1 CSE 265: System and Network Administration WF 9:10-10:00am Packard 258 M 9:10-11:00am Packard Find syllabus, lecture notes, readings, etc. Instructor: Prof. Brian D. Davison
2 Who is this course for? Students interested in learning The roles and responsibilities of a computer systems and network administrator How to configure & manage their own linux systems How to diagnose and debug problems How some of the major system services operate Why they need to be nice to the sysadmin UNIX/Linux familiarity helpful and programming experience required (CSE17)
3 What will the course cover? Understand the role & responsibilities of a system administrator Configure the Linux operating system Describe the system boot process Setup and manage user accounts and groups Manage the resources and security of a computer running Linux Make effective use of Unix utilities and scripting languages (bash, Perl) Configure and manage simple network services on a Linux system Develop an appreciation of the documentation available as part of an installed Unix/Linux system
4 What will it not cover? Networking in depth Take CSE342 instead Network security in depth Take CSE343 instead Windows administration Many hardware issues All the details needed for certification Lots of certification courses available
5 What will it not cover? Networking in depth Take CSE342 instead Network security in depth Take CSE343 instead Windows administration Many hardware issues All the details needed for certification Lots of certification courses available
6 What does a sysadmin do?
7 What does a sysadmin do? User account management Hardware management Perform filesystem backups, restores Install and configure new software and services Keep systems and services operating Monitor system and network Troubleshoot problems Maintain documentation Audit security Help users, performance tuning, and more!
8 User Account Management User Ids Mail Home directories (quotas, drive capacities) Default startup files (paths) Permissions, group memberships, accounting and restrictions Communicating policies and procedures Disabling / removing user accounts
9 Hardware Management Capacity planning Inventory Hardware evaluation and purchase Adding and removing hardware Configuration Cabling, wiring, DIP switches, etc. Device driver installation System configuration and settings User notification and documentation
10 Data Backups Perhaps most important aspect! Disk and backup media capacity planning Performance, network and system impact Disaster recovery Onsite/Offsite Periodic testing Multiple copies User communication Schedules, restore guarantees and procedures, loss tolerance
11 Software Installation/Maintenance Evaluation of software Downloading and building (compiling and tweaking) Installation Maintenance of multiple versions Security Patches and updates User notification, documentation
12 System Monitoring Hardware and services functioning and operational Capacity Security Passwords Break-ins System logs Disk, RAM, CPU, network Examination Periodic rotation and truncation
13 Troubleshooting Problem discovery, diagnosis, and resolution Root cause analysis Often quite difficult! Often requires Broad and thorough system knowledge Outside experts Luck Expediency
14 Local Documentation Administrative policies and procedures Backup media locations Hardware Software Location Description, configuration, connections Install media (or download location) Installation, build, and configuration details Patches installed Acceptable use policies
15 Security Concerns System logging and audit facilities Evaluation and implementation Monitoring and analysis Traps, auditing and monitoring programs Unexpected or unauthorized use detection Monitoring of security advisories Security holes and weaknesses Live exploits
16 User Assistance Time intensive! Techniques Help desks Trouble-ticket systems Software availability and usage Software configuration settings Hardware usage, maintenance, and troubleshooting Writing FAQs
17 Administration Challenges Need Broad knowledge of hardware and software To balance conflicting requirements Short-term vs. long-term needs End-user vs. organizational requirements Service provider vs. police model To work well and efficiently under pressure 24x7 availability Flexibility, tolerance, and patience Good communication skills People think of sysadmins only when things don't work!
18 Admins for Developers DevOps (development operations) A methodology of software development, emphasizing communication, collaboration, and integration between software developers and IT operations people (e.g., system administrators) Automates, manages: Release management Quality testing Configuration management Developer tools (IDEs, issue trackers, etc.) Hugely important at companies like Facebook, Google
19 Which OS to learn to admin?
23 Why (Red Hat/CentOS) Linux? Need to use some OS to make ideas concrete Really only two choices: Windows (I'm not qualified) UNIX (and UNIX-like OSes such as Linux) Both are useful and common in the real world Linux is popular, free, and usable on personal machines, but also handles large-scale services Red Hat/CentOS is relatively polished, popular I've been using it since ~1996 There are, of course, many alternatives
24 What is Linux? much is courtesy of Linux is a clone of the operating system Unix, written by a loosely-knit team of hackers across the Net. Like any modern full-fledged Unix, Linux includes: true multitasking proper memory management and virtual memory shared libraries and shared copy-on-write executables TCP/IP networking Linux really refers to the kernel most commands and apps are really separate programs, not specific to Linux, and often are part of the Free Software Foundation's GNU project. Linux was first developed for 32-bit x86-based PCs (386 or higher). These days it also runs on dozens of other processors.
25 Brief history of UNIX Originated as a research project in 1969 at AT&T Bell Labs Berkeley UNIX started in 1977 when UCB licensed code from AT&T. Berkeley Software Distribution started in 1977 with 1BSD, and ended in 1993 with 4.4BSD Licensing costs from AT&T increased, so Berkeley attempted to remove AT&T code, but ran out of funds before completion. Final release of AT&T-free code called 4.4BSD-Lite. Made available to universities (free) in 1976 Most current BSD distributions (FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD) are derived from 4.4BSD-Lite. Most commercial versions of UNIX (Solaris, HP-UX) are derived from the AT&T code
26 Brief history of Linux Created as a personal project (and still controlled) by Linus Torvalds, a Finnish graduate student, in 1991 Conceived as an offshoot of Minix (a model OS) Not derived from AT&T or BSD UNIX code Red Hat (one of many Linux vendors) founded in 1993 Kernel v1.0 released 1994 Most recent (Aug 2014) kernel release is
27 Where to get answers Linux/UNIX documentation can be found in many places Manual pages (man pages, using man command) Texinfo documents (read with info command) HOWTOs focused descriptions of a topic Distribution-specific documentation Your favorite Web search engine Will typically find online versions of the above
28 Where to get answers
29 man pages Usually my first resource Provide OS installation-specific information Man pages document (almost) every command, driver, file format, and library routine man -k topic will list all man pages that use topic Parameters are not the same for every UNIX, e.g.: Linux: man 4 tty Solaris: man -s4 tty
30 man page organization Man pages are divided into sections (somewhat Linux specific) Some sections are subdivided 1: User-level commands and applications 2: System calls and kernel error codes 3: Library calls 4: Device drivers 5: Standard file formats 6: Games and demonstrations 7: Miscellaneous files and documents 8: System administration commands 9: Obscure kernel specs and interfaces 3M contains pages for math library Section n often contains subcommands (such as bash built-in cmds) Sections 6 and 9 are typically empty
31 Where do we go from here? In this course, I'll assign homework projects that require root access on a RHEL/CentOS 6 system. In our next lab, you will be provided with a hard drive that can be used in the Sandbox lab (PL112) with the OS, and root privileges so that you will administer it. In addition, you can (and should) use the departmental workstations (also running CentOS) for most things, and to explore a working system See course web page for syllabus and schedule for topics and readings.
32 CSE265 Labs Each week I will post the instructions for the lab on the course web pages Today I have a hand-out to get you started If the computer in front of you is not on, please turn it on now If the computer in front of you is waiting for a keyboard press before allowing you to log in, please do so When you finish each lab, you'll sign the appropriate lab sheet so I can track progress
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