1 1 Materials Managing Your Waste Sustainability Report 2011
2 Sustainability Report 2011 Materials Managing Your Waste
3 Contents 3 Preface 5 Sustainability Report 6 Pride 6 Trends Gazellen 7 Policy 8 Rebranding 11 Passion 14 Family Day 15 Launch of a new product line in Dottenijs 18 Waste Framework Directive 20 Mano Mundo 22 VANHEEDE POLYMERS & COMPOUNDS laboratory 23 Belgium s first hybrid waste collection truck! 24 National distribution 26 Structure 28 Planet Fire, Water, Air and Earth 30 Care for the environment 31 VANHEEDE FRANCE 44 People 46 Policy 47 Employees 48 Safety 50 Profit 56 Key figures 57
4 Materials Managing Your Waste Planet People Profit Sustainability Report 2011 Passion Pride
5 Preface 5 I am proud to present the 2011 sustainability report. This sustainability report serves as a means to inform our stakeholders about our company was a good year, a year on which I can look back with pride. A year in which we as a company have once again evolved in a most positive manner, across all parts of our company. We continue to look to the future with vision and enthusiasm. Both our company and our sector are constantly evolving. The implementation of the European waste directives demands thorough adaptation from us as a company, but also from our clients. As a team we are ready to implement this new legislation and to serve our clients correctly. Our company also further improved its national coverage in Belgium this year and established the foundations for further growth in France. Every day we endeavour to work with an eye to the future. We also regularly adjust our policies to assure and carry out our services as efficiently as possible and to optimise our high-quality service. Our company currently has a workforce of more than 500. In terms of organisation and structure, we also put a great deal of effort into maintaining the cohesion between our employees and sending out a common message based on our company values. As a company we seek to continually evolve, and we will continue to invest in quality, processes, installations and the services. However, we will continue to respect our company s basic values: our familiar 3 Ps for sustainability (People, Planet, Profit) supplemented with Passion and Pride. Each of the themes raised above is covered in detail in this sustainability report. As you will probably have noticed, however, this sustainability report also has a new look. Our aim is to highlight the evolution of the market and the evolution in our sector through rebranding: rebranding with respect for the past, but especially with an innovative look to the future. A future to which we look forward with great optimism! David Vanheede Chairman of the Board of Directors, Vanheede Environment Group nv
6 Pride in what we do Pride Sustainability Report 2011 Pride
7 Trends Gazellen 7 VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENTAL LOGISTICS wins Trends Gazellen On 14 March 2012, the winners of the Trends Gazellen West- Vlaanderen 2012 were announced in La Brugeoise in Bruges. VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENTAL LOGISTICS won the first prize in the large companies category. We are, therefore, extremely proud to call ourselves Gazelle Ambassador for 2012 for West Flanders, having been recognised as being the fastest growing company in West Flanders in terms of workforce, turnover and cash flow. Outlook for the future and workforce This splendid recognition would have been impossible without the years of hard work by our employees and a clear vision of the future by our company. In recent years we have worked tirelessly to create a clear-cut and professional company structure that will allow our employees to work with a high level of independence and motivation. A motivated workforce almost automatically means good service and satisfied clients. Constructive relationship with our clients We also pursue an open and transparent understanding with our clients and suppliers, to allow us to work together as partners and so build up a highly constructive long-term relationship, ultimately resulting in a win-win situation for everyone involved. These pillars form an important reason for our growth and have led to this prestigious award. Gazellen West-Vlaanderen: International market Although VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP is justifiably proud of its roots in West Flanders, it currently has 11 sites spread throughout Belgium and Northern France. We also process waste flows under our own management from the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, the UK and other countries. IN THE MEDIA After we were awarded this prize, we appeared in many media: Kanaal Z, Trends, Ondernemers, Radio 2, Weekbode and others.
