Engineering. Software. Eric J. Braude. Michael E. Bernstein. Modern Approaches UNIVERSITATSBIBLIOTHEK HANNOVER ' TECHNISCHE INFORM ATIONSBIBLIOTHEK

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1 Software Engineering Modern Approaches SECOND EDITION Eric J. Braude Boston University, Metropolitan College Michael E. Bernstein Boston University, Metropolitan College TECHNISCHE INFORM ATIONSBIBLIOTHEK UNIVERSITATSBIBLIOTHEK HANNOVER ' * WILEY JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.

2 Contents Preface The Issue of Scale This Edition Compared with the First How Instructors Can Use This Book x'v xiv xiv xv Acknowledgments xvn PART I Introduction to Software Engineering 1 The Goals and Terminology of Software Engineering What is Software Engineering Why Software Engineering Is Critical: Software Disasters Why Software Fails or Succeeds Software Engineering Activities Software Engineering Principles Ethics in Software Engineering Case Studies Summary '9 1.9 Exercises '9 Bibliography 20 2 Introduction to Quality and Metrics in Software Engineering The Meaning of Software Quality Defects in Software Verification and Validation Planning for Quality Metrics Summary Exercises 31 Bibliography 31 PART II Software Process 3 Software Process The Activities of Software Process Software Process Models Case Study; Student Team Guidance 55

3 Vi CONTENTS 3.4 Summary Exercises 60 Bibliography 62 4 Agile Software Processes Agile History and Agile Manifesto Agile Principles Agile Methods Agile Processes Integrating Agile with Non-Agile Processes Summary Exercises 78 Bibliography 79 5 Quality in the Software Process Principles of Managing Quality Managing Quality in Agile Processes Quality Planning Inspections QA Reviews and Audits Defect Management Process Improvement and Process Metrics Organization-Level Quality and the CMMI Case Study.- Software Quality Assurance Plan for Encounter Summary Exercises 118 Bibliography Software Configuration Management Software Configuration Management Goals SCM Activities Configuration Management Plans Configuration Management Systems Case Study: Encounter Video Game Case Study: Eclipse Student Team Guidance: Configuration Management Summary Exercises 138 Bibliography 139 PART III Project Management 7 Principles of Software Project Management I: Organization, Tools, and Risk Management Software Project Organization Team Size Geographically Distributed Development The Team Software Process Software Project Tools and Techniques 153

4 CONTENTS Vii 7.6 Risk Management Student Team Guidance: Organizing the Software Project's Management Summary Exercises '66 Bibliography Principles of Software Project Management II: Estimation, Scheduling, and Planning Cost Estimation Scheduling The Software Project Management Plan Case Study: Encounter Project Management Plan Case Study: Project Management in Eclipse Case Study: Project Management for OpenOffice Case Study: Student Team Guidance Summary Exercises 211 Bibliography Quality and Metrics in Project Management Cultivating and Planning Internal Quality Project Metrics Using Metrics for Improvement Software Verification and Validation Plan Case Study: Software Verification and Validation Plan for Encounter Summary Exercises 228 Bibliography 229 PART IV Requirement Analysis 10 Principles of Requirements Analysis The Value of Requirements Analysis Sources of Requirements High-level vs. Detailed Requirements Types of Requirements Nonfunctional Requirements Documenting Requirements Traceability Agile Methods and Requirements Updating the Project to Reflect Requirements Analysis Summary Exercises 244 Bibliography Analyzing High-Level Requirements Examples of Customer Wants Stakeholder Vision The Interview and Documentation Process 248

