Cloud Enterprise Architecture

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1 Cloud Enterprise Architecture Pethuru Raj

2 CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper Version Date: International Standard Book Number: (Hardback) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at and the CRC Press Web site at

3 Cloud-Enabled Smart Enterprises! 21 Cloud Enterprises As the cloud theme has brought in scores of enlightenment and empowerment to IT infrastructures, the enterprise IT is steadily moving toward the cloud IT by incorporating all the cloud concepts. Having understood the significance of cloud embarkation, enterprises are busy in cloud assessment, enablement, and on-boarding activities. We have extensively written about the reverberations of the cloud idea on business as well as the IT field in Chapters 2 and 3. Those who are new to cloud computing should read through Chapters 2 through 4. As a widely discoursed, dissected, and deliberated concept across the world, cloud computing has brought in innumerable tectonic and trendsetting shifts for both IT as well as business. Though it is an evolutionary idea, it becomes extremely popular, penetrative, and pervasive because it implicitly represents a seamless cluster and the convergence of a dazzling array of proven, potential, and promising enterprise technologies. The implications of the much-hyped and -hoped cloud computing are majorly in two domains: business and IT. On the business front, the cloud idea has enabled businesses to explore, experiment, and espouse fresh avenues for more revenues. That is, a cornucopia of newer and nimbler application deployment, delivery, usage, pricing, integration, collaboration, and management models have emerged nowadays, and they are doing exceedingly well with the faster stability of the cloud concepts and infrastructures. The traditional on-premise engagement model has been replaced and substituted with a delivery model that is efficient, centralized, monitored, managed, and maintained; innovation breeding; on-demand and off-premise; and affordable. That is, cloud-hosted and cared for applications and services are fast gaining the unshakeable confidence of corporations, governments, and organizations across the planet. On the other hand, for IT, the irresistible cloud paradigm has ushered in a stream of spectacular and sparkling advancements and accomplishments especially in the discipline of IT infrastructures. That is, IT infrastructures have become a dynamic pool of consolidated, centralized, virtualized, automated, and shared entities. With these momentous transitions, IT infrastructures are becoming converged, optimized, dynamic, real time, on-demand, and autonomic. In other words, infrastructures are increasingly and incredibly service enabled, sharable, scalable, and sustainable

4 22 Cloud Enterprise Architecture and thus highly elastic, available, lean, and utilizable for ensuring business agility, autonomy, affordability, and continuity. The cloud paradigm has greatly and graciously impacted every worthwhile enterprise these days. Enterprises are fast strategizing to absorb all the augmentative and transformative traits and tenets of the fast percolating and progressing cloud idea. The closer and tighter alignment and association between business and IT is becoming substantial and strong with the elegant embracement of cloud principles. The epoch-making business models initiated and ingrained with the smart leverage of cloud mechanisms have already started to bear fruits for companies. And the seismic shift from stagnant, inefficient, rigid, redundant, and silo-like infrastructures to business-aware, lean, self-provisioning, flexible, sharable, and virtual IT resources is bound to tactically as well as strategically empower enterprises to be people centric, instant-on, nimble, resilient, and versatile. In short, clinging to and capitalizing the cloud-induced transformational features, functionalities, and facilities takes any enterprising individual, innovator, and institution to greater heights in their outlooks and outcomes. Cloud enterprises are those that fully and firmly ingrain the pioneering principles, practices, procedures, and patterns of the cloud paradigm in order to be distinctively and decisively ahead of their competitors. A raft of new cloud types (generic as well as specific) have originated and are doing well. We explain the potential and promising clouds in the following sections. The Onset of Connected Clouds It is absolutely clear that newer business and technical cases are fast emerging for manipulating and managing hybrid clouds appropriately. Significantly and strategically, clouds are becoming connected to reach greater and grander targets. There are grand initiatives by academics and corporations for achieving their unique needs leveraging the brewing ideas of the open cloud, intercloud, delta cloud, and so on. Ultimately, everything converges towards the roaring goal of the connected cloud. Standards-compliant and flexible connectivity solutions, orchestration patterns, and products are emerging; integration standards are being revisited and revitalized by consortiums for the impending cloud era; and so on. Service orchestration and choreography specifications are being refactored and refined toward programmatically composing services