8 8 1. Policy: in brief We regard the policy of VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP as a dynamic spear formed by people: a clear outlook to the future, with our vision and mission as the spearhead. Our vision and mission inextricably lead to our strategy with the related targets and KPIs. These elements are influenced by our company values, which are inspired primarily by the family values inherent in our company. Important parts of our policy are the human aspect and the involvement of all our stakeholders: both internally, between colleagues and departments, and externally, for all our stakeholders. Working together to build a superior, sustainable future! 2. The policy built up around 4 policy elements VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP has a clear-cut policy that is built up from deep-rooted symbiosis between various policy elements: Vision Mission Strategy Targets The relevance of the policy and the resulting targets is continually appraised at the management meetings and during the Board s assessment of the management system. During that same assessment, a programme of actions is used to define the actions needed to achieve the targets. 2.1 VISION To use innovations to shape the past in readiness for the future. 2.2 MISSION VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP seeks to be a sustainable business that offers its clients the most efficient solutions for managing waste, materials, green energy and environmental aspects. We employ a high-quality, professional and innovative approach that offers added value for all our stakeholders. 4 strategic axes Progressive entrepreneurship Excellent processes Strategic & operational targets "Objective" is gewijzigd in "Targets". Wordt er een nieuw beeld aangeleverd? We seek to be a sustainable company To use innovations to shape the past in readiness for the future Sustainability Report 2011 Pride
9 Policy 9 For VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP, sustainable entrepreneurship implies attaining the best results for all its stakeholders with a minimal impact on the environment. VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP nv s stakeholders are its employees, the environment, its clients, its suppliers, its contractors, public authorities, media, the Board of Directors, banks and insurance companies. 2.3 STRATEGY VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP s strategy: Grouped into 4 strategic axes: 1. Logistics Integrated waste management Custom container lease Intelligent logistics Sorting and transhipment activities Service outlet 2. Services Collection and sorting of hazardous and nonstandard waste Interventions and advice Cleaning and tank transport 3. Raw Materials Waste into raw materials 4. Renewable Energy Waste into energy Progressive entrepreneurship 1. Entrepreneurship and the requisite flexibility are obtained by creating a mentality in which our people can make their own decisions wherever possible. It is for this reason that we organise our activities into business units. Each business unit can develop itself further and specialise in its own core business. The structure of multiple business units, each with its own responsibilities, strengthens this entrepreneurship. 2. Progressive entrepreneurship is obtained by supplementing this company structure with a matrix structure, in which support activities and core activities can influence each other (under the influence of the market/legislation etc.). This allows us to adjust more quickly where necessary. This also visibly enhances the cohesion between the different business units. Excellent Processes Both our human capital and our production lines need to be of excellent and high quality within their fields. This is the only means by which we can set ourselves apart from the rest of the market. 1. Besides the operational processes, processes that influence decisions or the organisational form must also be uniform, well-considered and efficient. 2. The machinery and equipment that we use to collect and process waste must be of the highest standard. 2.4 targets We use our strategy as the basis for determining concrete targets, along the lines of primary, operational and management processes. The strategic targets must result in operational targets, in accordance with the SMART principle. SMART stands for: Specific Measurable Acceptable Realistic Time-bound Our SMART targets are guiding: they indicate what we seek to achieve and direct the actions of our people and our company. They also indicate when which results need to be attained.
10 10 Policy 3. Company values Every facet of the policy elements on which the company s policy is based is determined by our company values. PEOPLE-PLANET-PROFIT PRIDE PASSION SUSTAINABILITY and CORPORATE ETHICS comprise a long-term vision, within which we pursue organic growth, taking into account the relationship between the separate Ps. An open, honest and sincere relationship allows us to look each other in the eye and work towards a win-win situation for everyone involved. By communicating with each other in a transparent manner, we will achieve better results and create more simplicity in what is a complex world. WE CAN THEN take PRIDE in what we do! By pursuing personal contact with our stakeholders and by stimulating this empathic relationship between everyone involved, we take and give more responsibility for all our employees, resulting in a great sense of involvement and strong commitment - the drive to realise and innovate something - creativity in the search for solutions So that we can do our job with PASSION The management fully supports the substance of this policy and the management system based on it. As such, the management also provides the necessary resources to implement, maintain and improve this system. Our directors, our managers and our entire workforce are fully involved in applying these policy principles both within and beyond the organisation. Sustainability Report 2011 Pride
11 Rebranding 11 VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP: Rebranding 2012 VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP is ready for the future. Our company has evolved into an integrated environmental group and an established player within our sector. It goes without saying that a modern and appealing image is of the greatest importance. To accentuate the evolution of our company and to present ourselves in the market in a contemporary manner, we decided to adapt our house style, while maintaining due respect for the past. Ready for the new challenges in the environmental sector: a waste disposal company ready for the future! Our environmental sector is often praised for its progressiveness and sustainability. Numerous publications describe the waste and materials sector as one of the spearheads of our national and European industry. Waste management involves much more than collecting waste from our partners. The challenge is to organise internal waste logistics within the companies and to give purpose and added value to our waste flows. Stimulating in-depth proficiencies It is from this point of view that we restructured our company several years ago. By organising various activities into separate business units, each with its own management, we stimulated the know-how and proficiencies present in those business units. Using this structure, our company will continue its efforts to seek out the best and most sustainable solutions for our clients waste management.
