AND8433/D. Using ON Semiconductor Constant Current Regulator (CCR) Devices in AC Applications APPLICATION NOTE

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2 38 Series LEDs for 110V 80 Series LEDs for 220V Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Series Resistor (if required) Current Sense Resistor CCR 1 CCR 2 Figure 2. Demonstration PCB used for 110 V & 220 V AC rms analysis 2

3 DESIGN EXAMPLE 1: New Design with a CCR This design selects the number of series LEDs. Design parameters: 110 VAC rms, +/- 10%, HB LEDs (V F of 3.3 V at 20 ma). Analysis for Vin = +10% (max) To calculate the number of LEDs for Vin Maximum = (110 V rms + 10%) = 120 V rms Rectified Vpeak = 120 V rms x = 170 V V F of LED string = 170 V (peak Vin) 45 V (Vak max) = 125 V (V F led string) # of LEDs = 125 V / 3.3 V = 38 LEDs Analysis for Vin = -10% (min) Testing for minimum Vin: (110 Vrms 10%) = 100 Vrms Rectified Vpeak = 100 Vrms x = 141 V (peak Vin) CCR Vak is: 141 V (peak Vin) 125 V (V F LED string) = 16 V The Vak range will vary with the number of LEDs in the string. Adding 3 additional LEDs will set the Vak range from 6 V to 35 V. The additional HB LEDs provides greater luminosity and reduces CCR thermals. TP 1 TP 2 AC 110 V RMS +/- 10% Series resistor Rs (if required) 30 ma TP 3 TP 6 TP 1-6= AC Line in TP 2-5= Bridge Output TP 3-4= Current Sense TP 4-5= LED String SW1 Current Sense Resistor Rsense TP 4 TP 5 38 LEDs 3.3 V 3.3 V 3.3 V 3.3 V 3.3 V 3.3 V Figure 3. Direct AC Line LED Circuit with CCR The AC rms voltage is full wave rectified into pulsating DC at a frequency of 120 Hz. The CCR turns on when the voltage exceeds the V F for the LEDs and the bridge rectifier, controlling the current and isolating the LEDs from the peak rectified voltage. Thermal Analysis of Design Example 1 (120 VAC, 38 LEDs) The power dissipation of the CCR for Figure 3 is determined by: (Vak rms) x (I REG * Duty Cycle ) Vak rms = Vbridge rms - LED string V F rms (120 Vbr rms-(38 x 3.3 V LED x ) x (30 ma x 50%) = 31 V rms x 15 ma = 465 mw A SOT-223 with a 100 mm 2 1 oz Cu heat spreader will operate up to 85 C. The data sheet power dissipation tables show various combinations for other ambient temperatures. The following oscilloscope traces (Figures 4, 5 and 6) are for a 110 V ±10% AC rms input with 38 LEDs in series. The regulated current is measured by using a 100, 1% sense resistor. The measurements show the rms voltage across the sense resistor with the rms current below the voltage measurement. The circuit is similar to Figure 3 using a single NSI45030AZT1G 30 ma CCR. The heatsink for the CCR on this test PCB is 500 mm 2. All waveforms were taken using differential voltage probes. 3

4 Bridge Output TP 2-5 LED String TP 4-5 CCR Current TP 3-4 Figure V rms 1 x 30 ma CCR Analysis Bridge Output TP 2-5 LED String TP 4-5 CCR Current TP 3-4 Figure V rms, 1 x 30 ma CCR Analysis 4

5 CCRs can be operated in parallel to increase the regulated current supplied to the circuit. The waveforms of Figure 6 were taken with two 30 ma CCRs operated in parallel (Figure 3, SW 1 closed). The LED intensity is increased when the supplied current is doubled. The LED V F increases by less than 10% with a 100% increase in drive current. Bridge Output TP 2-5 LED String TP 4-5 CCR Current TP 3-4 Figure V rms, 2 x 30 ma CCR Analysis In summary for 110 VAC operation: Table 1 Vin AC V rms V rectified V Peak CCRs CCR Ireg ma rms V F LED String VPeak Vak CCR VPeak CCR CCR CCR CCRs

