# EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COLLAR PRODUCTION ON THE PIERCED FLAT SHEET METAL USING LASER FORMING PROCESS

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3 Experimental And Numerical Analysis Of The Collar Production On The effect of laser scans order and location on the final shape of collar In this section, the effect of scan location and sequences on the amount of obtained deflection in the collar edge is discussed. The laser parameters and geometrical conditions of sheet metals for these studies are presented in Table 1. Two circular paths for single and multiple laser beam scan were selected with the Radii of R 1=6 mm and R 2=8 mm (Figure 4). Figure 3: schematic of scan radius location on plate Laser power (w) 200 Table 1: The geometric and process parameters of laser forming Beam scan speed (mm/s) Beam Diameter(mm) Thickness (mm) Inside Hole Diameter (mm) The results of collar deflection for various laser beam passes and separately for two different circular paths were presented in Figure 4. The laser beam is irradiated on two different circular paths and each path is tested on a distinct specimen. Note that all other geometrical and process parameters were kept constant. From Figure 4, it can be observed that the farther the circular laser scan path from the collar edge, the larger the produced deflection on the collar edge. be seen, the second scan has slightly less amount of deflection compared with the first one. Figure 5: Various collar deflection vs. the number of laser beam scanning passes in one test piece Sequentially applied with different radii (R 1=6 mm(dot) and R 2=8 mm (triangles)) Figure 4: Collar deflection vs. the number of laser beam scanning passes in two separated test piece with different radii (R 1=6 mm(dot) and R 2=8 mm (triangles)) Figure 5 shows the variations of deflection for two different sequences of circular paths. The first path was scanned circularly and completely only by single pass firstly. Then the scan of the second path started and the scan procedure was repeated sequentially until the fifth pass. The blue curve (triangles) is the edge variations as a result of the first circular path scan. The red curve (dot) shows the variation of collar deflection after the end of second circular path scan. In other words, the red curve (dot) is the final collar deflection results. The effect of the second circular path scan on the amount of the deflection produced as a result of the first circular path scan is shown in this figure. As can Figure 6: Collar deflection vs. the number of laser beam scanning passes in one test piece Sequentially applied with different radii (R 1=6 mm(dot) and R 2=8 mm (triangles)) Conditions considered in Figure 6 are similar to the previous one; however, the second path was scanned circularly and completely only in single scan first. Then, the first path was scanned and repeated sequentially up to five passes. The blue curve (triangles) is the edge deflection resulted from the second circular path scan. The red curve (dots) shows the variation of collar deflection after the first circular path scan ends.

5 Experimental And Numerical Analysis Of The Collar Production On Table 2: Compare the results of different scanning modes Deflection (mm) Scan-1 Scan-2 Scan-3 Scan-4 Scan-5 R R1R Percentage of Difference R R2R Percentage of Difference R R1-5R Percentage of Difference R R2-5R Percentage of Difference Studying the maximum produced collar deflection using laser forming In the mechanical process of producing a collar on a sheet metal, the maximum strain occurs around the edges of hole. While the applied deformation is increased in this process, the initial hole diameter is increased and the sheet metal thickness is decreased accordingly. The excessive deformation and elongation of the hole edge is the reason for its tearing. Production of the collar with a mechanical process is usually performed using a mechanical press with a punch similar to the final collar shape. The amount of the tensile strain around the internal edge of this formed collar can be calculated as follows (Equation 1)(Chakrabarty, 2006): Eq.1 Figure 10: The Schematic of flange height (Vessels and Co, 2010). This amount of strain has to be less than the permissible material tension. The D/d ratio limitation confines the material deformation because of the limitation of material elongation, which consequently, confines the produced collar height h (Figure 10). The maximum common amounts of collar produced around the edges of a hole was three times the sheet thickness (Vessels and Co, 2010) which is a limitation need to be considered throughout this process. As a matter of fact, there are two limitations, namely the height and the increase in the diameter limitations, which could be studied. Figure 11 shows the variations of edge deflection versus laser radiation time in laser forming of a hole with 4 laser beam scan paths. (In section 3 it was shown that if the number of circular scans is increased, starting the scans from the larger scan path radius and proceeding to the smaller ones accumulates the final collar deflection and each circular scan path affects the final deflection positively.) On each path the number of scan passes was selected adequately large (20 independent scans for each path). The first 20 passes were radiated on the larger radius and the next 20 passes were radiated on the smaller one and until the last scan path. The laser forming parameters along with the sheet metal and its hole geometrical conditions are presented in Table 3. Laser power(w) 200 Table 3: The Geometric and Process Parameters of laser forming Beam scan speed(mm/s) Beam Diameter(mm) Thickness(mm) Material Inside Hole Diameter(mm) AISI For the first time in this research the result of a light normal load on the edges of a hole was investigated. As stated earlier increasing the number of scans will buckle the sheet metal around the hole and applying the normal load will conduct the deflection and obviates the buckling effects. The result of proposed scanning procedure which starts from the larger radiuses toward the center with 50N normal load is shown in Figure 11. The maximum deflection as a rule of thumb (2-3 times the thickness), was 2.4 mm. As shown in Figure 11, the maximum deflection is approaching to 1.8 mm. Increasing the force from 50 N to 100 N, increases the amount of deflection after cooling in the last scan to 2.5 mm. Note that in both 100N and 50N conditions, the maximum produced tensile strength have been below the amount of

