Computer-Aided Multivariate Analysis

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1 Computer-Aided Multivariate Analysis FOURTH EDITION Abdelmonem Af if i Virginia A. Clark and Susanne May CHAPMAN & HALL/CRC A CRC Press Company Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C

2 Contents Preface Xlll One Preparation for Analysis 1 1 What is multivariate analysis? Defining multivariate analysis Examples of multivariate analyses Multivariate analyses discussed in this book Organization and content of the book References 11 2 Characterizing data for analysis Variables: their definition, classification, and use Defining statistical variables Stevens's classification of variables How variables are used in data analysis Examples of classifying variables Other characteristics of data Summary References Problems 20 3 Preparing for data analysis Processing data so they can be analyzed Choice of a statistical package Techniques for data entry Organizing the data Example: depression study Summary References Problems 46 vii

3 viii CONTENTS 4 Data screening and transformations Transformations, assessing normality and independence Common transformations Selecting appropriate transformations Assessing independence Summary References Problems 67 5 Selecting appropriate analyses Which analyses to perform? Why selection is often difficult Appropriate statistical measures Selecting appropriate multivariate analyses Summary References Problems 80 Two Applied Regression Analysis 83 6 Simple regression and correlation Chapter outline When are regression and correlation used? Data example Regression methods: fixed-x case Regression and correlation: variable-x case Interpretation: fixed-x case Interpretation: variable-x case Other available computer output Robustness and transformations for regression Other types of regression Special applications of regression Discussion of computer programs What to watch out for Summary References Problems Multiple regression and correlation Chapter outline When are regression and correlation used? Data example Regression methods: fixed-x case Regression and correlation: variable-x case 131

4 CONTENTS ix 7.6 Interpretation: fixed-x case Interpretation: variable-x case Regression diagnostics and transformations Other options in computer programs Discussion of computer programs What to watch out for Summary References Problems Variable selection in regression Chapter outline When are variable selection methods used? Data example Criteria for variable selection A general igtest Stepwise regression Subset regression Discussion of computer programs Discussion of strategies What to watch out for Summary References Problems Special regression topics Chapter outline Missing values in regression analysis Dummy variables Constraints on parameters Regression analysis with multicollinearity Ridge regression Summary References Problems 225 Three Multivariate Analysis Canonical correlation analysis Chapter outline When is canonical correlation analysis used? Data example Basic concepts of canonical correlation Other topics in canonical correlation 240

5 Λ- CONTENTS 10.6 Discussion of computer programs What to watch out for Summary References Problems Discriminant analysis Chapter outline When is discriminant analysis used? Data example Basic concepts of classification Theoretical background Interpretation Adjusting the dividing point How good is the discrimination? Testing variable contributions Variable selection Discussion of computer programs What to watch out for Summary References Problems Logistic regression Chapter outline When is logistic regression used? Data example Basic concepts of logistic regression Interpretation: Categorical variables Interpretation: Continuous variables Interpretation: Interactions Refining and evaluating logistic regression Nominal and ordinal logistic regression Applications of logistic regression Poisson Regression Discussion of computer programs What to watch out for Summary References Problems 329

6 CONTENTS xi 13 Regression analysis with survival data Chapter outline When is survival analysis used? Data examples Survival functions Common survival distributions Comparing survival among groups The log-linear regression model The Cox regression model Comparing regression models Discussion of computer programs What to watch out for Summary References Problems Principal components analysis Chapter outline When is principal components analysis used? Data example Basic concepts Interpretation Other uses Discussion of computer programs What to watch out for Summary References Problems Factor analysis Chapter outline When is factor analysis used? Data example Basic concepts Initial extraction: principal components Initial extraction: iterated components Factor rotations Assigning factor scores Application of factor analysis Discussion of computer programs What to watch out for Summary References Problems 415

7 xii CONTENTS 16 Cluster analysis Chapter outline When is cluster analysis used? Data example Basic concepts: initial analysis Analytical clustering techniques Cluster analysis for financial data set Discussion of computer programs What to watch out for Summary References Problems Log-linear analysis Chapter outline When is log-linear analysis used? Data example Notation and sample considerations Tests and models for two-way tables Example of a two-way table Models for multiway tables Exploratory model building Assessing specific models Sample size issues The logit model Discussion of computer programs What to watch out for Summary References Problems 475 Appendix A 477 A.l Data sets and how to obtain them 477 A.2 Chemical companies financial data 477 A.3 Depression study data 477 A.4 Financial performance cluster analysis data 478 A.5 Lung cancer survival data 478 A.6 Lung function data 478 A.7 Parental HIV data 479 Index 481

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