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1 Final Report (October 2013) Post-Consumer Plastic Waste Management in European Countries EU Countries - PlasticsEurope Av. E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4/3 B-1160 Bruxelles CONSULTIC MARKETING & INDUSTRIEBERATUNG GMBH ROENTGENSTRASSE 4 D ALZENAU

2 2. Results by country 2.19 Netherlands Post-consumer waste by application Netherlands 2012 Applications kt kg/ cap. % Total Mechanical Recycling Feedstock Recycling Energy Recovery Total Landfill Incineration without efw Packaging % Building/Construction % Automotive % Electrical/ Electronics (WEEE) House wares, Leisure, Sports etc. Total Generation % % Agriculture % Others (Furniture etc.) % Total % Recovery in kt Disposal in kt % 34% 0% 60% 6% 6% 0% Recovery Rate: 94% Recycling Rate 34% - Mechanical Recycling 34% - Feedstock Recycling 0% Energy Recovery 60% Disposal Rate: 6% Landfill 6% Netherlands 2012 Applications Total Generation in kt Total Recovery in kt Mechanical Recycling Feed stock Recycling Disposal in kt Energy Total Recovery Landfill Incineration without EfW Packaging Household Packaging Industrial Packaging

3 2. Results by country 2.19 Netherlands Post-consumer waste by application (2012 vs. 2011) Netherlands 2012 Applications in kt r % 2011 Total r % 2011 Mechanical Recycling r % 2011 Feed stock Recycling Total Energy Recovery r % 2011 Total Packaging % % % % % Building/Construction % % % % % Automotive % % 7 0.0% % 7 0.0% Electrical/ Electronics (WEEE) House wares, Leisure, Sports etc. Generation Recovery Disposal % % % % % % % 0 0.0% % % Agriculture % % % % 2 0.0% Others (Furniture etc.) % % 0 0.0% % % Total % % % % % Plastic waste generation is 1.2% higher than 2011, plastic packaging waste grows by 0.6%. Again a stronger growth of collection and recycling of household packaging due to the better implementation of collection systems. Strong growth of mechanical recycling of packaging waste with +5.3%. Stronger growth of input and recycling of WEEE. Small decline of the waste generation in the Building and Construction sector. Other applications remain nearly unchanged. r %

4 2. Results by country 2.19 Netherlands Further information (1/2) Packaging Packaging collection and recycling in the Netherlands has changed in the last years. Since 2009 all municipalities have to collect plastic packaging separately. Some municipalities started in Municipalities can choose the adequate collection scheme (bins, collection bags etc.) or opt for a later sorting. Nedvang (organisation of packaging industries and trade) is organising and monitoring. In 2012 the generation of plastic packaging was about 470 kt. 238 kt have been recycled mechanically. WEEE The NVMP Foundation is the organization that supervises collection and recycling of WEEE products in the Netherlands. The system is financed with a disposal fee charged from purchasers of new E&E equipment. About 139 kt WEEE waste is collected in 2012 (131 kt in 2011), thereof about 20 kt plastic waste is recovered. Only smaller amounts of this plastic material from E&E devices is recycled (7 kt), but energy recovery of mixed plastics grew again. 137

5 2. Results by country 2.19 Netherlands Further information (2/2) Automotive The processing of end of life cars in the Netherlands (laid down in the Management of End-of-Life Vehicles Decree) is financed with a fee of 15 on new registered cars. Over 85% of the ELV cars are processed within the ARN (Auto-Recycling Nederland). The ARN in 2008 started the construction of a PST-Plant, which is operative since In 2012 the number of deregistered cars processed in the Netherlands was ~200,000, which is about the same level as in kt plastics from ELV are recycled, energy recovery grew also. The overall recovery-quote for cars was 96.6% in Other The Netherlands have a Agricultural and horticultural plastic film degree, which was the basis for a collection and recycling system (Stichting Folined) set up by the producers and importers. This originally operating organisation is now transferred into an information platform. Collection and recycling of agricultural film is now organised on a local basis. Building and construction is covered by several recycling organisations for special applications, for example BIS for Pipes, VKG for building panels or Roof-collect for rainproof membranes. 138