5 Cloud-Enabled Smart Enterprises! 23 that are located in geographically distributed clouds. Crafting multifaceted (multidevice, multimedia, multimodal, and multichannel) data and service mashups out of remote and resilient cloud applications is gaining greater momentum these days with the unprecedented stability and scalability of clouds, which are touted and termed as dynamic, converged, on-demand, and autonomic deployment and delivery infrastructures for service-centric applications. In short, the much-published cloud horizon and ecosystem is on a growth trajectory. It is not an exaggeration to say that the future belongs to classic, catalytic, and connected clouds. Autonomic Clouds This is the probable output of the seamless convergence of autonomic and cloud computing models. As we all know, autonomic computing represents a paradigm shift. It is all about deeper empowerment and automation through embedding and embodying of right and relevant knowledge and wisdom into IT services, solutions, and systems to be self-.monitoring, selfdiagnosing, self-configuring, self-healing, self-defending,.self-managing, self-organizing, self-optimizing, and so on. The instinctive and distinctive properties of biological systems are smartly being assimilated into IT systems so they are adaptive in their outlooks, offerings, and outputs. Nextgeneration IT products, platforms, and infrastructures are bound to be autonomous, self-describing, self-serving, and smart. Knowledge engineering, policy-based interaction, instantaneous transaction and behavioral analyses, event processing, semantics, real-time actuation, and so on are the major necessities for producing and shepherding.autonomic systems. With clouds being positioned as the futuristic and flexible IT infrastructure across the world, there will be revolutionary opportunities and fresh possibilities if these two computing styles (autonomic and cloud) combine well. A number of use cases are being prescribed and propagated for such a unique coexistence and coordination. Ad hoc, interoperable, and dynamic cloud environments can be quickly established for supporting emergency needs in war-ravaged, disaster-struck, and medical exigencies. Sensors, robots, and devices integrated with IT applications, and self-. scaling clouds go a long way in accomplishing a bevy of people-centric and physical services. Automation is highly prevalent in any cloud environment today. Resource and service provisioning and deprovisioning, workload and resource.management, job scheduling, and so on are already automated in clouds.

6 24 Cloud Enterprise Architecture However, with the synchronization of pioneering autonomic..computing concepts, the power and productivity of clouds are bound to go up by several notches. That is, cloud administration and management becomes simpler. Self-service will be common and casual. Clouds could be dynamically configurable. That is, configuration should be completely automatable in any changing and unpredictable situations. Clouds could sharply enhance their performance and throughput in case of any emergencies. Clouds could come back to life quickly in case of any failure or malfunction. A hitch in a component should not spread to other components, and thereby any kind of slowdown or shutdown is fully avoided. Recoverability, continuity, reconfigurability, restorability, availability, and adaptivity are guaranteed with the maturity and stability of autonomic clouds. Security, sustainability, adjustability, and other QoS attributes are also ensured. Federated Clouds A federation is simply a union of its member entities. The members, while sharing their unique capabilities with one another, maintain their individuality and integrity. In other words, the members get the benefits accrued out of the union while retaining the unassailable control over their internal affairs. In the case of technology infrastructure federation, the key benefits of the union are the lower cost and the lesser risks associated with a pool of technology assets, which are available across a diversified set of independent networks. In the world of financial asset management, asset diversification is a common thing for mitigating and managing risks. In the case of application assets, a lower risk profile for any application could be achieved through the federation approach. By diversifying the production applications and data across multiple networks, the owner of the applications and data could significantly reduce the localized network performance problems that could lead to an unacceptable customer service. This is the very essence of good discovery practices. Yet with federation in place, disaster recovery can be smoothly accomplished with a fraction of the cost of a wholly owned disaster recovery mechanism. Cloud service providers (CSPs) are instituting cloud centers in geographically distributed places across the continents to capture the everincreasing cloud market. Business and IT services and applications are progressively finding their compact and cost-effective residence in local

