# Brief Introduction to Earned Value Management (EVM)

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1 Brief Introduction to Earned Value Management (EVM) 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 1 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 1

2 Outline Introduction to the basic rationale and elements of EVM Issues of actually implementing an EVM tracking scheme Background materials 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 2 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 2

3 The Problem A successful program manager says: We completed the project we promised to deliver in the time we promised and with the budget we asked for. The standard source of information about the status of the project is the status of the budget, which only tells you how quickly and how completely you are spending the money you have. What you really want to track is how quickly and how completely you are accomplishing the work you promised to do. The coupling of money spent to work done or schedule consumed is loose and nonlinear. Also, the expenditure track is a one-dimensional projection of a two-dimensional problem. (behind) (under) Budget Variance 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 3 Schedule Variance 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 3 (over) (ahead)

4 Why You Need to Know Both Cost and Schedule Variances Project A is in good shape, under budget and ahead of schedule. Project B is over budget, but if we realize Budget (under) Variance it is ahead of schedule, we can slow the effort to save money. Project D s cost variance looks D A better than A s, but if we (behind) (ahead) realize it is behind schedule, Schedule we can spend more to catch up. Variance Project C looks just like B if we only look at the cost variance, but C B we can t slow down to save money. (over) And it looks just like D if we only look at schedule, but we can t spend more to catch up. It s time to rescope! 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 4 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 4

5 So What Do We Have to Work With? 1. DEFINE THE WORK AND ORGANIZE TEAMS CONTRACT BUDGET BASE MANAGEMENT RESERVE (MR) 2. SCHEDULE THE WORK 3. ALLOCATE BUDGETS \$ Each chunk of work corresponds to a chunk of budget and a chunk of schedule. BASELINE TIME 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 5 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 5

6 The Basic Idea For each chunk of work, define its value as the budget assigned to it. When you complete that chunk of work, you have earned its value. The total earned value to date gives you a point on the (\$,time) graph the Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP). You could compare this to the actual amount of work that you were supposed to have completed by this point in the schedule, as measured by its budgeted cost the Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS), another point on the (\$,time) graph. You could also compare it to the actual amount spent to complete the chunks of work done to date the Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP), a third point on the (\$,time) graph. Look at what information these comparisons give about the status of the project. 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 6 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 6

7 Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS) Month 1 BCWS = \$1,000 Month 2 BCWS = \$1,000 Month 3 BCWS = \$1,000 Total Budget = \$5,000 to be spent over 5 months We plan to deploy 1 stand each month at an estimated cost of \$1,000. BCWS each month = \$1,000 Month 4 BCWS = \$1,000 Month 5 BCWS = \$1,000 Each Each dollar dollar of of BCWS BCWS represents a specific dollar dollar of of work work scope. scope. BCWS BCWS is is aggregated and and summed as as the the performance measurement baseline. 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 7 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 7

8 Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP) We re at the end of the second month, but only 1 stand is complete. Value of work performed = \$1,000 You You earn earn value value the the same same way way as as it it was was budgeted in in the the baseline. 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 8 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 8

9 Schedule Variance (SV) BUDGET BASED BC WS BC WP Of the work we scheduled to have done, how much did we budget for it to cost? Of the work we actually performed, how much did we budget for it to cost? SCHEDULE VARIANCE is is the the difference between work work scheduled and and work work performed (expressed in in terms terms of of budget budget dollars) dollars) formula: SV SV \$ = BCWP --BCWS example: SV SV = BCWP BCWP --BCWS BCWS = \$1,000 \$1, \$2,000 \$2,000 SV= SV= -\$1,000 (negative = behind behind schedule) 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 9 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 9

10 Schedule Variance (SV) 5,000 \$ sv BCWS the baseline BCWP earned value TIME 5 months 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 10 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 10

11 Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP) Labor came to \$1,300, and materials cost \$1,100. That first stand cost \$2,400! actual expenditures vs. vs. budget 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 11 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 11