12 12 Rebranding Our environmental sector comprises an extensive range of waste flows and materials. As such, we endeavour to create specialists in each segment who interact directly to obtain advice from each other. Each business unit will continue to bear the name VANHEEDE. This will strengthen the synergy between the business units, but more importantly should make it clear that the corporate values are overarching. THINK GLOBAL, ACT LOCAL: ACQUISITIONS CONSOLIDATE NATIONAL COVERAGE We also strongly encourage the principle of Think global act local, both in the literal sense and in the symbolic sense. As an environmental company, we need to think in terms of a sustainable method of cross-border waste processing. Long-term thinking and the vision of the world in which our children and our grandchildren will live should be key here. In addition, our national coverage was optimised via acquisitions in the Genk, Liège and Luxembourg regions. Literally and figuratively, it is our aim to be very close to our clients. Waste management is a specific process for each company. As a consequence, in many cases a personal approach is required. We do not have large call centres with centralised helpdesk numbers: each client is assigned a personal contact. This is a perfect example of a personal approach: being close to the client, in terms of both location and service. VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP steadfastly supports its clients: clients that we prefer to consider partners. Many companies do the opposite, opting for centralisation and globalisation. VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP does not do this. An ingenious ICT network ensures that we can continue to work in this manner and optimise our level of service. REBRANDING: READY FOR THE NEXT GENERATION At the same time, we must not lose sight of the evolution that our society is currently undergoing. VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP is therefore in the process of launching no fewer than 11 new websites. Each company will have its own new website in order to serve our partners/clients etc even better. Yet there is more: these will not be websites with large volumes of general information, but instead will offer very useful to-the-point information which can serve as a tool for our clients. MYVANHEEDE AND ONLINE SHOP We are also launching a range of new tools that are unique in our sector: An online shop where our clients can place their orders, receive quotes and request information 24 hours a day. A tool with which we can offer our clients clear information and help them at those moments which are important for our clients, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Does this seriously conflict with our personal approach? Not at all. VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP seeks to deal with each client according to the client s preferences. This approach offers us the opportunity to guarantee the best possible service for our new digital users too. We have also launched MyVanheede: an online platform that our clients can use to organise their waste management 24 hours a day, generating online reports, organising collections, checking invoices, contracts etc. This new online tool is another means to ensure that our clients can count on high-quality service at every level. Sustainability Report 2011 Pride
13 Rebranding 13 REBRANDING: NEW CORPORATE IDENTITY AND LOGO In recent years, our company has undergone what may be described as a strong evolution. We are ready for a challenging future and wish to underscore this with a rebranding: a new logo and a new house style to symbolise a new sense of panache at VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP, yet based on our established family values. Explanation of the logo: A clear connection with the old logo, both in the pictorial trademark and in the colour code. Respect for the past, respect for the sustainable relationship that we have built up with our clients over the past 40 years. A symbolic V. The name VANHEEDE continues to be significant in