7 Cloud-Enabled Smart Enterprises! 25 and remote clouds. Reusable and composable cloud services are being stocked in abundance for rapidly assembling people- and business-aligned services. That is, composite services are being programmatically crafted and served from competent cloud environments to worldwide subscribers. Today, there are many different CSPs available from industry icons Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and so on. However, these clouds vary hugely in a number of aspects such as technologies and platforms, and do not support the required mechanisms and policies for dynamically coordinating load distribution among different cloud centers in order to determine optimal location for hosting application services to achieve reasonable QoS levels. Further, the cloud providers are unable to predict geographic distribution of users consuming their services; hence, the load coordination must happen automatically and distribution of services must change in response to changes in the load. In short, the lack of compatibility and interoperability among diverse cloud providers prevents providers and consumers from getting all the originally envisaged benefits of the cloud computing. There is a greater possibility of vendor lock-in issue creeping into the cloud domain. Collaboration is very limited in the cloud space today. As the business environment is predictably unpredictable, cloud resources and infrastructures need to be very open and trustworthy to mingle and mashup to ensure business agility and resiliency. Importantly, clouds are greatly positioned as the new-generation infrastructure capable of elastically delivering extra capacity. That is, cloud resources can be automatically increased or decreased in order to costeffectively fulfill agreed SLAs. Clouds could achieve more by subcontracting additional resources from collaborating clouds. This sort of interconnectivity for making use of internal as well as external cloud resources in times of specific need is the foundation for federated clouds. In summary, cloud federation is quite a new concept of service aggregation characterized by interoperability features, which addresses the economic problems of vendor lock-in. Furthermore, it approaches challenges like performance and disaster recovery through methods such as co-location and geographic distribution. The concept of cloud federation enables further reduction of costs due to partial outsourcing to more cost-efficient regions, may satisfy security requirements through techniques like fragmentation, and provides new prospects in terms of legal aspects.

8 26 Cloud Enterprise Architecture The Intercloud This is the vision of the cloud paradigm. This, in a way, represents the cloud of clouds. The standards-based amalgamation and accumulation of cloud resources spread across the world goes a long way in fulfilling the unique idea behind the intercloud. All kinds of cloud environments (infrastructure, platform, software, etc.) dynamically link up with one another in order to share their functionalities, features, and facilities to accomplish superior and sophisticated things. Applications in one cloud can connect and access data in another cloud, which is situated in the vicinity or in other parts of the world. Applications can leverage a cheaper and more attuned infrastructure of different and distant clouds owned by someone else. A notification emanated out of a service hosted in a cloud can reach out to a host of applications that are in co-located and distributed clouds in real time. Thus, a kind of extreme connectivity and spontaneous integration among various cloud modules make the route toward the intercloud smooth. The proposed intercloud is perfectly capable of facilitating just-in-time, opportunistic, and scalable provisioning of cloud services. All the.internal cloud modules are equally empowered to provide and perform the goal of automated resource provisioning through competent software-based solutions. Further on, the uninhibited linkage with external cloud resources makes possible the process of provisioning toward the absolute fulfillment of desired and decided SLAs. That means every single criterion quoted in the SLAs and operation-level agreements (OLAs) can be fully met under any anticipated and unanticipated circumstances including variations in workload, user base, resource, and network conditions. The overall goal is to create a lean computing environment that intrinsically supports dynamic expansion or contraction of VM capabilities for handling unexpected variations in service demands and to make computing dependable and ubiquitous. Consortiums are working in unison in order to come out with a series of open and industry-strength standards for cloud infrastructure, platform, and application developers and providers so that all the semantic, syntactic, structural, and symbiotic differences among them can be minimal. Ambient Cloud Hybrid and community clouds are being recommended for.certain scenarios. There are open and industry-strength standards being deliberated

