# Domain decomposition techniques for interfacial discontinuities

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1 Domain decomposition techniques for interfacial discontinuities Geordie McBain Institut Jean le Rond d Alembert December 5, 2012

2 Connexion and substructuring Two ways to look at domain decomposition Decomposing domains by iterative substructuring Linking subdomains through interfacial conditions Small easy generalizations of techniques for the former mean they can be used for the latter.

3 Queries on freefempp mailing list Electrical simulation with a voltage jump at an intermediate layer ( ) My questions are: 1) Is it possible with FreeFem++ to apply a constant voltage jump at the surface where both cubes are touching and how to do it? 2) If possible, how to insert a resistive 2D sheet at this surface (current dependent voltage jump)? Non linear heat transfer equation and Thermal Contact Resistance (TCR) ( ) how could we simulate the Thermal contact resistance between two materials?

4 Steady thermal conduction For definiteness, consider the steady conduction of heat where Weak form ( U): (K T ) = s K conductivity T temperature s volumetric rate of generation U, K T [U, ˆn K T ] U, s = 0

5 Natural interfacial conditions basic interfacial conditions (like Kirchhoff s circuit laws): equality of temperature (like potential at node) zero sum of heat (like current into node) T 1 = T 2 ˆn 1 K 1 T 1 + ˆn 2 K 2 T 2 = 0 Often have K 1 K 2 in applications.

6 Classical engineering heat transfer problem I Given a two-layer furnace wall of thickness and conductivity L i and K i (i = 1, 2), if the inside is at T 1 and the outside at T 2, what is the temperature distribution? Dirichlet Dirichlet solutions, given T int : subdomain solutions: T 1 T int = L 1 q 1 /K 1 T int T 2 = L 2 q 2 /K 2 Poincaré Steklov Dirichlet Neumann operator: q 1 q 2 = T 1K 1 + T ( 2K 2 K1 + K ) 2 L 1 L 2 L 1 L 2 ( T1 K 1 Solution: T int = + T ) ( 2K 2 K1 + K ) 2 L 1 L 2 L 1 L 2 T int

7 Classical engineering heat transfer problem II Given a two-layer furnace wall of thickness and conductivity L i and K i (i = 1, 2), if the inside is at T 1 and the outside at T 2, how much heat q is lost? Neumann Neumann solutions, given q: subdomain solutions: T 1 T int = L 1q/K 1 T + int T 2 = L 2 q/k 2 Poincaré Steklov Neumann Dirichlet operator: ( T int + T int = T L1 2 T L ) 2 q K 1 K 2 Solution: q = T 1 T 2 L 1 K 1 + L 2 K 2

8 Neumann Neumann domain decomposition This idea generalizes to finite element solutions. Guess the flux at the interface. Solve Neumann problem on either subdomain. Compute the temperature mismatch at interface. Iterate to find the flux eliminating the mismatch.

9 Generalized interfacial conditions various matching criteria: specified jump: T 1 = T 2 + T nonlinear algebraic: f (T 1, T 2 ) = 0 e.g. equilibrium chemical partitioning between phases contact resistance: T 1 = T 2 + Rq general nonlinear: f (T 1, T 2, q) = 0 Any of these fit the Neumann Neumann framework. Just solve this equation for the interfacial flux. Noting that T 1 = T 1 (q) and T 2 = T 2 (q).

10 Generalized interfacial conditions (cont.) Could also have a superficial power source. Then there s a jump in the flux. Method should still apply guess the flux on one side calculate the flux on the other from the condition solve the two Neumann problems etc.

11 Example of Carnes & Copps (2008) Carnes, B. R., & K. D. Copps (2008) Thermal contact algorithms. Sandia Report SAND D.E.: 2 T = sgn x ( 1 < x < 1) Dirichlet conditions: T ( 1) = 0, T (1) = 1 flux balance: T (0 ) = T (0 + ) interfacial resistance: RT (0) = T (0 ) T (0 + )

12 Results of Carnes & Copps (2008)

13 Reproduction in FreeFem++

14 Implementation in FreeFem++ Geometry and mesh Solve in two dimensions (to investigate mismatched meshes).

15 Implementation in FreeFem++ Implementation in FreeFem++ See Schwarz-gc.edp. define interfacial flux q on one whole subdomain values meaningless off interface solve Neumann problem for each subdomain compute interfacial temperature mismatch iterate using conjugate gradients