12 Cost Variance (CV) BC WP AC WP PERFORMANCE BASED Of the work we actually performed, how much did we budget for it to cost? Of the work we actually performed, how much did it actually cost? COST VARIANCE is is the the difference between budgeted cost cost and and actual actual cost cost formula: CV CV \$ = BCWP --ACWP example: CV CV = BCWP BCWP --ACWP ACWP = \$1,000 \$1, \$2,400 \$2,400 CV= CV= -\$1,400 (negative = cost cost overrun) 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 12 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 12

13 Cost Variance (CV) 5,000 ACWP actual cost cv \$ BCWP earned value TIME 5 months 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 13 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 13

14 Note That We Can Isolate Schedule and Cost Variances 5,000 BCWS \$ ACWP sv cv BCWP TIME 5 months schedule variance = BCWP - BCWS = negative number cost variance = BCWP - ACWP = negative number behind behind schedule, schedule, over over cost cost 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 14 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 14

15 Where are the significant problems? By tracking and sorting on variances, we can isolate the troublesome WBS elements. sorted by CV (\$) WBS DESCRIPTION Proj Ofcr %Comp %Spent CPI CV CV CV % VAC VAC PCC Zepka COMMUNICATIONS Tideman G&A GEN & ADMIN SYS ENGINEERING Price I & A Troop PROJ MANAGEMENT Brown FUNC INTEGRA Price MANAGEMENT DATA Simmons SENSORS Smith SPARES Blair SYSTEM TEST Hall ENG DATA Novak MR MGT RESERVE UB UNDIST BUDGET COM COST OF MONEY DATA DISPLAY Troop OV OVERHEAD TEST FACILITIES Smart COMP PROGRAMS Pino PCC TEST Bond ADPE Zepka AUX EQUIP Tideman /25/06 EVM Introduction 15 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 15

16 Performance Indices We can also get a sense of the overall performance of the project by tracking performance indices. GOOD BAD COST COST PERF PERF INDEX INDEX (CPI) (CPI) = BCWP BCWP ACWP ACWP SCHED SCHED PERF PERF INDEX INDEX (SPI) (SPI) = BCWP BCWP BCWS BCWS CPI SPI TIME 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 16 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 16

17 Budget at Completion (BAC) The most important markers of the overall performance of the project look at predictions of the variances at the end. These require several quantities, the first being the Budget at Completion. sum of all BCWS = BAC \$5,000 \$5,000 \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ time \$ When When all all work work has has been been phased, phased, the the cumulative cumulative BCWS BCWS = BAC BAC e.g., e.g., \$5,000 \$5,000 = \$5,000 \$5,000 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 17 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 17

18 What will be the final cost? Estimate at Completion (EAC) defined as actual cost to date + estimated cost of work remaining usually develop comprehensive EAC at least annually reported by WBS in cost performance report should examine on monthly basis consider the following in EAC generation: performance to date impact of approved corrective action plans known/anticipated downstream problems best estimate of the cost to complete remaining work also called latest revised estimate (LRE), indicated final cost, etc. ACWP + ETC = EAC 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 18 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 18

19 Getting the Estimate at Completion Just a few little glitches. We should be able to do the complete job.ack let s see, for about \$7,500 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 19 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 19

20 Determining EAC via Statistics Common EAC Formulae: EAC = BAC/CPI = ACWPcum + Budgeted Cost of Work Remaining CPI3 = ACWPcum + Budgeted Cost of Work Remaining.8(CPI) +.2(SPI) = ACWPcum + Budgeted Cost of Work Remaining CPI * SPI 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 20 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 20

21 Other methods of EAC calculation Grass Roots or formal EAC detailed build-up from the lowest level detail hours, rates, bill of material, etc. Average of statistical formulae Show range of EACs (optimistic, most probable, pessimistic) Complete schedule risk analysis for remaining work, estimate work remaining 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 21 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 21

22 Variance at Completion (VAC) B AC E AC what the total job is supposed to cost what the total job is expected to cost VARIANCE AT AT COMPLETION is is the the difference between what what the the total total job job is is supposed to to cost cost and and what what the the total total job job is is now now expected to to cost. cost. FORMULA: VAC = BAC --EAC Example: VAC VAC = \$5, \$7,500 VAC VAC = -- \$2,500 (negative = overrun) 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 22 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 22