9 Cloud-Enabled Smart Enterprises! 27 and decided by standard agencies and consortiums in order to realize the limitless possibilities of federated clouds. The seamless interactions facilitated among diverse and distributed cloud infrastructures and services go a long way in sharpening and shaping up the future of cloud computing. Today, high-end desktops, server machines, and storage appliances and networks are becoming interlinked to form cloud environments in order to revitalize and realize their innate capabilities and capacities. However, recently, smartphones, tablets, and consumer electronics have become the handy and trendy computing and communication devices with a lot of memory and computing power. Also, the number of slim and sleek handhelds, portables, wearables, and fixed and nomadic devices is exponentially growing; hence, there is a big market and mind share for clouds formed out of everyday electronics. Similarly, smart sensors and actuators are increasingly tied up with one another as well as with remote cloud infrastructures and platforms in order to transmit, store, mine, and analyze the tremendous amount of man- and machine-generated data with the ultimate aim of knowledge discovery in real time. The vision of extracting and leveraging business and behavioral insights in real time is on the way toward reality. Significantly, there are endeavors for creating and sustaining device and sensor clouds. The convergence of mobility and cloud computing models is also opening up a stream of fresh opportunities and possibilities for IT product vendors, service organizations, and mobile users. It is estimated that in the future, billions of devices and trillions of digitalized (smart) objects will be connected with one another as well as with remote clouds to realize the proclaimed use, business, and technical cases of the much-dreamt AmI theme. With such monumental connectivity and interactions brewing on the horizon, the computing power and the capacity of the resulting cloud will be simply enormous and envious. Instant-On Enterprises IT is consistently changing for good and is being prescribed as the far-. reaching agent in business automation and transformation. Business behemoths are supposed to provide IT-enabled business services and solutions to their clients and customers whenever and wherever they need them. Business organizations have to deliver their services costeffectively, securely, and quickly by operating their own IT divisions or

10 28 Cloud Enterprise Architecture by just establishing appropriate contracts with competitive IT services and solutions providers. Cloud computing has emerged as the nextgeneration IT optimization scheme through consolidation, centralization, virtualization, and automation. It has brought in a radically different service delivery method. The cloud concepts are reverberating as they could provide new levels of collaboration, agility, speed, and cost savings for business as well as IT enterprises of any size and type. With the service era all set to blossom powerfully, IT is slated for a renaissance and is being visualized as a key service broker, mediator, and facilitator. Service-oriented IT enables business agility, whereas cloudinduced IT is creating a solid foundation for transitioning IT infrastructures to be more agile. If the underlying IT is nimble, then the business can easily attain the much-needed agility, autonomy, and affordability. Business operations, offerings, and outlooks are bound to change with the combined strength of service and cloud IT. The speed and quality of service delivery is set to see a considerable increase. HP goes further and farther to name cloud-enabled businesses as instant-on enterprises. Everything is becoming instantly planned, procured, produced, and provided. An instant-on enterprise is an enterprise that embeds technology into everything it does to better serve citizens, partners, employees, and clients. HP banks on the hybrid delivery model, which intrinsically leverages both conventional IT as well as cloud IT (comprising private, public, and hybrid clouds) to annihilate all the delivery blockades and blockages and speed up the service delivery mechanism. Enterprise-Class Attributes for Successful Cloud Solutions HP believes that a successful cloud solution for any enterprise must be Secure guaranteeing delivery of agreed-upon security levels (e.g., threat protection, privacy, and compliance) and data and intellectual property protection Open, not locked in comprising modular infrastructure and services that support heterogeneous environments Automated incorporating policy-based automation and management that integrates cloud with legacy assets and services to provide integrated service catalogs and end-to-end service quality

