# Why Taking This Course? Course Introduction, Descriptive Statistics and Data Visualization. Learning Goals. GENOME 560, Spring 2012

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1 Why Taking This Course? Course Introduction, Descriptive Statistics and Data Visualization GENOME 560, Spring 2012 Data are interesting because they help us understand the world Genomics: Massive Amounts of Data Data Statistics is fundamental in genomics because it is integral in the design, analysis and interpretation of experimental data What does this mean? Su In Lee, CSE & GS 1 2 Why Taking This Course? Data are interesting because they help us understand the world Genomics: Massive Amounts of Data Data Statistics is fundamental in genomics because it is integral in the design, analysis and interpretation of experimental data This course covers the key statistical concepts and methods necessary for extracting biological insights from experimental data Learning Goals 5 weeks is too short to cover every specific topic that might arise in the course of your research It is not a good strategy to treat what we learn in this course as recipes to follow Instead, we should focus on rigorous understanding of fundamental concepts that will provide you with the tools necessary to address routine statistical analyses foundation to understand and learn mode specific topics 3 4 1

2 Course Schedule Syllabus: Date May 1 May 3 May 8 May 10 May 15 May 17 May 22 May 24 May 29 May 31 Topic Descriptive Statistics and Data Visualization Random Variables and Probability Theories Probability Distributions Parameter Estimation Regression Methods Hypothesis testing I t test, confidence interval Hypothesis testing II ANOVA Hypothesis testing III Analysis of Categorical Data Bootstrapping, cross validation and permutation tests Assessing significance in high dimensional experiments Special topics that may be discussed in class include Bayesian networks, Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm, principal component analysis Grading: 5 problem sets (20% each) 5 Books and Resources Course website No required text Good on line resources Some good books if you ever have some extra \$\$\$: Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Scientists 6th Ed. Jay L. Devore (2004). Duxbury press, Thompson Brooks/Cole. Statistical Inference. Casella, G. and Berger, R. L. (1990). Wadsworth, Belmont, CA. Probabilistic Graphical Models: Principles and Techniques. Koller, D. and Friedman, N. (2009). MIT Press. 6 Class Meetings What is R? Class meets twice a week Tue/Thu 9 Foege S110 Each class will last for 80 minutes and be primarily lecture based The R statistical programming language is a free open source package based on the S language developed by Bell Labs May statistical functions are already built in Other forms of learning and interactions will be included Contributed packages expand the functionality to cutting edge research We will often interrupt lectures to work on problems in small groups as well as work through statistical analyses using R (please bring a laptop with R installed!) Amazing graphics Widely used in genetics, genomics, computational biology 7 8 2

3 R Resources Windows, Mac and Linux binaries available at project.org Lecture 1: Descriptive Statistics and Data Visualization Extensive resources at the above web site, in particular see: project.org/other docs.html 9 10 Outline What is descriptive statistics and exploratory data analysis? Why Descriptive/Graphical Summary? Before making inferences from data, it is essential to examine all your variables Basic numeral summaries of data Why? Basic graphical summaries of data Basic operations in R (If time permits) How to use R for calculating descriptive statistics and making graphs 11 To listen to the data: to catch mistakes to see patterns in the data to find violations of statistical assumptions to generate hypotheses and because if you don t, you will have trouble later 12 3

4 Types of Data Categorical Binary: 2 categories Nominal: more categories Ordinal: order matters E.g. gender, ethnicity, disease state, genotypes, etc Continuous (or Quantitative) Numeric values that can be ordered sequentially, and that do not naturally fall into discrete ranges. E.g. weight, number of seconds it takes to perform a task, gene expression levels, etc Dimensionality of Data Sets Univariate: Measurement made on one variable per subject Bivariate: Measurement made on two variables per subject Multivariate: Measurement made on many variables per subject Numerical Summaries of Data Central tendency measures. They are computed to give a center around which the measurements in the data are distributed. Central Tendency Measures: Mean To calculate the mean of a set of observations, add their value and divide by the number of observations: Variation or variability measures. They describe data spread or how far away the measurements are from the center. Relative standing measures. They describe the relative position of specific measurements in the data

5 Central Tendency Measures: Median Median: the exact middle value Calculation: If there are an odd number of observations, find the middle value If there are an even number of observations, find the middle two values and average them Which Measure Is Best? Mean is best for symmetric distributions without outliers Median is useful for skewed distributions or data with outliers Example: Some data: Age of participants: Median = (22+23)/2 = Scale: Variance Average of squared deviation of values from the mean Why Squared Deviations? Squares eliminate the negatives Absolute values do not have nice mathematical properties Result: Increasing contribution to the variance as you go farther from the mean