6 282 Tarkesh Esfahani and Golabi, 2014 allowable tensile strength of steel AISI This condition, as expected, shows that there was a specific constraint for the deformations including the deflection and the final collar diameter produced by laser. Figure 11: Variation of edge deflection versus time for 4 circular scan path with 20 scans for each radius and 50 N constant force. Also according to the amount of allowable strain of steel AISI 1010 (0.2) and Equation 1 (Volume, 1990), it was predicted that the maximum produced collar diameter in laser forming would be 25 mm. the diameter achieved from the finite element simulation while applying the force 100 N was 24 mm. Therefore it can be concluded that the presented method for prediction of the maximum amount of the collar using the mechanical method is also applicable for laser forming and could be employed for estimation. By increasing the force to 150 N, the deflection was also increased, but the maximum tensile stress produced in the hole edge, using finite element analysis, was reached to 368 Mpa. In another word, it could be claimed that the sheet metal edge was torn in this condition, and the calculated result was not acceptable. According to the current discussions and the experimental results it could be concluded that the maximum amount of the height was about 3 times the sheet thickness and the amount of the sheet metal internal hole diameter depends on the work-piece formability limit Determining the final limit of laser effective scan radius Figure 14, Figure 15 and Figure 16 show the edge deflection variations versus the laser beam scan path diameter for 3 work-pieces with different internal hole diameter. The laser forming conditions for each of these three figures are presented in Table 4. According to the simulation results and the corresponding figures (Figure 14, Figure 15 and Figure 16), it was concluded that by increasing laser beam circular path diameter from a specific position, the amount of the produced deflection would be limited to less than 2%. In another word, it can be stated that application of the scan paths on a zone larger than 2 times the internal hole diameter was not efficient. Therefore by obtaining the specific area for circular paths (a range from 1.1 to 2 times the internal hole diameter) and the analysis of its accuracy using the results of performed simulation and experiments (Figure 12 to Figure 16), it can be certainly concluded that the laser radiation had a positive influence on the amount of collar deflection and the radiation of the beams which did not significantly affect the final shape and edge deflection must be prevented. The experimental results also show that, laser scan out of the area with more than 2 times the hole diameter,, would increase the maximum amount of deflection by about 2%. This experimental result was extracted from 2 holes with 20 and 30 mm diameter. Table 4: Laser forming conditions for each of the three samples picture hole diameter (mm) beam diameter(mm) Speed (mm/s) Power(watt) Figure Figure Figure Figure 12: Experimental test samples obtaining the limits of effective scan radius for Also since the deflection does not change in Figure 14, it was concluded that for a sheet with 0.7mm thickness the minimum usable hole diameter for collar is between 10 to 20mm.Similar results were achieved from experiments on a hole with 10mm diameter and 0.7mm thickness and other power conditions, beam diameters and scan speeds. To develop a general results a dimensionless parameter (d/t) was defined and its effect was studied by both simulation and experimental results. It was concluded that the amount of this diameter-tothickness dimensionless parameter has to be

7 Experimental And Numerical Analysis Of The Collar Production On 283 more than ( ). To compute a more precise amount for the presented dimensionless parameter, larger hole diameters between 10 to 20 mm were studied, tested and simulated with similar conditions mentioned in Table 4 and shown in Figure 13. Figure 13: Experimental test samples for obtaining the minimum of effective hole diameter (with ID 15 mm and 18 mm) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The effect of laser scan for making collar around a hole was thoroughly studied by both finite element analysis and experiments in this research. According to the acquired finite element simulations it was concluded that the best scan order, i is the one started from the farther scan radius and proceeded toward the hole. It was also revealed that the maximum amount of sheet metal's deflection in collar production was 3 times the sheet thickness, and the amount of increase in hole internal diameter depends on the formability limit of the sheet metal. The effective scan limit radius was studied and it was concluded that the maximum effective scan radius was about 2 times the internal hole radius (r). It was also shown that increasing the scan limit to more than 2r may just increase the deflection by up to 2%. Furthermore, it was concluded that the minimum amount of hole diameter-to-thickness ratio for production of a collar in a plane was It was shown that the maximum collar deflection may be increased by applying an external normal load around the hole edge. Figure 14: Scan path Diameter for test pieces with 10 mm inside Diameter Figure 15: Scan path Diameter for test pieces with 20 mm inside Diameter Figure 16: Scan path Diameter for test pieces with 30 mm inside Diameter REFERENCES Chakrabarty J. Theory of plasticity. Butterworth- Heinemann Golabi S. Evaluation techniques for laser forming collar on the flat sheets. in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan 2013; pp:320. Hennige T. Development of irradiation strategies for 3D-laser forming. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2000;103(1): Liu C, Yao YL. Fem-based process design for laser forming of doubly curved shapes. Journal of manufacturing processes 2005;7(2): Nadeem Q. Deformation behavior of laser bending of circular sheet metal. Chinese Optics Latters 2011;09(09):4. Nadeem Q, Na SJ. Process designing for laser forming of circular sheet metal. Chinese Optics Letters 2012;10: 24. Nadeem Q. An approach to form the dome shape by 3D laser forming. Chinese Optics Letters 2013;11:26. Shekhar Chakraborty S, Racherla V, Kumar Nath A. Parametric study on bending and thickening in laser forming of a bowl shaped surface. Optics and Lasers in Engineering Shi Y, et al. Research on the mechanisms of laser forming for the metal plate. International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 2006;46:

8 284 Tarkesh Esfahani and Golabi, 2014 Vessels AB, Co PV. Rules For Construction Of Pressure Vessels, Volume AH. Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys. ASM International 1990.

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