11 Cloud-Enabled Smart Enterprises! 29 Resilient providing sure delivery of agreed-upon availability, quality, and performance service levels Seamless combining public and private cloud services with traditionally deployed services and outsourced services to deliver a seamless experience Thus, cloud-initiated service delivery is set to completely revamp and revitalize how IT is used by businesses and people. Extremely Integrated Enterprises In the beginning, there were monolithic mainframes, but they are silos. Then, with the advent of personal computers and the Internet, we have computers connected locally as well as with the Internet. This is articulated as the Internet of computers. All kinds of manufacturing instruments, machines, toolsets, and electronics are being connected with one another and with the web and also signaling the reality of the Internet of devices. As everything is being exposed as a service, there are business, IT, and device services in plenty in any kind of enterprise environment. Now for the sake of creation of sophisticated applications, these services need to interact in order to craft composite services and processes fulfilling the vision behind the Internet of services. An extremely integrated enterprise (EIE) represents the seamless and spontaneous integration of all enterprise IT elements and ground-level entities via the service-level integration and aggregation methods. In summary, the cloud idea is growing quickly and is being contemplated for greater things by IT divisions of all kinds of industries, IT service organizations, products and platforms vendors, infrastructure (software as well as hardware) providers, consulting companies, national governments, academic institutions, and so on. Today, all kinds of platforms ranging from development, deployment, execution, management, governance, and middleware are being modernized accordingly to be hosted in cloud infrastructures. Service delivery platforms (SDPs), cloud broker, cloud integration bus/cloud service broker, source, service, supply and support management systems, integration containers, database systems, and so on are the leading platforms to find a safe and scintillating residence in the cloud. Cloud enterprises are those that inculcate both the business and IT impacts of the cloud idea. Cloud enterprises are capable of incubating and sustaining an innovation culture and commitment, which collectively leads to a string of pearls in the form of newer processes and people-centric, premium solutions. A sample futuristic application scenario is pictorially explained in Figure 1.2.

12 Contents Foreword... xxiii Preface... xxv Acknowledgments...xxxi Author... xxxiii CEA Book Audience and Key Takeaways...xxxv Chapter 1 Cloud-Enabled Smart Enterprises!... 1 Introduction...1 The Brewing IT Trends & Technologies...2 Trekking toward the Smart World...8 Revisiting the Enterprise Journey...10 Dynamic Enterprises...11 Adaptive Enterprises...12 On-Demand Enterprises...13 Globally Integrated Enterprises...13 Liquid Enterprises...14 Proactive Enterprises...14 Connected Enterprises...15 Service-Oriented Enterprises...16 Service Thinking for Next-Generation Enterprises...16 The Service Paradigm...17 Service-Oriented Architecture...18 Enterprise-Scale Architectural Approaches...19 Elucidating SOEs Cloud Enterprises...21 The Onset of Connected Clouds...22 Autonomic Clouds...23 Federated Clouds...24 The Intercloud...26 Ambient Cloud...26 Instant-On Enterprises...27 Enterprise-Class Attributes for Successful Cloud Solutions Extremely Integrated Enterprises...29 vii

13 viii Contents Smart Enterprises The Enabling Mechanisms of Smart Enterprises...32 Service Computing...33 Advanced Analytics...33 Event-Driven Architecture Big Data Computing In-Memory Computing...35 Cloud Computing...36 Smarter Homes...36 Smarter Cars...38 Smarter Environments...38 Conclusion...39 References...39 Chapter 2 Cloud-Inspired Enterprise Transformations! Introduction...41 The Cloud Scheme for Enterprise Success Elucidating the Evolving Cloud Idea Cloud Technologies Cloud-Induced Innovations...47 Why Cloud Enablement and Empowerment?...49 Implementing Smarter Environments via Clouds...50 Application Domains...51 The Future...51 The Intercloud...51 Implications of the Cloud on Enterprise Strategy...53 Establishing a Cloud-Incorporated Business Strategy New-Generation Business Models...55 The Business Process Journey Service-Oriented Processes Event-Driven Business Processes...57 Communication-Enabled Business Processes...58 Analytics-Attached Business Processes...59 Cloud-Impacted Business Processes...59 Transitioning to Cloud-Centric Enterprises: The Tuning Methodology Service Categorization... 60

