# Exploratory Data Analysis. Psychology 3256

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1 Exploratory Data Analysis Psychology

2 Introduction If you are going to find out anything about a data set you must first understand the data Basically getting a feel for you numbers Easier to find mistakes Easier to guess what actually happened Easier to find odd values 2

3 Introduction One of the most important and overlooked part of statistics is Exploratory Data Analysis or EDA Developed by John Tukey Allows you to generate hypotheses as well as get a feel for you data Get an idea of how the experiment went without losing any richness in the data 3

4 Hey look, numbers! x (the value) f (frequency)

5 Frequency tables make stuff easy 10(1)+23(2)+25(5)+30(2)+33(1)+35(10 = 309 5

6 Relative Frequency Histogram You can use this to make a relative frequency histogram Lose no richness in the data Easy to reconstruct data set Allows you to spot oddities Frequency Relative Frequency Histogram Score Frequency 6

7 Categorical Data With categorical data you do not get a histogram, you get a bar graph You could do a pie chart too, though I hate them (but I love pie) Pretty much the same thing, but the x axis really does not have a scale so to speak So say we have a STAT 2126 class with 38 Psych majors, 15 Soc, 18 CESD majors and five Bio majors 7

8 Like this STAT 2126 STAT 2126 Biology Count 20 CESD 10 Psych 0 Psych Soc CESD Biology Major Soc 8

9 Quantitative Variables So with these of course we use a histogram We can see central tendency Spread shape 9

10 Skewness 10

11 Kurtosis Leptokurtic means peaked Platykurtic means flat 11

12 More on shape A distribution can be symmetrical or asymmetrical It may also be unimodal or bimodal It could be uniform 12

13 An example Number of goals scored per year by Mario Lemieux A histogram is a good start, but you probably need to group the values 13

14 Mario could sorta play 5.00 Goals Per Season Frequency Goal Totals Wait a second, what is with that 90? Labels are midpoints, limits are Real limits are

15 Careful You have to make sure the scale makes sense Especially the Y axis One of the problems with a histogram with grouped data like this is that you lose some of the richness of the data, which is OK with a big data set, perhaps not here though 15

16 Stem and Leaf Plot This one is an ordered stem and leaf You interpret this like a histogram Easy to sp ot outliers Preserves data Easy to get the middle or 50 th percentile which is 44 in this case 16

17 The Five Number Summary You can get other stuff from a stem and leaf as well Median First quartile (17.5 in our case) Third quartile (61.5 here) Quartiles are the 25th and 75th percentiles So halfway between the minimum and the median, and the median and the maximum 17

18 You said there were five numbers.. Yeah so also there is the minimum 1 And the maximum, 85 These two by the way, give you the range Now you take those five numbers and make what is called a box and whisker plot, or a boxplot Gives you an idea of the shape of the data 18

19 And here you go 19

20 and it continues We talked about the central tendency of a distribution This is one of the three properties necessary to describe a distribution We can also talk about the shape You know that kurtosis stuff and all of that 20

21 An Example Consider Both have the same mean (13) They both sum to 65, then divide 65 by 5, you get 13 21

22 The same, but different So, they both have the same mean, and both are symmetrical How are they different? Well the one on the top is much more spread out 22

23 Spread Well how could we measure spreadoutedness? Well the range is a start 1-30 vs Seems pretty crude We could look at the IQD Still pretty crude 23

24 We need something better Something that is kind of like a mean really Like the average amount that the data are spread out Well why not do that? 24

25 Well here s why not (x x) (1 13) + (5 13) + (9 13) + (20 13) + (30 13) = n ( 8) + ( 4) = 5 =

26 Hmm They will ALWAYS sum to zero Makes sense when you think about it If the mean is the balancing point, there should be as much mass on one side as the other So how do we get rid of negatives? Absolute value! 26

27 The Mean Absolute Deviation (x x) (1 13) + (5 13) + (9 13) + (20 13) + (30 13) = n = 5 = 48 5 =

28 Cool! Well sometimes things you think are cool, well they aren t Mullets for example Anyway, for our purposes the MAD is just not that useful It is, in the type of stats we will do, a dead end Too bad, as it has intuitive appeal 28

29 There has to be another way Well of course there is or we would end now OK, how else can we get rid of those nasty negatives? Square the deviations (you know, -9 2 = 81 for example) 29

30 ( x x) 2 n We are getting closer ( = 1 13 ) 2 + ( 5 13) 2 + ( 9 13) 2 + ( 20 13) 2 + ( 30 13) 2 = ( 12)2 + ( 8) 2 + ( 4) = 5 =

31 Hmmmm 112.4, seems like a mighty big number Well it is in squared units not in the original units What is the opposite of squaring something? Square root

32 There is a little problem here The formula I have shown you so far, has n on the bottom Yeah I know that just makes sense. In fact, it is supposed to be n-1 We want something that will be an unbiased estimator of the same quantity in the population 32

33 Variance and standard deviation The population parameters, variance and the standard deviation have N on the bottom The sample statistics used to estimate them have n-1 If they had n, they would underestimate the population parameters 33

34 Sample statistics s 2 = ( x x) 2 n 1 s = ( x x) 2 n 1 34

35 So in our case s = ( x x) 2 = n 1 = ( 12)2 + ( 8) 2 + ( 4) = = =11.85 ( 1 13) 2 + ( 5 13) 2 + ( 9 13) 2 + ( 20 13) 2 + ( 30 13)

36 For the Population σ 2 = σ = (X µ) 2 N ( X µ ) 2 N 36

37 How are the variance and sd affected by extreme scores? s = OK let s throw in a new number, say Our new mean is Our new variance is Our new standard deviation is Well the mean is affected by extreme scores, so of course so is the sd 37

38 How can we use this to our advantage? coefficient of variation Katz et al (1990) study mean 69.6 sd 10.6 no study mean 46.6 sd 6.8 one could conclude there is more variation with studying however the cvs are.152 and.146 respectively sd / mean 38

39 A couple of key points Remember, we want to learn about populations not samples we estimate population parameters with sample statistics we want unbiased estimators of parameters 39 39

40 Transformations E(x + k) = x + k var(x + k) = s 2 x E(xk) = x k var(xk) = s 2 k 2 x 40 40

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