6 2. Results by country 2.19 Netherlands Post-consumer waste by waste stream Netherlands 2012 Plastic Waste Streams Generation of Plastic Waste Total Recovery and Disposal in kt kt kg/cap. Recovery % Disposal % Residual household waste % 24 11% Bulky household waste % 4 11% Separate collection by municipalities (non-packaging) % 0 0% Sales packaging waste collected % 0 0% WEEE waste collection % 1 5% Municipal waste generated by commercial activities % 4 5% Commercial & Industrial Waste % 18 9% Commercial packaging waste collected % 0 0% ELV incl. Auto-Shredder Residue % 2 7% Other recycling systems* % 0 0% Total post-consumer plastic waste % 53 6% Due to the implementation of the collecting system for household packaging the amount of plastic packaging in the household waste streams is further on declining. Collection of T&I packaging waste increases in the industrial sectors. Again a relatively high amount of recycling results from the non-packaging sectors. 139

7 2. Results by country 2.19 Netherlands Post-consumer waste by polymer PE-LD PE-HD PP PS EPS PVC PET ABS, ASA, SAN PMMA PA Other Thermoplastics PUR Others Post-consumer plastic waste by polymers Netherlands total: 849 kt Post-consumer plastic waste by polymers - Netherlands 2012 Polymer types in % PE-LD 25.8% PE-HD 10.5% PP 17.3% PS 6.8% EPS 1.6% PVC 9.4% PET 12.4% ABS, ASA, SAN 2.4% PMMA 0.6% PA 1.3% Other Thermoplastics 2.5% PUR 4.1% Others 5.3% Total 100% kt More or less all polymer types with an in-line increase. PET and PP with a slightly higher PE and PS with a lower growth rate. 140

8 4. Summary Europe 253

9 4.1 Conclusion Introduction Key Figures and results 25.2 mill. tons of post-consumer plastic waste have been collected in Europe (EU ) in % have been recovered in total, 26% recycled. This means an increase of 4.0% in total recovery, 4.9% in recycling and 3.3% in energy recovery compared to Total waste Recovery Recycling Energy Recovery Disposal/ Landfill Million tons r % 2012/ % +4.0% +4.9% +3.3% -5.5% 254

10 4.2 Post-Consumer Plastic Waste Treatment - EU 27+2 Countries Plastic Post-Consumer Waste Treatment in Europe 2012 Post-Consumer Waste 25,165 kt (100%) Recovery 15,571 kt (61.9%) Disposal 9,594 kt (38.1%) Recovery Rate: 61.9% (59.6% / 57,7% / 54,3% / 51,3%)*** Recycling Rate 26.3% (25.1% / 24,3% / 22,7% / 21,3%)*** - Mechanical Recycling 26.0% (24.8% / 24,0% / 22,4% / 21,0%)*** Energy recovery 8,948 kt (35.6%) MSWI ~5,814 kt (23.1%) Others* ~ 3,134 kt (12.5%) Recycling 6,623 kt (26.3%) Landfill 9,565 kt (38.0%) Incineration without EfW** ~ 29 kt (0.1%) - Feedstock Recycling 0.3% (0.3% / 0,3% / 0,3% / 0,3%)*** Energy Recovery 35.6% (34.5% / 33,5% / 31,5% / 30,0%)*** Disposal Rate: 38.1% (40.4% / 42,3% / 45,7% / 48,7%)*** Mechanical recycling Feedstock recycling 6,537 kt (26.0%) 86 kt (0.3%) *) e.g. Power plants, Cement kilns, waste derived fuel **) EfW: Energy from Waste ***) figures for 2011 / 2010 / 2009 /