23 Variance at Completion (VAC) VAC = Budget at Completion - Estimate at Completion = BAC - EAC EAC VAC BAC \$ TIME 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 23 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 23

24 VAC is Particularly Important for Government Contracts Variance at Completion vs. Contractor Loss Positive VAC: EAC < BAC underrun contractor gain Negative VAC: EAC > BAC share area contractor partial loss EAC > ceiling overrun contractor loss (100%) Government develops top level EAC for comparison Government will limit progress payments if EAC is greater than ceiling Government needs forecast of fund requirements May still have time to change the final outcome 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 24 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 24

25 Probably the Biggest Selling Point for EVM A survey of over 800 military programs showed that no program ever improved performance better than the following EAC calculation: EAC = BAC/CPI, at the 15%-complete point in the program. Thus, there is strong empirical evidence that EVM translates early information into essential guidance for program re-baselining. 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 25 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 25

26 EVM Analyses There are a wide variety of indicators to play with in EVM. Term Symbol Formula Checklist Actions Percent Complete % Done BCWP BAC Ratio of work accomplished in terms of the total amount of work to do. Cost Performance Index or Performance Factor CPI or PF BCWP ACWP Ratio of work accomplished against money spent (an efficiency rating: Work Done for Resources Expended) To Complete Performance Index or Verification Factor TCPI or VF BAC - BCWP EAC - ACWP Ratio of work remaining against money remaining (Efficiency which must be achieved to complete the remaining work with the expected remaining money) Schedule Performance Index SPI BCWP BCWS Ratio of work accomplished against what should have been done (Efficiency Rating: Work done as compared to what should have been done) Schedule Correlation SC or S/C PCUM SV Ratio of Schedule Variance (SV) in terms of average amount of work accomplished (in weeks or months). It indicates a correlation to program true schedule condition Independent Estimate At Completion IEAC 1) 2) ACWP + BAC PF BAC - BCWP.8CPI +.2SPI Calculation of a projected Estimate At Completion to compare with the CAM's Estimate At Completion: 1) Ration of total work to be done against experienced cost efficiency 2) Sunk costs added to a ratio of remaining work against weighted cost and schedule efficiencies Average Performance P CUM BCWPcum Duration (wks or mos) Since ACWP Began Average rate at which work has been accomplished since work began Average Expected Performance To Finish P TO GO BCWPcum Duration (wks or mos) From Time Now to Manager's Stated Completion Date Average rate at which work must be accomplished in the future to finish on the date the CAM has forecasted for completion of the work. 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 26 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 26

27 EVM Analyses There are a wide variety of analytic techniques to play with in EVM. Sort on significant variances eliminate almost complete, just starting, etc. Graph and analyze trends Look at comparative data e.g. cumulative performance vs. projected performance Examine written analysis by contractor does it answer why? adequacy of corrective action plans Analysis of schedule trends, critical path Analysis of EAC realism what are the drivers? what can we do do about them? 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 27 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 27

28 Graphical EVM Analyses Percent of Dollars MEGA HERZ ELEC & VEN Cost/Schedule Variance F C-0050 MOH-2 RDPR FPI POP: 01 MAR SEP MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN -6% -7% 0% -11% Overall cost and schedule trend BCWS BCWP ACWP CV SV Cost Drivers, Cause COST VARIANCE SCHEDULE VARIANCE Dollars In Millions At Completion KTR PO PMB: 20.4 % COMP: 32.9 MR: 0.4 KTR MR LRE: 0.0 PO MR LRE: 0.0 CURRENT FUNDING: 10.0 PO EPC: 24.0 PROJ FUNDING: 23.0 AS OF: JAN 93 OPR: MR B. TECH PROGRAM: Mohawk Vehicle Element: 3600 Dollars In Millions 8.0 MEGA HERZ ELEC & VEN F C-0050 RDPR FPI Estimates at Completion 1992 APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC EAC realism 1993 JAN Name: PCC 7.0 graphs show show overall overall trend... are are you you getting better, better, or or worse? BAC LRE CUM CPI /25/06 EVM Introduction 28 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 28