16 Implementation in FreeFem++ Subdomain Neumann problems problem Pb1 (u1, v1, init=i) = int2d (Th1) dot(grad(v1), grad(u1)) + int2d (Th1) (-v1*s1) + int1d (Th1, inner) (+q*v1) + on (left, u1=0); problem Pb2 (u2, v2, init=i) = int2d(th2) dot(grad(v2), grad(u2)) + int2d (Th2) (-v2*s2) + int1d (Th2, inner) (-q*v2) + on (right, u2=1);

17 Implementation in FreeFem++ Computing the mismatch T Rq varf b (u1, v1) = int1d (Th1, inner) (v1 * u1); matrix B = b (Vh1, Vh1); func real[int] BoundaryProblem (real[int] &l) { q[] = l; Pb1; Pb2; i++; v1 = u1 - u2; // temperature jump real[int] q1 = B * v1[]; v1 = R * q; // resistive jump real[int] q2 = B * v1[]; q[] = q1 - q2; return q[]; };

18 Implementation in FreeFem++ Finding the correct interfacial flux Vh1 p=0; LinearCG (BoundaryProblem, p[]); BoundaryProblem (p[]);

19 Implementation in FreeFem++ Neumann Neumann method A particular advantage of the Neumann Neumann method: We don t have to compute interfacial fluxes. Even with an interfacial resistance, for which the flux appears in the matching condition, we can use the guessed interfacial flux. Having to compute fluxes on each subdomain then transfer to where iteration variable was defined would have been fiddly. Thus a Dirichlet Dirichlet method is less convenient. not attempted here

20 Implementation in FreeFem++ Summary of extension on Instead of just calculating the temperature jump, also subtract resistance times the guessed flux.

21 An axially symmetric problem Instead of Carnes & Copps (2008) one-dimensional solution we propose an axially symmetric one. Still has a simple exact solution less trivial realization in two-dimensional finite elements Also tests curved interfaces.

22 The axially symmetric problem D.E.: (K 1 T 1 ) = s 1 (r 0 < r < r 1 ) (K 2 T 2 ) = s 2 (r 1 < r < r 2 ) Dirichlet conditions: T (r 0 ) = T 0 T (r 2 ) = T 2 flux balance: T (r 1 ) = T (r + 1 ) interfacial resistance: RT (r 1 ) = T (r 1 ) T (r + 1 )

23 General analytical solution of Neumann problem Dirichlet condition at one radius T (r i ) = T i Guessed Neumann condition at another K i T (r int ) = q int source s i and conductivity K i constant per annular layer centre excluded: r i > 0 T (r) = T i + s ( i rint 2 ln r + r 2 2 r i i r 2 2 ) r intq int ln r K i r i

24 General analytical solution for Poincaré Steklov operator I flux q for specified contact resistance R two layers, r 0 < r < r int and r int < r < r 1 q = T 0 T 1 s 1 2K 1 ( r 2 int ln r int r 1 ) ( + r 1 2 r int s 0 2K 0 rint 2 ln r int ( r ln int r R r 1 int K 1 ln r int ) r 0 K 0 r 0 ) + r 0 2 r int 2 2

25 General analytical solution for Poincaré Steklov operator II flux q for specified temperature jump T two layers, r 0 < r < r int and r int < r < r 1 q = T 0 T 1 T s 1 2K 1 ( r 2 int ln r int r 1 ( r ln int r r 1 int K 1 ) ( + r 1 2 r int s 0 2K 0 rint 2 ln r int ln r int ) r 0 K 0 r 0 ) + r 0 2 r int 2 2

26 Geometry and mesh Curved interfaces necessitate finer meshes. Test problem: s 0 = 1, s 1 = 0 K 0 = 1, K 1 = 2 r 0 = 1 2, r 1 = 2 r int = 1

27 Calculating mismatches contact resistance R: v0 = u0 - u1; // temperature jump real[int] q0 = B * v0[]; v0 = R * q; // resistive jump real[int] q1 = B * v0[]; q[] = q0 - q1; return q[]; jump T : v0 = u0 - (u1 + DT); // temperature jump shortfall real[int] q0 = B * v0[]; return q0;

28 Results for various contact resistances

29 Results for various temperature jumps

30 Conclusion Many kinds of interfacial discontinuity can be handled easily in FreeFem++. Use domain decomposition. Guess the flux across the interface (Neumann Neumann). Compute the mismatch (Neumann Dirichlet Poincaré Steklov). Iterate to find the flux giving the right mismatch.

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