our company philosophy. A family business with fundamental values that in each new step pursues a long-term philosophy, both in its internal structure and in its relationships with clients, suppliers, neighbours etc. Multiple Vs working together in a wheelwork and providing a strong sense of cohesion. The interacting V forces. The new corporate structure gives rise to a number of separate VANHEEDE companies, each with its own specialisation and competencies. The V forces or the spearheads that drive us forward, with an eye to the future. MORE THAN A SLOGAN: MANAGING YOUR WASTE... MANAGING YOUR MATERIALS! Materials Managing Your Waste The purpose of the rebranding is to present our company in the market in a dynamic and contemporary manner. Yet we have also changed our slogan for the purpose of imparting a visible evolution. VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP puts forth every effort to give waste a new, useful application wherever possible and focuses primarily on reuse waste as a raw material/commodity. Various public authorities also impose rules, via a new materials decree, to further sort and process our waste flows into new raw materials. The new slogan clearly shows the link between waste processing and materials. In addition, this slogan, which addresses both the inlet (waste) as well as the outlet (materials), indicates our continued focus on both waste and materials. 2 Vs which are connected to each other old logo the spearheads that drive us with an eye to the future HR POLICY OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE Over a period of 5 years, our workforce rose by nearly 100 employees. As such, a comprehensive HR policy is of the greatest importance. Job security and the creation of new jobs continue to be important aspects within for businesses. We are on the lookout for new competent workers every day. A solid HR policy provides for a broad range of competencies, ranging from service-oriented drivers, IT specialists, engineers, office workers, dispatchers, manual workers etc.: a very diverse jumble of competencies, cultures and genders which also typifies our company and all directed by our policy and our company values.
14 Working on sustainable development calls for passion Passion Sustainability Report 2011 Passion
15 Family Day at Dottenijs 15 The Family Day through the eyes of Isabelle Deslé It was on a Saturday morning in February that we rose from bed with trepidation in our heart. We asked ourselves if we would be able to get there. It had begun to snow the previous evening: the first snow of the year. It immediately reminded us of the previous winter, when the country roads around Geluwe had changed into a white hell. That Friday evening, the radio once again summed up the traffic misery. Luckily, it was not as bad as we feared. No more snow had fallen that night and unlike the previous year the municipal salt stocks had not yet been exhausted. We set out for Dottenijs [F. Dottignies] wrapped in thick scarves, hats, mittens, thermal underwear etc.: appropriate attire for a frosty -12 C. ORGANISATION What immediately struck us when we arrived was the superlative organisation. Despite the 650 visitors, the car park attendant quickly directed us to a free space and we were received by a friendly welcoming committee. We could immediately join a group led by Nico Kimpe, our guide for the day. NEW BEGINNING Nico showed us the machine that makes paper bales and explained what 80/20 means: the quality of the paper. We promise ourselves to work even harder at sorting in the future. We then ambled along the wood, the organic waste, the glass lying outside in transit, and learned that what we saw was not waste but raw materials. This is not an end but a new beginning. The scraps of plastic and carpeting also lay inside awaiting their transformation. They would be changed into pellets: an alternative fuel for limekilns, stone kilns and blast furnaces. Nico explained the procedure to us and the machine put us in mind of the device used to mash potato rissoles a generation ago: a nostalgic moment.