11 4.2 Post-Consumer Plastic Waste Treatment - EU 27+2 Countries Energy Recovery - RDF and MSWI quantities by country Country Total Energy Recovery 2012 (kt) RDF (kt) thereof RDF and MSWI RDF (%) MSWI (kt) MSWI (%) Austria % % Belgium % % Bulgaria % 0 0% Cyprus Czechia % 50 73% Denmark % % Estonia % 4 23% Finland % 56 56% France 1, % 1,047 75% Germany 2,997 1,075 36% 1,922 64% Greece % 0 0% Hungary % 64 92% Ireland % 16 22% Italy % % Latvia % 0 0% Lithuania Luxembourg % 19 87% Malta Netherlands % % Norway % % Poland % 13 5% Portugal % 73 59% Romania % 21 28% Slovakia % 23 45% Slovenia % 0 0% Spain % % Sweden % % Switzerland % % UK % 32 10% Total 8,948 3,133 35% 5,814 65% RDF 3,024 RDF 3,133 RDF & MSWI 2011/2012 (kt) MSWI 5,640 MSWI 5,814 Total: 8,664 Total: 8,948 In total about 35% of energy recovery of plastic waste is coming from RDF. The RDF-quantity rose by ~109 kt from ~3,024 kt to ~3,133 kt or by about 3.6%. Leading countries for the usage of RDF are Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and UK, which cover ~78% of the total RDF usage in the EU

12 4.3 Cluster of recovery rates overall plastic waste Overall Recovery ratio of post-consumer plastic waste in Europe referred to 27 EU countries plus Norway and Switzerland: 61.9% Country Ratio Country Ratio Switzerland 99.8% Germany 99.0% Austria 98.9% Luxembourg 97.7% Belgium 97.0% Denmark 96.6% Sweden 96.0% Netherlands 93.8% Norway 92.3% Finland 62.6% France 62.0% Estonia 59.1% Ireland 56.1% Slovakia 54.4% Italy 51.9% Slovenia 50.7% Czechia 49.9% Portugal 47.8% Spain 45.0% Hungary 41.9% Romania 41.5% Poland 41.4% UK 30.5% Latvia 28.7% Bulgaria 26.1% Greece 25.6% Lithuania 23.8% Cyprus 15.4% Malta 12.4% Total 62.3% 257

13 4.4 Post-consumer plastic waste by application EU countries Total post-consumer plastic waste by application EU Others (Furniture etc.) 3,449 14% Agriculture 1,316 5% House wares, Leisure, Sports etc % WEEE 1,226 5% Automotive 1,235 5% Building/ Construction 1,400 6% Packaging Building/ Construction Automotive WEEE House wares, Leisure, Sports etc. Agriculture Others (Furniture etc.) Packaging 15,663 62% The chart shows the total generation of post-consumer plastic waste by substantial applications for 27 EU countries + Norway and Switzerland. The total volume of available post-consumer waste arising in 2012 was about 25.2 million tons, compared to 25.1 million in In terms of waste generation packaging with a share of ~62 % remains the largest plastics waste fraction in the European countries by far, followed by Building and Construction, Automotive, WEEE and Agriculture with shares between 5-6%. 258

14 4.5 Cluster of recycling rates plastic packaging waste Overall recycling ratio of plastic packaging waste in Europe referred to 27 EU countries plus Norway and Switzerland: ~34.7% Total Europe is accomplishing the target for plastic packaging recycling of 22.5% with 34.7% in 2012 significantly (33.6% in 2011). 28 countries with total recycling rates for packaging waste of >=22.5%. Only Malta has a recycling rate below 22.5% and did not achieve the targets of the packaging directive. 259

15 4.6 Recovery of plastic waste in Europe and impact of landfill ban Countries with landfill ban Switzerland Germany Austria Luxembourg Belgium Denmark Sweden Netherlands Norway Finland France Estonia Ireland Slovakia Italy Slovenia Czechia Portugal Spain Hungary Poland Romania UK Latvia Bulgaria Greece Lithuania Cyprus Malta 17.4% 17.7% 15.4% 12.4% 24.1% 24.2% 24.3% 18.3% 20.0% 28.2% 25.6% 28.6% 23.6% 28.3% 20.7% 30.3% 27.3% 30.8% 30.4% 24.8% 26.2% 22.5% 31.9% 23.9% 23.8% 33.2% 33.8% 33.6% 36.9% 15.4% 12.4% 26.1% 25.6% 23.8% 30.5% 28.7% 45.0% 41.9% 41.5% 41.5% 51.9% 50.7% 49.9% 47.8% 56.1% 54.4% 62.6% 62.0% 59.1% Overall recovery ratio by weight for EU 27+2: 61.9% (referred to Post- Consumer Plastic Waste) 96.6% 96.0% 93.8% 92.3% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 99.8% 99.0% 98.9% 97.7% 97.0% Recycling 9 countries in Europe have a recovery quota of more than 90%. These countries have an absolute or shortened landfill ban. Also 5 of these countries are amongst the 8 countries with the highest recycling rates (>30%). Therefore divert from landfill boosts higher recovery and recycling quantities, also of waste streams, which have not been recovered so far. Energy recovery 260