14 Contents ix The Selection Criteria of Services...61 Leveraging EA Frameworks for an Enterprise-Wide and Long-Lasting Cloud Strategy...62 Utilizing a Hybrid Cloud...62 Pondering Cloud Modernization and Migration...63 Transitioning from Data Centers to Cloud Centers Creating Cloud-Centric Enterprise Policies Contract Management in the Cloud Cloud Contract Characteristics Cloud Participants...67 Role of EA in Defining the Contracts with CSPs and CSBs...67 Conclusion References...69 Chapter 3 Cloud-Instigated IT Transformations! Introduction...71 Explaining Cloud Infrastructures...72 Cloud Computing Infrastructure...73 Cloud Communications Infrastructure...74 Virtualization for the Communication Industry...76 The Cloud Inspires the UC Paradigm...76 Communication as a Service...77 A Briefing on Next-Generation Services...78 Emerging Cloud Types...79 Ambient Cloud Service Infrastructures...82 Cloud Infrastructures Cloud Infrastructure Evaluation Parameters...85 Cloud Infrastructure Capabilities Cloud Infrastructure Solutions Identity and Access Management Suite...87 Cloud Infrastructure Management Solutions Automated Management Resource Provisioning...89 Cloud Performance and Scalability...89

15 x Contents End-to-End Cloud Service Visibility...89 Security Management and Federation Cloud SDP Responsible Cloud Infrastructure Clouds for Business Continuity...92 The Relevance of Private Clouds...93 The Emergence of Enterprise Clouds...95 Affordability...97 Resource Slicing, Pooling, and Sharing...97 Clouds Are Lean and Green...97 Decoupling of Software from Hardware...98 Virtualized Data Storage and Management...98 Data and Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity...98 Automated Tools...98 Multitenancy and Shared Environment Conclusion References Chapter 4 Cloud EA: Frameworks and Platforms Introduction Simplifying EA Development Why EA is the Preferred Approach The Zachman Framework The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) A Content Model Architecture Repository TOGAF Reference Models The Federal Enterprise Architecture The Oracle EA Framework The Business Architecture (BA) Application Architecture Information Architecture Technology Architecture People, Process, and Tools IBM s Actionable EA Enterprise Architecture Tools Conclusion References...133

16 Contents xi Chapter 5 Cloud Application Architecture Introduction Cloud Application Architecture Services as Enterprise Building Blocks Amazing Differentiators of SOA Key Drivers for NG-SOA The Growth Trajectory of the SOA Exemplary Enhancements in the Service Paradigm Process-Centric SOA for Flexibility, Agility, and Adaptivity Model-Driven SOA for Application Productivity and Portability Event-Driven SOA for Proactive and Real-Time Systems Service-Oriented BI The SCA for Simplified Construction and Composition Agent-Driven SOA for Awareness and Smartness Semantic SOA for Automation and Dynamism Service Virtualization for Simpler Service Plug and Play Exciting Service Capabilities Service Composition Service Composites Service Meshes Service Mashups Dynamic and Converged Service Infrastructures Service Grids SOA Fabrics Cloud-Hosted Service Middleware Middleware for Embedded SOA Direct and Distinct Impacts of NG-SOA The Service Oriented Enterprises (SOEs) Smart Hospital Rich Enterprise Applications Service-Oriented Business Applications Dynamic Business Applications Multienterprise Business Applications...177