5 Viii CONTENTS 11.4 Writing an Overview Describing Main Functions and Use Cases Agile Methods for High-Level Requirements Specifying User Interfaces.- High Level Security Requirements Using Diagrams for High-Level Requirement Case Study: High-Level Software Requirements Specification (SRS) for the Encounter Video Came Case Study: High-Level Requirements for Eclipse Eclipse Platform Subproject (First of three) Case Study: High-Level Requirements for OpenOffice Summary Exercises 275 Bibliography Analyzing Detailed Requirements The Meaning of Detailed Requirements Organizing Detailed Requirements User Interfaces: Detailed Requirements Detailed Security Requirements Error Conditions Traceability of Detailed Requirements Using Detailed Requirements to Manage Projects Prioritizing Requirements Associating Requirements with Tests Agile Methods for Detailed Requirements Using Tools and the Web for Requirements Analysis The Effects on Projects of the Detailed Requirements Process Student Project Guide: Requirements for the Encounter Case Study Case Study: Detailed Requirements for the Encounter Video Game Summary Exercises 329 Bibliography Quality and Metrics in Requirements Analysis Quality of Requirements for Agile Projects Accessibility of Requirements Comprehensiveness of Requirements Understandability of Requirements Llnambiguity of Requirements Consistency of Requirements Prioritization of Requirements Security and High-Level Requirements Self-Completeness of Requirements Testability of Requirements Traceability of Requirements Metrics for Requirements Analysis 343

6 13.13 Inspecting Detailed Requirements Summary Exercises 14 Formal and Emerging Methods in Requirements Analysis: An Introduction (Online Chapter) 14.1 Provable Requirements Method 14.2 Introduction to Formal Methods 14.3 Mathematical Preliminaries 14.4 The Z-Specification Language 14.5 The B Language System 14.6 Trade-offs for Using a B-like system 14.7 Summary 14.8 Exercises Bibliography PART V Software Design 1 5 Principles of Software Design 15.1 The Goals of Software Design 15.2 Integrating Design Models 15.3 Frameworks 15.4 IEEE Standards for Expressing Designs 15.5 Summary 15.6 Exercises 1 6 The Unified Modeling Language 16.1 Classes in UML 16.2 Class Relationships in UML 16.3 Multiplicity 16.4 Inheritance 16.5 Sequence Diagrams 16.6 State Diagrams 16.7 Activity Diagrams 16.8 Data Flow Models 16.9 A Design Example with UML Summary Exercises Bibliography 17 Software Design Patterns 17.1 Examples of a Recurring Design Purpose 17.2 An Introduction to Design Patterns Summary of Design Patterns by Type: Creational, Structural, and Behavioral 17.4 Characteristics of Design Patterns: Viewpoints, Roles, and Levels 17.5 Selected Creational Design Patterns 17.6 Selected Structural Design Patterns.

7 Xii CONTENTS 24 Refactoring Big Refactorings Composing Methods Moving Features between Objects Organizing Data Generalization Introducing Modules Refactoring in Projects Summary Exercises 619 Bibliography 620 PART VII Testing and Maintenance 25 Introduction to Software Testing Testing Early and Often,-and the Agile Connection Retesting-. Regression Testing Black Box and White Box Testing Unit Testing vs. Post-Unit Testing Testing Object-Oriented Implementations Documenting Tests Test Planning Testing Test Suites by Fault Injection Summary Exercises Unit Testing The Sources of Units for Unit Testing Unit Test Methods Testing Methods Test-Driven Development Case Study-. Encounter Video Game Summary Exercises 663 Bibliography Module and Integration Testing Stubs and Drivers Testing a Class Integration Daily Builds Interface Testing Module Integration Case Study: Class Test for Encounter Case Study: Encounter Integration Plan Summary Exercises 692 Bibliography 693

8 CONTENTS XiN 28 Testing at the System Level Functional Testing Nonfunctional Testing Testing with Lightweight Requirements Testing Shortly Before Release Case Study: Encounter Software Test Documentation Case Study: Eclipse Case Study: OpenOffice Summary Exercises 728 Bibliography Software Maintenance Types of Software Maintenance Issues of Software Maintenance Maintenance Process IEEE Maintenance Standards Software Evolution Maintenance Metrics Case Study Summary Exercises 757 Bibliography 758 Glossary 759 Index 767

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