16 4.7 Development of plastic waste generation and disposal in a long term view Continued decoupling of plastic waste and landfill 30,000 25,000 20,000 Average growth rates per year %/year x tons 15,000 10,000 5, %/year Total post-user plastic waste Disposal Change from EU15+2 to EU27+2 in 2005 Despite an annual growth of 2.3% over the last 15 years for post-consumer waste, the quantity sent to landfill was even going down by about 2.8 million tons from 2006 to The main drivers for this development are national environmental decrees like landfill bans, more capacities (MSWI and refuse derived fuel) for energy recovery and stronger usage of secondary material plastic regranulate for plastic product manufacturing world wide. The growth of post-consumer plastic waste over the last 15 years is the result of several drivers. Plastics continue to substitute alternative materials, economic growth drives greater consumption and smaller households require more packaging per person. But we have also take into consideration that between 2007 and 2012 only a small growth of plastic waste quantities took place due to economic crisis and lower weight of plastic parts. 261

17 4.8 Development of plastic waste and treatment in a long term view Continued growth of recycling and energy recovery RDF supports energy recovery The following graph outlines the growth of both mechanical recycling and energy recovery. Over the last 15 years the average annual growth rate for total recovery has been about 8.6%. Mechanical recycling with an average growth rate of ~9.7% recorded another increase of about 5% in 2012 which is explained by improved and extended collection and better sorting technology, higher demand of recyclates in the European plastics converter industry as well as higher exporting rates of post-consumer plastic waste for recycling purposes into countries outside of Europe (e.g. Asia). Growth in energy recovery in average 8.3% p.a. was 3.3% in One driver of the positive development for energy recovery were again higher quantities of post-consumer plastic waste used in special power plants, cement kilns or as waste derived fuel. In total 3,133 million tonnes were used in Energy recovery in MSWI plants rose by about 174 kt to 5,814 kt. Countries like Germany, France, Spain, Italy, UK, Poland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria covered more than 90% of these quantities. Nevertheless still more investments in energy recovery facilities are needed to divert streams that cannot be eco-efficiently recycled. from landfill. Feedstock recycling is another interesting alternative on a low quantity level with about 86 kt. x tons 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 Average recovery growth per year : ~8.6%/year ~8.3%/year -3.6%/year ~9.7%/year Energy recovery Mechanical recycling Feedstock recycling (Change from EU15+2 in 2004 to EU27 in 2005) 262

18 4.9 Detailed analysis (1): Plastics waste and recovery Total plastics waste and recovery Development CAGR Development 2012 vs Mio. t 25 Mio. t 24,5 24,6 24,9 24,1 24,5 25,1 25,2 Total Waste Generation +0.5% +0.1% 20 Mio. t Recovery +4.9% +4.0% 15 Mio. t 12,9 12,4 12,7 13,1 14,2 15,0 15,6 Recycling +5.8% +4.9% 10 Mio. t 5 Mio. t 0 Mio. t ,7 12,2 12,1 7,0 7,2 7,4 11,0 7,6 8,2 4,7 5,0 5,2 5,5 6,0 10,4 10,2 9,6 8,7 8,9 6,3 6, Energy Recovery Disposal/ Landfill -4.8% -10% 0% 10% +4.1% -5.5% +3.3% -10% 0% 10% In the period the analysis of waste generation shows only a small growth. Besides economical impacts, plastic parts with lower weight (e.g. plastic bottles) play a significant role in that process. After the economical crisis the waste quantity rose by about 1 mill. t during the last 3 years. While disposal quantities decreased by ~3.3 million tons in the last six years, recovery quantities rose by even 3.9 million tons, with same shares by quantity for energy recovery and recycling.