17 xii Contents Real-Time and Dynamic Enterprises Integrated, Adaptive, and Modernized Enterprises Conclusion References Chapter 6 Cloud Data Architecture Introduction A Perspective on Big-Data Computing Why Big-Data Computing? A Look at Big-Data Infrastructure NoSQL Databases Why NoSQL Databases? Simplified Data Representation End-to-End Transactions Enterprise-Grade Durability Classification of NoSQL Databases Key-Value Stores Column Family Databases Document Databases Graph Databases Cloud Databases The Hadoop Software Family Functional Features of Big-Data Infrastructures Acquisition of Big Data Organizing Big Data Analyzing Big Data Information-Oriented Architecture for Cloud Environments Characteristics of IOA The IOA Ecosystem Leading BI Applications The BI Application Infrastructures Data Storage Infrastructures The BI Middleware A Detailed Look at Data Integration Types of Data Integration Physical Data Integration Virtual Data Integration...213

18 Contents xiii Comparison of EII versus ETL Comparison of EAI versus ETL Generic Criteria for Selecting a Data Integration Tool Business Drivers for Data Integration Top Five Functional Capabilities of Any Data Integration Solution Data Movement with Core ETL Data Movement with Next-Generation ELT Data Synchronization Data Quality Data Management Data Governance Data Services The SOA-Aware Data Services Enterprise Data Mashups Oracle s Big-Data Solution Hardware Components Software Components Cloud Analytics Summary References Chapter 7 Cloud Technology Architecture Introduction Generic Cloud Types Public Cloud Private Cloud Community Cloud Hybrid Cloud Next-Generation Connected Clouds Cloud Middleware Deployment Scenarios Cloud Composition and Collaboration Cloud Orchestration Cloud Collaboration Scenarios for Cloud Brokers Scenarios Cloud Reference Architecture

19 xiv Contents Scenarios for the Cloud Management Broker The Cloud Service Broker (CSB) Deployment Models ESB Deployment Styles Hub-and-Spoke Style Distributed Service Bus Variations in ESB Deployment Peer-to-Peer ESB Deployment Model Cloud-Ready Mule ESB Cloud Appliances: The Deployment Method Deployment Challenges Localization Routing Authentication Cloud Deployment Strategy: The Formula Step 1: Map the Network Step 2: Classify Assets Step 3: Map Assets to Cloud Deployment Models Step 4: Evaluate Potential Cloud Service Models and Providers The Future Conclusion References Chapter 8 Cloud Integration Architecture Introduction Cloud Integration: Origin and Evolution The Emergence of IT as a Service Integration as a Service Approaches for Cloud Integration Integration Approaches Pervasive Software, Inc Impacts of the Cloud Paradigm The Cloud Integration Enigma Cloud Integration Concerns and Challenges Cloud Integration Scenarios Integration within a Public Cloud Homogeneous Clouds...279

20 Contents xv Heterogeneous Clouds Restricted Access Dynamic Resources Performance Cloud Integration: Methodologies and Life Cycle Cloud Integration Methodologies Characteristics of Cloud Integration Solutions Data Integration Engineering Life Cycle Cloud Integration Products and Platforms Jitterbit Boomi Software Bungee Connect OpSource Connect SnapLogic Windows Azure AppFabric Bluewolf Oracle SOA Suite 11g Magic Software s ibolt WebSpan Adeptia Salesforce Integration Accelerator Online MQ CloudMQ Linxter Microsoft ISB Cloud Integration Appliances Cast Iron Systems, Inc Cloud Interoperation Methods Unified Cloud Interface/Cloud Broker Enterprise Cloud Orchestration Platform Peer-to-Peer Approach for Cloud Integration Benefits of Hybrid and p2p Cloud-Based ESB Architecture Cloud Integration Services Informatica On-Demand Businesses-to-Business Integration Services Cloud-Based Enterprise Mashup Integration Services for B2B Scenarios Enterprise Mashup Platforms and Tools Message Queue

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