29 Example: Using Performance Efficiencies (1) Will the contractor come in on budget? COST PERFORMANCE INDEX: CPI = cost efficiency for work performed to date (The value of work accomplished for each dollar spent) WORK BCWP ACCOMPLISHED \$1000 = ACWP = ACTUALS = \$2400 =.42 Compare the CPI to the TCPI-BAC: HISTORY TCPI(BAC) = Efficiency necessary to complete on budget WORK = BAC-BCWP = REMAINING = \$ \$1000 BAC-ACWP BUDGET \$ \$2400 REMAINING = \$4000 \$2600 FUTURE = /25/06 EVM Introduction 29 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 29

30 Example: Using Performance Efficiencies (2) SCHEDULE PERFORMANCE INDEX: SPI = schedule efficiency with which work has been accomplished (The rate at which work is being accomplished) WORK = BCWP = ACCOMPLISHED = \$1000 =.50 BCWS WORK \$2000 SCHEDULED 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 30 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 30

31 Example: Using Performance Efficiencies (3) IS THE CONTRACTOR'S EAC (LRE) REASONABLE? Compare the CPI to the TCPI-LRE TCPI(LRE) = Efficiency necessary to complete at the contractor s estimate WORK BAC-BCWP = REMAINING \$ \$1000 = \$4000 = 1.00 LRE-ACWP ESTIMATE \$ \$2400 \$4000 REMAINING = = Cumulative performance to date (CPI) =.42 reasonable? Contractor has been performing at 42% efficiency, but expects to complete remaining work at 100% efficiency! 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 31 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 31

32 Outline Introduction to the basic rationale and elements of EVM Issues of actually implementing an EVM tracking scheme Background materials 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 32 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 32

33 Getting at the Value SELECTED PSWBS ELEMENTS Product Development SOFTWARE INTEGRATION PROGRAM Master Planning SELECTED REPORTING ELEMENTS Ada Products Software Tools Standards CWBS EXTENSION Ada Study Ada Conversion Ada Approach FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION CPCI #1 MOS CPCI #2 MOLE CPCI #3 MAC VP/GM Marketing Engineering Operations Software Engineering Hardware Engineering Ada Applications Secure Systems LAN Applications Control Account Control Account Control Account Control Account Control Account Control Account Responsibility Matrix Control Account BCWS BCWP ACWP BAC EAC Planning Packages Work Packages OBS DATA SUMMARIZATION W B S D A T A S U M M A R I Z A T I O N 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 33 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 33

34 Control Account Elements Work Packages Detailed, short-span tasks, or material items, required to accomplish the CA objectives, typically in the near term Planning Packages Future work that has not been detail planned as work packages. They are always scheduled to occur in the future. Work Packages Planning Packages Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Work Packages have budgets and schedules. 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 34 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 34

35 Work Packages Development of Control Account Plans MAY break down the control account budget into smaller work packages Work Package subset of control account reasonably short in duration Work Pkg #1 Work Pkg #2 Work Pkg #3 single element of cost (e.g., labor) single technique for earning value consistent with detail schedules has same characteristics as control account scope of work milestone completion criteria single performing organization start and end dates CONTROL ACCOUNT PLAN \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 35 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 35

36 Work Package Characteristics Work packages are discrete and measurable. Work packages yield products or accomplishments, such as design drawing package conduct design review install stand Often done in rolling wave detailed plans made for near term work packages planning packages are for future work and are not detailed CAMs periodically plan another increment of work packages 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 36 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 36

37 Ways of Earning Value Should be a quantitative and discrete way to measure the work Discrete physical, tangible end product Apportioned discrete, dependent on another discrete work package example: quality assurance planned as historical estimating factor (e.g., 7%) Level of Effort no tangible end product basis of measurement: time when clock starts ticking, you automatically accumulate earned value no schedule variance example: management personnel May tie in with success criteria or technical measure e.g., successful completion of a specific test, reliability growth curve 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 37 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 37