6 220 V AC ANALYSIS All that is required to use a CCR at 220 V AC rms are additional LEDs. The following oscilloscope traces were taken on a similar circuit to Figure 3 operating at 220 V AC rms with 80 LEDs in series: Bridge Output TP 2-5 LED String TP 4-5 CCR Current TP 3-4 Figure V rms, 1 x 30 ma CCR Analysis The following oscilloscope traces were taken on a similar circuit to Figure 3 operating at 220 V AC rms ± 10% with 68 LEDs in series using a 120 V, 50 ma CCR device: Figure V rms, 1 x 50 ma CCR Analysis 6

7 Figure V rms, 1 x 50 ma CCR Analysis Thermal Analysis of Design Example Figure 9 (242 VAC, 68 LEDs) The power dissipation of the CCR for Figure 3 is determined by: (Vak rms) x (I REG RMS) Vak rms = 57.7 V, Irms = 38 ma (from screenshot Figure 9) 57.7 V x 38 ma = 2.19 W This CCR is mounted on a 1000 mm 2, 3 oz Cu, FR4 heat spreader will operate up to T A of 50 C for a T J of 175 C. Adding additional LEDs will reduce the power dissipation of the CCR and allow for a higher T A operation. The data sheet power dissipation tables show various combinations for other ambient temperatures. All waveforms were taken using differential voltage probes. 7

8 DESIGN EXAMPLE 2: Retrofitting using a CCR (Figure 10) Design parameters: 110 V AC rms, +/- 10%, existing design using 24 LEDs (V F of 3.3 V at 22 ma) A series dropping resistor (Rs) will be chosen to keep the CCR within its operating limits. Rectified Vpeak (maximum) = 120 V rms x = 170 V V F of LED string = 24 x 3.3 V = 79.2 V The voltage drop required is: Vpeak (V F leds pk + Vak CCR pk +VRsense pk) V drop of Rs = 170 V (79.2 V + 45 V + 4) = 41.8 V CCR pk current is 34 ma; therefore, Rs = 41.8 V /.034 A = 1229 (circuit tested with 1200 RS) The power dissipation is V x I = 1.42 W pk or 1.0 W RMS. Testing for minimum Vin: 110 V rms x 0.9 = 100 V rms using a 1200 Rs Rectified Vpeak = 100 Vrms x = 141 V CCR Vak is 141 V ( ) = 16 V TP 1 TP 2 AC 110 V RMS +/- 10% Series resistor Rs 30 ma TP 3 TP 6 TP 1-6= AC Line in TP 2-5= Bridge Output TP 3-4= Current Sense TP 4-5= LED String Current Sense Resistor Rsense TP 4 TP 5 24 LEDs 3.3 V 3.3 V 3.3 V 3.3 V 3.3 V 3.3 V Figure 10. Direct AC Line LED Circuit with CCR 8

9 24 LEDS, 1200 Rs, 1 CCR, 100 Rsense, 25 C TDS5104B Oscilloscope Measurements Max rms Max rms Bridge output VLEDs VRs+Vak+VRsense VRsense VRs+Vak Vak VRs VRs Bridge output VLEDs VRs+Vak+VRsense VRsense VRs+Vak Vak VRs VRs Bridge output VLEDs VRs+Vak+VRsense VRsense VRs+Vak Vak VRs VRs Actual 24 LED, 1200 series resistor circuit measurements Power Dissipation for 120V AC rms Max rms Ireg A P D Rs (W) P D CCR (W) P D Rsense (W) P D LEDs (W) Total P D (W) Summary The CCR can be represented as a variable resistor. As the voltage increases across the device the internal resistance of the CCR increases to maintain a current close to the specification (I reg ). The CCR also has a negative temperature coefficient, thus as power is dissipated by the CCR (increased temperature) the internal resistance is increased causing a reduction in current. This prevents thermal runaway and protects the LEDs increasing their life and reliability. The CCR has a higher regulating current when pulsed compared to that at a steady state DC current because the die has not reached thermal stability. The rectified AC waveform is similar to a pulsed signal, the regulating current will change as the power dissipation changes. The LED on time will depend on the forward voltage of the LED string. In the circuits referenced in this application it is about half the peak voltage and thus the LEDs are on for about 50% of the time. The rms current through the LEDs is therefore about 50% of the regulating current. See Appendix C for Application Notes, Design Notes and Technical Demonstration list. 9

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