The Unified Software Development Process

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1 The Unified Software Development Process Technieche Universal Darmstadt FACHBEREICH IN-FORMAHK BLIOTHEK Ivar Jacobson Grady Booch James Rumbaugh Rational Software Corporation tnventar-nsr.: Sachgebiete: Siandort: T ADDISON-WESLEY An Imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Reading, Massachusetts Harlow, England Menlo Park, California Berkeley, California Don Mills, Ontario Sydney Bonn Amsterdam Tokyo Mexico City

2 Preface xvii Part I: The Unified Software Development Process 1 Chapter 1: The Unified Process: Use-Case Driven, Architecture-Centric, Iterative, and Incremental The Unified Process in a Nutshell The Unified Process Is Use-Case Driven The Unified Process Is Architecture-Centric The Unified Process Is Iterative and Incremental 1.5 The Life of the Unified Process The Product Phases within a Cycle An Integrated Process 13

3 vi Contents Chapter 2: The Four Ps: People, Project, Product, and Process in Software Development People Are Crucial Development Processes Affect People Roles Will Change Turning "Resources" into "Workers" Projects Make the Product Product Is More Than Code What Is a Software System? Artifacts A System Has a Collection of Models What Is a Model? Each Model Is a Self-Contained View of the System Inside a Model Relationships between Models Process Directs Projects Process: A Template Related Activities Make Up Workflows Specializing Process Merits of Process Tools Are Integral to Process Tools Impact Process Process Drives Tools Balance Process and Tools Visual Modeling Supports UML Tools Support the Whole Life Cycle References 31 Chapter 3: A Use-Case-Driven Process Use-Case-Driven Development in Brief Why Use Cases? To Capture the Value Adding Requirements To Drive the Process To Devise the Architecture and More Capturing the Use Cases The Use-Case Model Represents the Functional Requirements Actors Are the Environment of the System Use Cases Specify the System Analysis, Design, and Implementation to Realize the Use Cases Creating the Analysis Model from the Use Cases Each Class Must Fulfill All Its Collaboration Roles 48

4 vii Creating the Design Model from the Analysis Model Subsystems Group Classes Creating the Implementation Model from the Design Model Testing the Use Cases Summing Up References 57 Chapter 4: An Architecture-Centric Process Architecture in Brief Why We Need Architecture Understanding the System Organizing Development Fostering Reuse Evolving the System Use Cases and Architecture The Steps to an Architecture The Architecture Baseline Is a "Small, Skinny" System Using Architecture Patterns Describing Architecture The Architect Creates the Architecture Finally, an Architecture Description! The Architectural View of the Use-Case Model The Architectural View of the Design Model The Architectural View of the Deployment Model The Architectural View of the Implementation Model Three Interesting Concepts What Is Architecture? How Is It Obtained? How Is It Described? References 84 Chapter 5: An Iterative and Incremental Process Iterative and Incremental in Brief Develop in Small Steps What Iteration Is Not Why Iterative and Incremental Development? Mitigating Risks Getting a Robust Architecture Handling Changing Requirements Allowing for Tactical Changes Achieving Continuous Integration Attaining Early Learning 93

5 viii Contents 5.3 The Iterative Approach is Risk-Driven Iterations Alleviate Technical Risks Management Is Responsible for Nontechnical Risks Dealing with Risks The Generic Iteration What an Iteration Is Planning the Iterations Sequencing the Iterations The Result of an Iteration Is an Increment Iterations over the Life Cycle Models Evolve from Iterations Iterations Challenge the Organization References 106 Part II: The Core Workflows 109 Chapter 6: Requirements Capture: From Vision to Requirements Why Requirements Capture Is Difficult The Purpose of the Requirements Workflow Overview of Requirements Capture The Role of Requirements in the Software Life Cycle Understanding the System Context Using a Domain Model What Is a Domain Model? Developing a Domain Model Use of the Domain Model Understanding the System Context Using a Business Model What Is a Business Model? How to Develop a Business Model Find Use Cases from a Business Model Supplementary Requirements Summary References 130 Chapter 7: Capturing the Requirements as Use Cases Introduction Artifacts Artifact: Use-Case Model Artifact: Actor Use Case Artifact: Architecture Description (View of the Use-Case Model) 139