16 16 Family Day at Dottenijs Meanwhile, our winter attire seemed very apt: with the welcome words let s stay here for a while, our guide enjoyed a ray of sunshine. Despite the sub-zero temperatures, it had in fact become a gorgeous day. At the back of the site, we looked with amazement at the extent of the investments at VANHEEDE ALTERNATIVE FUELS: a new weighbridge and an ultramodern warehouse with a fully automatic loading installation. HEARTWARMING You lot go and get warm. We went into the marquee set up specially for the Family Day. Inside it was pleasantly warm, fortunately. Now I could show how happy I was to be there: I introduced my partner to everybody. Showing him how nice it is at VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP made me proud, which is one of my clearest recollections of the Family Day: how open, happy and friendly people are. I thanked the Vanheede family for inviting us. They show how important people and passion are. They prove that these are not empty words. No fiddling about here, no show, no boasting or pulling the wool over people s eyes, just straightforward. Animation, makeup and movies for the children, fries and hamburgers and beer and coke. Delicious. And really from the heart, like with a real family, including for the youngest visitors. We stayed late because we had so much to say and because we felt welcome. Because there was no obligation but we were nevertheless allowed experience it. It was an enjoyable and successful day. Heartwarming. Even at -12 C. Isabelle Deslé Isabelle Deslé Sustainability Report 2011 Passion
18 18 VANHEEDE ALTERNATIVE FUELS Launch of a new product line: a fine example of environmental innovation! It was with pride that the new VANHEEDE ALTERNATIVE FUELS plant was presented to our group s employees at the VANHEEDE Family Day early in The plant has been fully operational since June 2012 and can truly be called a fine example of environmental innovation. THE CONCRETE OBJECTIVES OF THE INVESTMENT The new plant for pelletising high calorific material reaches a capacity of 90,000 tonnes per year, twice the original capacity. The objectives are varied: Focus on further improving the quality of the fuels Broader product range Greater production efficiency through advanced automation Compliance with legislation Desire to become the leading company in Europe Continued innovation LEADER IN QUALITY IN EUROPE VANHEEDE ALTERNATIVE FUELS reflects our efforts to continue building towards a sustainable future. The know how gained, the continuing innovative drive and the investments made in recent years will allow us to continue to grow and serve as a European standard for the production of secondary high-grade fuels. Our personal and transparent communication coupled with the high quality of our fuels saw us gradually grow to be the leader in Europe. SERVICE AS TOP PRIORITY Our personal approach is not only reflected in the close partnerships that we set up with our clients. Our clients are our focus, and as such we serve them according to their needs. Delivering materials at moments that suit our clients continues to be a priority. Fast, high-quality and efficient service is an objective in and of itself. COMPLIANCE WITH LEGISLATION The legislator is steering companies in the direction of a further mode of sorting. VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP also supports this new approach. It will provide a higher quality of new raw materials and allow us to effectively close the cycle. The plant also reflects trend. The high calorific incoming waste flows are further graded and sorted, allowing us, among other things, to grade and sort ferrous and non-ferrous and inert materials using fully automated processes and recycle them further. The final product is processed into pellets and recycled as fuel and raw materials for the cement and limekiln industry by end users. MAJOR EVOLUTION For more than 13 years, VANHEEDE ALTERNATIVE FUELS has been paving the way towards environmental awareness and green energy. By producing alternative fuels from high calorific industrial waste, this division of the VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP has grown into a highly automated site, and every year produces more than 90,000 tonnes of pellets, fluff and granulates: the equivalent of 43 million litres of fuel oil or the total energy requirement of 13,000 households. Sustainability Report 2011 Passion
20 20 Waste Framework directive A European vision: We have known for some time that legislation causes a continuous evolution in the environmental landscape and as such also has a major impact on the recycling sector. Waste is no longer simply collected and deposited in landfills. In fact, wherever possible, we will seek to recover and valorise the raw materials and energy still contained in the waste. The European Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EU seeks to give formal shape to this philosophy and presents an important milestone in European waste policy. The new framework directive places a clear emphasis on the waste processing hierarchy, prevention and reuse being given priority, as a basic principle. Recycling and energy reclamation (such as alternative fuels) will receive precedence over incineration without energy recovery or landfilling. Reduction in use Reuse Recycling Co-incineration Incineration with energy recovery Landfilling with energy recovery Incineration without energy recovery Landfilling without energy recovery Reduction in use Reuse Recycling Co-incineration Incineration with energy recovery Landfilling with energy recovery Incineration without energy recovery Landfilling without energy recovery IMPLEMENTATION OF EUROPEAN WASTE FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE 2008/98/EU Flemish Region: Materials Decree and the Flemish Sustainable Management of Materials Cycles and Waste Regulations ( Vlarema ) were published in the Belgian Bulletin of Acts and Decrees on 28 February and 23 May 2012, respectively. Walloon Region: The decree implementing the Waste Directive was published in the Belgian Bulletin of Acts and Decrees on 29 May A decree amending numerous other decrees was published in the Belgian Bulletin of Acts and Decrees on 4 June Brussels Region: The new Waste Regulations were adopted on 8 June. France: A waste prevention and management decree was published by the French Government in the Official Journal on 12 July 2011, based on a number of provisions stemming from the Waste Framework Directive and the Grenelle 2 Act. VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP s views on the Waste Framework Directive Sustainability Report 2011 Passion
