# Design of LDPC codes

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1 Design of LDPC codes Codes from finite geometries Random codes: Determine the connections of the bipartite Tanner graph by using a (pseudo)random algorithm observing the degree distribution of the code bit vertices and the parity check vertices Regular Irregular Graph theoretic codes Combinatorial codes Other algebraic constructions 1

2 Column splitting Can be applied to any code; also those designed by use of finite geometries Effects: The variable nodes in the Tanner graph are split into several nodes The new extended code C ext will have the following properties: More code symbols (higher n) Higher code rate (J is constant; rank of H may increase, but usually not by much) Row weight is unchanged. Any two columns will still have at most one 1 in common The column weight is reduced from its original value γ to γ ext The minimum distance is reduced Cycles in the Tanner graph are broken 2

3 Column splitting: Example (4095,3367) type-i cyclic 2-dimensional (0,6)th order EG code Split each column of H into 16 new columns C ext is a (65520,61425) code with ρ = 64, γ ext = 4, R = , r = db 3

4 Column splitting: Example (16383,14197) type-i cyclic 2-dimensional (0,7)th order EG code Split each column of H into 32 new columns C ext is a code with n = , ρ = 128, γ ext = 4, R = 0.97, r = db 4

5 Column splitting Column splitting of cyclic code -> extended code is usually not cyclic By starting with a parity check matrix consisting of K n n circulant submatrices, and splitting each column in a rotating and circular fashion into a fixed number of new columns, the extended code will be quasi-cyclic PG codes: J may not be a multiple of n, so a modification of the above procedure is necessary 5

6 Can be applied to any code Effects: Row splitting The parity check nodes in the Tanner graph are split into several nodes The new code will have the following properties: Same length as original code More parity checks (higher J) and lower code rate Column weight is unchanged. Any two columns will still have at most one 1 in common. The minimum distance ought to increase The row weight is reduced Cycles in the Tanner graph are broken Can be combined with column splitting 6

7 Column + row splitting: Example (255,175) type-i cyclic 2-dimensional (0,4)th order EG code Split each column of H into 5 new columns and each row into 2 rows C ext is a (1275,765) code with ρ = 8, column weights 3 and 4, R = 0.6, r = db 7

8 Column + row splitting: Example (4095,3367) type-i cyclic 2-dimensional (0,6)th order EG code Split each column of H into 16 new columns and each row into 3 rows C ext is a (65520,53235) code with row weights 21 and 22, and γ = db 8

9 Cycle breaking Splitting rows and columns changes the Tanner graph Column splitting Row splitting 9

10 Cycle breaking Splitting columns to break a cycle of length 4 Splitting rows to break a cycle of length 4 10

11 Cycle breaking Splitting columns to break a cycle of length 6 11

12 Effects of cycle breaking Increases the number of nodes and hence the complexity of the message passing algorithms (SPA/BF algorithm) Reduces the number of cycles and so improves decoding performance 12

13 Example of cycle breaking (7,4) Hamming code. Here: Cyclic version 21 4-cycles No 4-cycles 13

14 Example of cycle breaking (7,4) Hamming code. Tanner graph 14

15 Example of cycle breaking (14,8) extended Hamming code. Performance 15

16 Example 2 of cycle breaking (23,12) Golay code. Here: Cyclic version cycles 16

17 Example 2 of cycle breaking (46,24) extended Golay code obtained by random splitting of columns. 106 cycles of length 4. The weight distribution is 17

18 Performance of (46,24) extended Golay code 18

19 Random LDPC codes LDPC codes reinvented by Mackay (1995) using random codes Create a matrix of J rows and n columns, with column weight γ and row weight ρ J is usually chosen equal to n k In general, γn = ρ(n k) + b, where b is the remainder Thus, we can choose (n k b) rows of weight ρ and b rows of weight ρ+1 19

20 Construction of random LDPC codes H i = [h 1,..., h i ] is a partial parity check matrix consisting of the first i columns Initialization: H 0 = empty matrix; i = 1; Cand = set of all nonzero (n k) dimensional column vectors of weight γ Let h be a random column from Cand. Delete h from Cand Check whether h has more than one 1 in common with any column in H i-1 and if any (partial) row weight exceeds its maximum weight. If so, choose another h from Cand and repeat. Otherwise, proceed to the next step Set h i = h and i = i+1. If i n, then repeat Can use backtracking. Also, select parameters such that the number of weight-γ (n k) tuples is >> n. Also, it is possible to relax the requirements on row weights The actual rank of H may end up to be (n k ) < (n k) Efficient for small values of ρ and γ, but the lower bound of γ+1 on the minimum distance can be very poor 20

21 Irregular LDPC codes Use variable nodes of varying degrees and parity check nodes of varying degrees Degree distributions γ(x) = i γ i x i-1 and ρ(x) = i ρ i x i-1 Approach: Density evolution / EXIT charts Create random LDPC codes according to distributions Optimum degree distributions often contain a large γ 2, which can lead to a poor minimum distance and high error floor But holds the world record: db from the Shannon limit The approach assumes infinite block length and cycle free graphs These optimum degree distributions are not optimum for 21 short codes in general

22 Improved irregular LDPC codes Extra design rules: All degree 2 variable nodes are associated with parity symbols (if possible) No length 4 cycles No short cycles involving degree 2 variable nodes Limit the number of degree 2 variable nodes Degree redistribution 22

23 Graph theoretic LDPC codes Graph G No self-loops No multiple edges between a pair of vertices Let P be a set of n paths of length γ that are pairwise disjoint or singularly crossing, and such that the union of nodes involved in the paths contains J nodes Let H be an incidence matrix of P, i.e., a J n matrix such that h i,j = 1 iff. node i is on path j If each row of H has constant weight ρ, then H defines a (γ, ρ)-regular LDPC code 23

24 Graph theoretic LDPC codes: Example 24

25 Graph theoretic LDPC codes: Example 25

26 Graph theoretic LDPC codes: Example 26

27 We have skipped 17.5 PG LDPC codes 17.9 Shortened FG LDPC codes Construction of Gallager LDPC codes Masked EG-Gallager codes Construction of QC LDPC codes LDPC codes from FGs over GF(p s ) LDPC codes from BIBDs LDPC codes from RS codes Concatenations of LDPC and Turbo codes 27

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