38 Methods for Assigning Earned Value Method How Value is Earned 0/100 no EV at opening, 100% EV at close of WP 50/50 50% EV at opening, 50% EV at close of WP Units Completed Equivalent Units Weighted Milestone Percent Complete same budget value for identical units planned unit standards, allows partial credit each milestone weighted based on planned resources ideal to have a milestone each month subjective (least desirable) 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 38 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 38

39 Suggested for LWA 0/50/100 measurement Typical work package length is 80 hours. Work package status is reported at status meetings, held every two weeks. May just be that 50% of work packages are reported at weekly status meetings. EV is 0% (of budget for work package) if it has not yet been started, or is only now starting. EV is 50% if work is underway. EV is 100% if work is complete. If work package is at 50% two status meetings in a row, it is flagged as a potential issue. Avoids subjectivity of % done ; compromises on granularity of tracking, frequency of reporting Puts the onus on doing the WPs right, up front. 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 39 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 39

40 Outline Introduction to the basic rationale and elements of EVM Issues of actually implementing an EVM tracking scheme Background materials 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 40 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 40

41 A Spectrum of Implementation Where Small Companies Commercial or Defense Larger Companies Government Organic Foreign Countries Major Defense Contractors When as desired corporate policy, enterprise wide FFP contracts? DoD Non-Major Contracts (>12 months) <\$6M* >\$6M DoD Major Contracts >\$70M RDT&E >\$300M Prod Reports streamlined, no paper? tailored to needs C/SSR CPR Core EV Principles Tailored Applications ANSI/EIA (32 criteria) *with judgment 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 41 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 41

42 Earned Value Management: History PERT and PERT/Cost Milestone Charts And Rate-of-Expenditure Curves Dollars Spent Vs Estimates Of Percent Complete (DD 1097) Earned Value Concept (MINUTEMAN) Cost Accomplishment Concept (TITAN III) AF Cost/schedule Planning And Control Specification (C/SPCS) DOD Cost/Schedule Control Systems Criteria (C/SCSC) (DODI ) DOD -Revised DODI and Issued the Joint Implementation Guide (JIG) NASA Marshall Space Flight Center C/SPC DOE Performance Measurement System (PMS) DOD Revised the C/SCSC JIG DOD Revised the C/SCSC JIG National Security Agency Earned Value NASA Goddard Space Flight Center PMS FAA & NASA Lewis Research Center PMS NASA Johnson Space Flight Center PMS DOD Revised DOD C/SCSC JIG NASA Marshall SFC Revised PMS (MMI C, 44 Criteria) 1989 Australian DOD DODI Canadian DOD PMS 1991 DODI replaces DODI National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) PMS 1993 Swedish FMV C/SCSC 1994 Internal Revenue Service (IRS) C/SCSC 1994 Federal Bureau Of Investigation (FBI) C/SCSC 1996 DODR R replaces DODI C/SCSC revised from 35 to 32 criteria 1996 Revised JIG Renamed Earned Value Management Implementation Guide (EVMIG) 1997 EVMIG Revised 1998 MIL-STD 881B replaced by MIL HDBK /25/06 EVM Introduction 42 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 42

43 EVM Resources Books Earned Value Quentin W. Fleming & Joel M. Koppleman Cost/Schedule Control Systems Criteria Quentin W. Fleming Project Performance Measurement Robert R. Kemps Visualizing Project Management Kevin Forsberg, Ph.D., Hal Mooz and Howard Cotterman Software Artemis Views Artemis Management Systems Contact: Patrick Perugini (303) Web: Cobra Welcom Software Contact: Diana Melton (281) Web: Software [continued] Dekker TRAKKER Dekker Ltd. Contact: Ron Barry (909) Web: MicroFrame Project Manager (MPM) MicroFrame Technologies, Inc. Contact: Carl Amacker (415) Web: Internet Project Management Institute US DoD Earned Value Earned Value Bibliography 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 43 12/25/06 EVM Introduction 43

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