Intro to Virtualization

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1 Seminars Intro to Virtualization Christos Alexakos Computer Engineer, MSc, PhD C. Sysadmin at Pattern Recognition Lab 1 st Seminar 19/3/2014

2 Contents What is virtualization How it works Hypervisor s role Some types of virtualization Virtualize resources What needs for installing a virtual environment Examples of benefits of virtualizations PR Lab Story

3 What is virtualization? Virtualization is a technology that combines or divides (computing) resources to present one or many operating environments. Hardware/software partitioning (or aggregation) Partial or complete machine simulation Emulation (again, can be partial or complete) Time-sharing (in fact, sharing in general) In general, can be M-to-N mapping (M real resources, N virtual resources)

4 Traditional Data Center

5 Virtualized Data Center

6 Traditional Concept Positives Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Negatives Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement In many cases, processor is under-utilized

7 Virtualized Concept Positives Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Negatives Slightly harder to conceptualize? Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer)

8 How it works A hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) is a piece of computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines. A virtual machine (VM) is a software-based emulation of a computer. Virtual machines operate based on the computer architecture and functions of a real or hypothetical computer.

9 Virtualization Approaches Paravirtualization (PV) PV does not require virtualization extensions from the host CPU The guest operating system is not only aware that it is running on a hypervisor but includes code to make guestto-hypervisor transitions more efficient Full Virtualization (HVM) Full Virtualization or Hardware-assisted virtualizion uses virtualization extensions from the host CPU to virtualize guests Intel VT or AMD-V The guest is unaware that it is being virtualized and requires no changes to work in this configuration

10 Resources Virtualization

11 Inside Hypervisor The hypervisor requires a small number of items to boot a guest operating system: a kernel image to boot, a configuration (such as IP addresses and quantity of memory to use), a disk, and a network device. The disk and network device commonly map into the machine's physical disk and network device A set of guest tools is necessary to launch a guest and subsequently manage it.

12 Type of Hypervisors

13 Known Hypervisors KVM a Linux based open source hypervisor. Xen An open source hypervisor of type 1 VMware - its hypervisor is very mature and extremely stable Hyper-V Hyper-V is a commercial hypervisor provided by Microsoft

14 Device Virtualization HVM PV

15 CPU Virtualization

16 Memory Virtualization

17 What you need to set up a virtual environment

18 What you really need!! Network Compute Storage

19 Why Virtualization? Some examples Best resources management Resources Availability Application Uptime Backup & Disaster Recovery

20 Typical small IT department Production (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Server Linux 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Production (Application Server, Mail Server, ERP) Server Windows 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Test Development (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Server Linux 8GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 6 Cores Usage Administration developer Requests sysadmin

21 Virtualization Environment Virtual Machines Physical Servers Production (Linux 8GB) (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Production ( Windows 4GB) (Mail Server) Production ( Windows 6GB) (ERP) Test Development (Linux 4 GB) (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Usage Hypervisor 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Hypervisor 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Hypervisor 8GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 6 Cores - OFF Administration developer Requests sysadmin

22 Resources Availability Production (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Production (Application Server, Mail Server, ERP) Test Development (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Server Linux 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Server Windows 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Server Linux 8GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 6 Cores I need a Windows Server for development with at least 8GB RAM We don t have any now, we have to buy a new one or wait 2 weeks until the develop server gets free developer Purchase Time: 2 days 1 week Setup Time: 1 day Cost: > 2000 sysadmin

23 Resources Availability Production (Linux 8GB) (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Production ( Windows 4GB) (Mail Server) New Server Windows 8GB Production ( Windows 6GB) (ERP) Test Development (Linux 4 GB) (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Virtual Machines Physical Servers Hypervisor 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Hypervisor 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Hypervisor 8GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 6 Cores - OFF I need a Windows Server for development with at least 8GB RAM I will setup it for you developer Purchase Time: 0 Setup Time: 15 minutes 3 hours Cost: 0 sysadmin

24 Application Uptime Production (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Production (Application Server, Mail Server, ERP) Test Development (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Server Linux 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Server Windows 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Server Linux 8GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 6 Cores Our Mail Server Crashed. We need to install it from the beginning and apply last backup OK, I will do it developer Setup Time: 1-3 hours sysadmin

25 Application Uptime Production (Linux 8GB) (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Production ( Windows 4GB) (Mail Server) New Server Windows 8GB Production ( Windows 6GB) (ERP) Test Development (Linux 4 GB) (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Our Mail Server Crashed. We need to install it from the beginning and apply last backup Virtual Machines I will apply the last working snapshot Physical Servers Hypervisor 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Hypervisor 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Hypervisor 8GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 6 Cores - OFF Go to an older snapshot developer Setup Time: 5-15 minutes Clean Installation sysadmin

26 Disaster Recovery Production (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Production (Application Server, Mail Server, ERP) Test Development (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Server Linux 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Server Windows 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Server Linux 8GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 6 Cores SOS Our server has been melted down!!! Ohh!!! My God! I have to find what happened Setup OS and Apps Restore last Back up developer Hardware Recovery: 1 day 1 week OS Setup Time: 1-3 hours Apps Setup Time: 1-12 hours Restore Last Backup: 30 minutes- 1 hour sysadmin

27 Disaster Recovery Production (Linux 8GB) (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Production ( Windows 4GB) (Mail Server) Production ( Windows 6GB) (ERP) Test Development (Linux 4 GB) (Web Server, Application Server, Database) Virtual Machines Physical Servers Hypervisor 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Hypervisor 16 GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 4 Cores Hypervisor 8GB RAM, 200GB HDD, 6 Cores - ON SOS Our server has been melted down!!! OK I will start the last VM backups to the other servers until I find what happened developer Restore Last VM Backup: minutes Hardware Recovery: 1 day 1 week sysadmin

28 PR Lab Story Pattern Recognition Laboratory 10 Researchers (Stuff, PHD and MSc Students) 3-5 Undergraduate Students 4 Servers 3 different research teams Applications 3 Web Servers + Databases (Lab and BioTools) 1 Developments Server 1 NAS Needs Run web applications Run experiments in standalone workstations Run Parallel Algorithms Experiments

29 Problems Not enough PCs to run experiments Old applications had to be deleted and backuped up 3 Web servers in 3 relatively overpowered machines Not having parallel computing infrastructure

30 Solution Install a virtualization infrastructure Xen hypervisor XenServer XenCenter for management All free Open Source Solutions

31 PR Lab Virtualization Infrastructure

32 PR Lab Virtualization Infrastructure 10G Switch XenServer 1 2 TB NAS XenServer 3 XenServer 2 XenServer 4

33 Now we have 14 Virtual Server in 1 physical server (50% of its resources) 5 Production Web Servers (Linux & Windows 2008) 1 Virtual Cluster of 4 VMS 1 Geo Server 5 Development Virtual Machines 2 inactive VMs from older research projects 3 physical metal servers for test purposes in 2 virtual pools Ability to easily test our applications in both Windows and Linux (Ubuntu, CentOS) Environments

34 Our Virtualization Management

35 Resources https://www.cs.indiana.edu/~achauhan/teaching/b649/2010- Spring/StudentPresns/Virtualization.pdf https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/library/l-hypervisor/

36 Thank you!!! Any questions

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