21 21 Flemish government resolutely opts for sustainable materials policy: Vlarema The Flemish government recently passed the draft proposal for a decree Order establishing the Flemish Sustainable Management of Materials Cycles and Waste Regulations. As a consequence, the Vlarema, as it is commonly known, and so the Materials Decree will replace the former Vlarea and the Waste Materials Decree and represents the goal of reusing waste as materials wherever possible. The Vlarema is therefore related to the implementation of the European Waste Framework Directive of NEW MATERIALS With this new legislation, the Flemish Government seeks to maximise the focus on recovering and recycling waste materials and converting them into new materials. Similarly, the former terminology for waste materials has also been adapted in connection with the materials policy. References to a transferrer of waste materials as used in the past have been replaced by collector/ trader/ broker of waste materials. CONCRETELY: What does the Vlarema actually mean for industrial waste? The most important aspect is the obligation for businesses to sort at the source: at least 20 different types of waste must be presented and collected separately. If the different types are not presented/collected separately, the mixed industrial waste is required to be processed on a sorting line in a licensed sorting centre to separate and sort as much as possible of the 20 types of waste. If the separate flows as required are presented separately, the residual waste may be transported to an incinerator. Another very important provision in the Vlarema concerns the obligation for collectors/traders/brokers to furnish producers of the waste materials with information about the waste that must be collected separately waste materials, using a contract that is concluded between the collector/trader/broker on the one hand and the producer on the other, specifying the respective types and their preferred manner of collection. Managing Your Waste/Materials Materials Managing Your Waste Our revised slogan perfectly reflects this evolution in the waste sector. VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENT GROUP guarantees that your waste flows will be processed using sustainable methods and at all times seeks to maximise valorisation. We make new raw materials from your waste! If you have any specific questions concerning this new legislation, please do not hesitate to contact our Commercial Department. We will gladly offer our input and help you further. 20 different waste materials to be presented and collected separately 1 Small hazardous waste of similar commercial origin 2 Used glass 3 Paper and paperboard waste 4 Used animal and vegetable oils and fats 5 Vegetable waste 6 Textiles waste 7 Discarded electrical and electronic devices 8 Used tyres 9 Rubble 10 Used oil 11 Hazardous waste materials 12 Asbestos-containing waste materials 13 Discarded equipment and containers which contain ozone-depleting materials or fluorinated greenhouse gases 14 Used agricultural plastic 15 Discarded batteries 16 Plastic bottles, tins and cans and drinks and food cartons (from 1 July 2013 forward) 17 Wood waste 18 Metal waste 19 PVC plastic tubes and sections 20 Packages of transparent or white plastic film
22 22 Mano Mundo May is the traditional month to kick off the festival season. All the parks, beds, meadows, trees and shrubs have donned their green costumes and invite numerous festival goers to a festivity full of music, dance, enjoyment and spontaneous fun. Mano Mundo, the free-admission world festival that takes place on the splendid provincial estate De Schorre in Boom, wishes to part of this. In this 19th edition, the organisation focuses on climate change as its main theme and as an explicit message. Climate, environment and ecology form are one of the organisation s most important focal points at each edition, in addition to inviting a diverse and colourful public. It is therefore not by chance that VANHEEDE ENVIRONMENTAL LOGISTICS has been selected as a preferred partner to manage the festival s waste policy. In partnership with a regular eco team, 7 types of waste will be collected separately at one centrally located collection site before, during and after the festival. Each year suggestions for improvement are discussed with the organisation. For example, this year can be qualified as a successful test to transform part of the residual waste into a secondary raw material in the form of pellets for use as an alternative fuel source. The festival sector continues to be an important and ever-growing sector. Besides relaxation and enjoyment, the sector is also committed more and more to offering an educational element. Waste policies are an important part of this. How else could we speak of a successful event if everyone looks back with satisfaction and the splendid, green estate is once more neat and tidy and ready for people to enjoy, in no time at all. Sustainability Report 2011 Passion