6 ix Artifact: Glossary Artifact: User-Interface Prototype Workers Worker: System Analyst Worker: Use-Case Specifier User-Interface Designer Worker: Architect Workflow Activity: Find Actors and Use Cases Activity: Prioritize Use Cases Activity: Detail a Use Case Activity: Prototype User Interface Activity: Structure the Use-Case Model Summary of the Requirements Workflow References -172 Chapter 8: Analysis 173. \ fl \ 8.1 Introduction 173 /^u a X 8.2 Analysis in Brief 176 ^ rs^-^ Why Analysis Is not Design or Implementation The Purpose of Analysis: Summary Concrete Examples of When to Employ Analysis The Role of Analysis in the Software Life Cycle Artifacts Artifact: Analysis Model Artifact: Analysis Class Artifact: Use-Case Realization Analysis Artifact: Analysis Package Artifact: Architecture Description (View of the Analysis Model) Workers Worker: Architect Worker: Use-Case Engineer Worker: Component Engineer Workflow Activity: Architectural Analysis Activity: Analyze a Use Case Activity: Analyze a Class Activity: Analyze a Package Summary of Analysis References 214

7 Chapter 9: Design 215 > 9.1 Introduction The Role of Design in the Software Life Cycle Artifacts Artifact: Design Model Artifact: Design Class Artifact: Use-Case Realization Design Artifact: Design Subsystem Artifact: Interface Artifact: Architecture Description (View of the Design Model) Artifact: Deployment Model Artifact: Architecture Description (View of the Deployment Model) Workers Worker: Architect Worker: Use-Case Engineer Worker: Component Engineer Workflow Activity: Architectural Design Activity: Design a Use Case Activity: Design a Class Activity: Design a Subsystem Summary of Design References 266 Chapter 10: Implementation Introduction The Role of Implementation in the Software Life Cycle Artifacts Artifact: Implementation Model Artifact: Component Artifact: Implementation Subsystem Artifact: Interface Artifact: Architecture Description (View of the Implementation Model) Artifact: Integration Build Plan Workers Worker: Architect Worker: Component Engineer Worker: System Integrator Workflow Activity: Architectural Implementation Activity: Integrate System 283

8 xi Activity: Implement a Subsystem Activity: Implement a Class Activity: Perform Unit Test Summary of Implementation References 293 Chapter 11: Test Introduction The Role of Testing in the Software Life Cycle Artifacts Artifact: Test Model Artifact: Test Case Artifact: Test Procedure Artifact: Test Component Artifact: Plan Test Artifact: Defect Artifact: Evaluate Test Workers Worker: Test Designer Worker: Component Engineer Worker: Integration Tester Worker: System Tester Workflow Activity: Plan Test Activity: Design Test Activity: Implement Test Activity: Perform Integration Test Activity: Perform System Test Activity: Evaluate Test Summary of Testing References 313 Part III: Iterative and Incremental Development 315 Chapter 12: The Generic Iteration Workflow The Need for Balance The Phases Are the First Division of Work Inception Phase Establishes Feasibility Elaboration Phase Focuses on "Do-Ability" Construction Phase Builds the System Transition Phase Moves into the User Environment 322