19 4.9 Detailed analysis (2): Plastics packaging waste and recovery Plastics packaging waste and recovery Development CAGR Development 2012 vs Mio. t 15 Mio. t 14,9 15,4 15,6 15,0 15,4 15,6 15,7 Total Waste Generation Recovery +0.9% +5.8% +0.4% +3.3% 10 Mio. t 7,7 8,6 9,1 9,3 10,1 10,5 10,8 Recycling +5.6% +3.5% 5 Mio. t 0 Mio. t 7,2 3,9 3,8 6,8 6,5 5,7 4,3 4,6 4,7 4,3 4,5 4,6 5,2 5,2 5,2 5,4 5,4 5,1 5,1 4, Energy Recovery Disposal/ Landfill -6.5% +6.0% -10% 0% 10% -5.9% +3.0% -10% 0% 10% Plastic packaging waste generation rose by ~1% p.a. in the last six years. About 35% of packaging waste was recycled respectively energy recovered and 30% still put to landfill. 264

20 4.10 Highlights of 2012 and perspectives for 2013 Post-consumer plastic waste collected in Europe was ~25.2 mill. t in Hereby plastics waste generation in Europe was more or less stapled compared to The development itself was different among the European countries due to differing economical situations. Positive signals are coming from recovery activities. Total recovery rose by 4.0%, while recycling increased by 4.9% and energy recovery by 3.3%. Disposal quantities were going down even by 5.5%. The situation in 2012 shows again the general sustainable positive development of recycling and energy recovery in European countries. The strategy divert plastic waste from landfill can be successful, even if it is a long run. The development over the last six years shows a significant drop in landfilling and a strong growth in recovery and recycling. Nevertheless a landfill rate of still about 38% in 2012 shows the necessity for further efforts in recycling and energy recovery to make landfilling an exception. A zero landfill situation in 2020 is still in a distant prospect. Recycling is still driven by plastics packaging with almost 5.4 million tons or 82%, building/construction and agriculture account meanwhile for ~650,000 tons of recycling quantities in total. The increase delivers an additional 300 kt of input material for recycling. 265

21 4.10 Highlights of 2012 and perspectives for 2013 Not all of these quantities were recycled in the European countries - a substantial quantity was exported again outside of Europe (e.g. Asia) for recycling purposes. Only Malta did not achieve the target of the packaging directive for plastic packaging recycling of 22.5%. (2010 still 4, and countries). The average packaging recycling rate reached meanwhile 34.7%. Growth in energy recovery was 3.3% in One driver of the positive development for energy recovery were again higher quantities of post-consumer plastic waste used in special power plants, cement kilns or as waste derived fuel. In total about 3.1 million tonnes were used in Energy recovery in MSWI plants rose by about 174 kt to 5814 kt. Also a positive signal is the lower disposal quantity in the 27+2 countries. Despite a small increase of almost 35 kt of plastic waste, the total disposal amount decreased by about 560 kt, which is a significant increase compared to 2011 (220kt). Further efforts have to be made to reduce the landfill quantities. 266

22 4.10 Highlights of 2012 and perspectives for 2013 Perspectives for 2013 Assumed a constant until a slight negative development of the economical situation in 2013 we expect only a small increase for the plastic waste generation by ~0.5%. The positive development for more recovery and recycling will continue, but there is a question mark how fast the landfill quantities will drop down in the future. To implement landfill bans is one of the options. Interesting will be the impact of expected lower plastic waste exports for recycling purposes to China for the European recycling market. Still growing integration of population into (packaging) waste collection systems and growing environmental awareness will also contribute to higher collection and recycling quantities as well. Besides packaging recycling also construction and agriculture applications will contribute to higher recycling figures. While construction is strongly driven through the European wide system Recovinyl (PVC-recycling of construction applications), the success of agriculture recycling is also based on local/regional activities 267

23 4.10 Highlights of 2012 and perspectives for 2013 Perspectives for 2013 Due to higher energy prices, the development of using post-consumer plastic waste as an alternative fuel will also continue and will reach between 3.4 and 3.5 million tons for Due to very competitive prices of MSWI plants and some problems in existing RDF facilities increase rates could be lower than in the past e.g. in countries like Germany. On the long run besides stronger recycling activities also energy recovery capacities have to be significantly enlarged on a European basis to avoid land filling in the future. 268

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