn

More information

Solstice and Equinox ( Suntrack ) Season Model

Solstice and Equinox ( Suntrack ) Season Model Solstice and Equinox ( Suntrack ) Season Model Philip Scherrer & Deborah Scherrer, Stanford Solar Center Introduction This physical model simulates the Sun s tracks across the sky at summer solstice (longest

More information

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 15, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. (a) Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality

More information

For further information, and additional background on the American Meteorological Society s Education Program, please contact:

For further information, and additional background on the American Meteorological Society s Education Program, please contact: Project ATMOSPHERE This guide is one of a series produced by Project ATMOSPHERE, an initiative of the American Meteorological Society. Project ATMOSPHERE has created and trained a network of resource agents

More information

SUPPLEMENT 2. ESTIMATING THE EPOCHS OF THE GCC AND GA

SUPPLEMENT 2. ESTIMATING THE EPOCHS OF THE GCC AND GA Crucifying the Earth on the Galactic Cross. upplement 2 1 UPPLEMENT 2. ETIMATING THE EPOCH OF THE GCC AND GA 2.1. OLAR YTEM AND GALACTIC PARAMETER Coordinate ystems. In the Equatorial and al coordinate

More information

Stellar, solar, and lunar demonstrators

Stellar, solar, and lunar demonstrators Stellar, solar, and lunar demonstrators Rosa M. Ros, Francis Berthomieu International Astronomical Union, Technical University of Catalonia (Barcelona, España), CLEA (Nice, France) Summary This worksheet

More information

Modified Richter Scale

Modified Richter Scale Name Date ID Grade 7 - Science Interim Assessment Third Grading Period 1. Which of the following is NOT affected by the tilt of Earth's axis? Length of day Type of climate Change of seasons Length of year

More information

Chapter 3 Earth - Sun Relations

Chapter 3 Earth - Sun Relations 3.1 Introduction We saw in the last chapter that the short wave radiation from the sun passes through the atmosphere and heats the earth, which in turn radiates energy in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic

More information

- True Local Solar Time -

- True Local Solar Time - - Oriental Astrology - - True Local Solar Time - Explorations with Heluo Explorations with Heluo is a series of articles by Heluo on the subject of Time, Space and Destiny Read about the all important

More information

Night Sky III Planetary Motion Lunar Phases

Night Sky III Planetary Motion Lunar Phases Night Sky III Planetary Motion Lunar Phases Astronomy 1 Elementary Astronomy LA Mission College Spring F2015 Quotes & Cartoon of the Day Everything has a natural explanation. The moon is not a god, but

More information

The Reasons for the Seasons

The Reasons for the Seasons The Reasons for the Seasons (The Active Learning Approach) Materials: 4 Globes, One light on stand with soft white bulb, 4 flashlights, Four sets of "Seasons" Cards, Four laminated black cards with 1 inch

More information

Solar Angles and Latitude

Solar Angles and Latitude Solar Angles and Latitude Objectives The student will understand that the sun is not directly overhead at noon in most latitudes. The student will research and discover the latitude ir classroom and calculate

More information

Orientation to the Sky: Apparent Motions

Orientation to the Sky: Apparent Motions Chapter 2 Orientation to the Sky: Apparent Motions 2.1 Purpose The main goal of this lab is for you to gain an understanding of how the sky changes during the night and over the course of a year. We will

More information

Use WITH Investigation 4, Part 2, Step 2

Use WITH Investigation 4, Part 2, Step 2 INVESTIGATION 4 : The Sundial Project Use WITH Investigation 4, Part 2, Step 2 EALR 4: Earth and Space Science Big Idea: Earth in Space (ES1) Projects: Tether Ball Pole Sundial Globe and a Light Indoors

More information

Moon. & eclipses. Acting out celestial events. (oh my)

Moon. & eclipses. Acting out celestial events. (oh my) phasestides & eclipses Moon (oh my) Acting out celestial events Developed by: Betsy Mills, UCLA NSF GK-12 Fellow Title of Lesson: Moon Phases, Tides, & Eclipses (oh my)! Grade Level: 8 th grade Subject(s):

More information

Project Fulcrum is supported by the National Science Foundation and the University of Nebraska, in partnership with Lincoln Public Schools

Project Fulcrum is supported by the National Science Foundation and the University of Nebraska, in partnership with Lincoln Public Schools A Guide to Space Project Fulcrum is supported by the National Science Foundation and the University of Nebraska, in partnership with Lincoln Public Schools Version 1.0 1/26/06 Project Fulcrum 1 1. Introduction

More information

Page. ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS (Page 4).

Page. ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS (Page 4). Star: ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS ( 4). Ball of gas that generates energy by nuclear fusion in its includes white dwarfs, protostars, neutron stars. Planet: Object (solid or gaseous) that orbits a star. Radius

More information

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

More information

The Earth, Sun & Moon. The Universe. The Earth, Sun & Moon. The Universe

The Earth, Sun & Moon. The Universe. The Earth, Sun & Moon. The Universe Football Review- Earth, Moon, Sun 1. During a total solar eclipse, when almost all of the Sun's light traveling to the Earth is blocked by the Moon, what is the order of the Earth, Sun, and Moon? A. Moon,

More information

Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide. (Test Date: )

Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide. (Test Date: ) Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide Name: (Test Date: ) Essential Question #1: How are the Earth, Moon, and Sun alike and how are they different? 1. List the Earth, Moon, and Sun, in order from LARGEST to

More information

Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston

Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston Chapter 6: SOLAR GEOMETRY Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston SOLAR GEOMETRY AS A DETERMINING FACTOR OF HEAT GAIN, SHADING AND THE POTENTIAL OF DAYLIGHT PENETRATION...

More information

Earth, Sun and Moon. Table of Contents

Earth, Sun and Moon. Table of Contents Earth, Sun and Moon Table of Contents 0. Unit Challenge 1. Earth and Its Motion 2. Earth s Rotation and Revolution 3. Earth s Tilt and Seasons 4. Seasons 5. The Moon 6. The Lunar Cycle 7. Lunar Geography

More information

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

More information

Outdoor Exploration Guide. A Journey Through Our Solar System. A Journey Through Our Solar System

Outdoor Exploration Guide. A Journey Through Our Solar System. A Journey Through Our Solar System Outdoor Exploration Guide A Journey Through Our Solar System A Journey Through Our Solar System The Solar System Imagine that you are an explorer investigating the solar system. It s a big job, but in

More information