9 xii Contents 12.3 The Generic Iteration Revisited Core Workflows Repeat in Each Iteration Workers Participate in the Workflows Planning Precedes Doing Plan the Four Phases Plan the Iterations Think Long Term Plan the Evaluation Criteria Risks Affect Project Planning Manage a Risk List Risks Affect the Iteration Plan Schedule Risk Action Use-Case Prioritization Risks Specific to a Particular Product Risk of Not Getting the Architecture Right Risk of Not Getting Requirements Right Resources Needed Projects Differ Widely A Typical Project Looks Like This Complex Projects Have Greater Needs New Product Line Calls for Experience Paying the Cost of the Resources Used Assess the Iterations and Phases Criteria Not Achieved The Criteria Themselves The Next Iteration 339 r N Evolution of the Model Set 340 Chapter 13: Inception Launches the Project The Inception Phase in Brief Early in the Inception Phase Before the Inception Phase Begins Planning the Inception Phase Expanding the System Vision Setting the Evaluation Criteria The Archetypal Inception Iteration Workflow Introduction to the Five Core Workflows Fitting the Project into the Development Environment Finding Critical Risks Execute the Core Workflows, Requirements to Test Capture the Requirements Analysis 352

10 xiii Design Test Make the Initial Business Case Outline Business Bid Estimate Return on Investment Assess the Iteration(s) in the Inception Phase Planning the Elaboration Phase The Deliverables for the Inception Phase 358 Chapter 14: The Elaboration Phase Makes the Architectural Baseline The Elaboration Phase in Brief Early in the Elaboration Phase Planning the Elaboration Phase Building the Team Modifying the Development Environment Setting Evaluation Criteria The Archetypal Elaboration Iteration Workflow Capture and Refine Most of the Requirements Develop the Architectural Baseline Iterate While the Team Is Small Execute the Core Workflows Requirements to Test Capture the Requirements Analysis Design Implementation Test Make the Business Case Prepare the Business Bid Update Return on Investment Assess the Iterations in the Elaboration Phase Planning the Construction Phase The Key Deliverables 380 Chapter 15: Construction Leads to Initial Operational Capability The Construction Phase in Brief Early in the Construction Phase Staffing the Phase Setting the Evaluation Criteria The Archetypal Construction Iteration Workflow 384

11 xiv Contents 15.4 Execute the Core Workflows Requirements to Testing Requirements Analysis Design Implementation Test Controlling the Business Case Assess the Iterations and the Construction Phase Planning the Transition Phase The Key Deliverables 394 Chapter 16: Transition Completes Product Release The Transition Phase in Brief Early in the Transition Phase Planning the Transition Phase Staffing the Transition Phase Setting the Evaluation Criteria The Core Workflows Play a Small Role in this Phase What We Do in the Transition Phase Getting the Beta Release Out Installing the Beta Release Responding to the Test Results Adapting the Product to Varied User Environments Completing the Artifacts When Does the Project End? Completing the Business Case Controlling Progress Review of the Business Plan Assess the Transition Phase Assess the Iterations and the Phase Postmortem of the Project Planning the Next Release or Generation The Key Deliverables 407 Chapter 17: Making the Unified Process Work The Unified Process Helps You Deal with Complexity The Life Cycle Objectives The Life Cycle Architecture Initial Operational Capability Product Release 411

12 xv 17.2 The Major Themes Management Leads Conversion to Unified Process The Case for Action The Reengineering Directive Persuades Implementing the Transition Specializing the Unified Process Tailoring the Process Filling in the Process Framework Relate to the Broader Community Get the Benefits of the Unified Process References 419 Appendix A: Overview of the UML 421 A.1 Introduction 421 A.1.1 Vocabulary 422 A.1.2 Extensibility Mechanisms 422 A.2 Graphical Notation 423 A.2.1 Structural Things 423 A.2.2 Behavioral Things 424 A.2.3 Grouping Things 425 A.2.4 Annotational Things 425 A.2.5 Dependency Relationships 425 A.2.6 Association Relationships 425 A.2.7 Generalization Relationships 426 A.2.8 Extensibility Mechanisms 426 A.3 Glossary of Terms 426 A.4 References " 433 Appendix B: The Unified Process-Specific Extensions of the UML 435 B.1 Introduction 435 B.2 Stereotypes 435 B.3 Tagged Values 438 B.4 Graphical Notation 439 B.5 References 439 Appendix C: General Glossary 441 Index 451 C.1 Introduction' 441 C.2 Terms 441

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