6 Why Divide By (n 1), not n? Why Divide By (n 1), not n? Empirical mean True mean You compute the difference between each observation and the mean of all n observations. You don t know the true mean of the population; all you know is the mean of your samples (empirical mean) Except for the rare cases where the sample mean happens to equal the population mean, the data will be closer to the sample mean than it will be to the true population mean. So the numerator will probably be a bit smaller (and can t be larger) than what it would be if you used the true mean. Biased estimator of the population variance 21 Empirical mean True mean To make up for this divide by (n 1) rather than n. Unbiased estimator of the population variance If you knew the sample mean, and all but one of the values, you could calculate what that last value must be. Statisticians say there are n 1 degrees of freedom. 22 Scale: Standard Deviation Variance is somewhat arbitrary What does it mean to have a variance of 10.8? Or 2.2? Or ? Or ? Scale: Standard Deviation Most commonly used measure of variation Shows variation about the mean Has the same units as the original data Nothing. But if you could standardize that value, you could talk about any variance (i.e. deviation) in equivalent terms Standard deviations are simply the square root of the variance

7 Interesting Theoretical Result Regardless of how the data are distributed, a certain percentage of values must fall within k standard deviations from the mean Often We Can Do Better For many lists of observations, especially if their histogram is bell shaped Roughly 68% of the observations in the list lie within 1 σ (standard deviation) of the average 95% of the observations lie within 2σ of the average Scale: Quartiles and IQR Percentiles (aka Quantiles) In general the n th percentile is a value such that n% of the observations fall at or below of it The first quartile, Q 1, is the value for which 25% of the observations are smaller and 75% are larger Q 2 is the same as the median (50% are smaller, 50% are larger) Only 25% of the observations are greater than the Q 3 27 Q 1 = 25 th percentile Median = 50 th percentile Q 2 = 75 th percentile 28 7

8 Graphical Summaries of Data Dimensionality of data matters Univariate: Measurement made on one variable per subject Multivariate: Measurement made on many variables per subject Univariate Data Histograms and bar plots What is the difference between a histogram and bar plot? Bar plot: Used for categorical variables to show frequency or proportion in each category Translate the data from frequency tables into a pictorial presentation Histogram: Used to visualize distribution (shape, center, range, variation) of continuous variables Bin size is important Effect of Bin Size on Histogram Simulated 1,000 N(0,1) and 500 N(1,1) More on Histograms What s the difference between a frequency histogram and a density histogram?

9 Box Plots Multivariate Data Clustering Organize variables into clusters Descriptive, not inferential Many approaches Clusters always produced Data reduction approaches Reduce n dimensional dataset into much smaller number Finds a new (smaller) set of variables that retains most of the information in the total sample Effective way to visualize multivariate data How to Make a Bad Graph Example 1 The aim of good data graphics: Display data accurately and clearly Some rules for displaying data badly: Display as little information as possible Obscure what you do show (with chart junk) Use pseudo 3d and color gratuitously Make a pie chart (preferably in color and 3d) Use a poorly chosen scale

10 Example 2 Example Example 4 Goals of Our R Tutorial Today Installing R Using R as a fancy calculator Data structures: scalars, vectors, data frames, matrices Reading in data from a file Subsetting and extracting data Writing and executing simple R scripts

11 Probabilities Probabilities Event Variable XXP(S)P(S) P(S)loglog Probability Statistical independence Joint probability 41 Probabilities of mutually independent events are summed Pr(adie comesup2or 3) = Pr(comes up 2) + Pr(comes up 3) = 1/ 6 + 1/ 6 = 1/ 3 Probabilities of independent events are multiplied to get the joint probability Pr(one die comesup2and theother one comesup 3) = Pr(first one comesup 2) + Pr(secondone comesup 3) = 1/ 6 + 1/ 6 = 1/ 3 Conditional probabilities are the joint probability divided by the probability of the event that they are conditioned on: P ( D S) = P( D S ) P( S) d 42 Goals of Our R Tutorial Today Installing R Using R as a fancy calculator P ( D S) P( D S, ) P( S) d Data structures: scalars, vectors, data frames, matrices Reading in data from a file Subsetting and extracting data Writing and executing simple R scripts

12 Some Jargon Units: the basic objects on which the experiment is done Variable: a measured characteristic of a unit Treatment: any specific experimental condition applied to the units. A treatment can be a combination of specific values (called levels) of each experimental factor 45 12

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