1 After the Fld What t d next.. Livingstn Cunty Extensin Office 306 Wilsn Avenue P.O. Bx 189 Smithland, KY Fr mre infrmatin call r fr Ledbetter and Grand Rivers residents.
2 Resurces Available in Livingstn Cunty Fr mre infrmatin n: Cleaning up after the fld: Livingstn Cunty Extensin Office Livingstn Cunty Health Department Fd and Clthing Distributin: Livingstn Cunty Helping Hands Pennyrile Allied Cmmunity Services Salem Baptist Clthes Clset Well Disinfectin Kits: Livingstn Cunty Health Department Shelter: Tri Cunty Shelter, 1526 Park Avenue, Paducah Paducah Chapter f the American Red Crss (serving Ballard, Livingstn and McCracken Cunties), 232 N. 8 th St. & Mnre in dwntwn Paducah), Paducah, KY Disaster Assistance (FEMA) TDD Creating A Healthy Hme; A Field Guide fr Clean-up f Flded Hmes available upn request frm the Livingstn Cunty Extensin Office: References: Center fr Disease Cntrl..www.bt.cdc.gv FEMA..www.fema.gv extensin...www.extensin.rg University f Kentucky, Cllege f Ag..www.ca.uky.edu LSU Ag Center..www.lsuagcenter.cm Energy and Envirnment Cabinet, Dept. fr Envirnmental Prtectin.www.water.ky.gv American Red Crss.www.redcrss.rg Nrth Dakta State University, Extensin Center fr Healthy Husing. Alabama Cperative Extensin System...www.aces.edu/dept/edres/flds/#kids University f Minnesta Extensin...http://septic.umn.edu UK Healthcare
3 Table f Cntents Flded Feelings A Fld f Emtins Helping Children Cpe after a Disaster After a Fld After a Fld First Entry f a Flded Hme Precautins First Entry f a Flded Hme What t d: Dcument and Prtect Prtect Yurself and Others Frm Electrical Hazards After a Disaster Cleaning Up After a Fld- Setting Pririties Salvaging After Flding Cleaning Fld Siled Pillws and Mattresses Cleaning Fld-Siled Blankets, Quilts, Cmfrters, Linens Cleaning Fld Siled Clthing Fd, Water & Other Husehld Gds What D I need t d t keep fd safe after a fld? Flded Fd Recvery What shuld yu d with fd, csmetics, and medicines that have cme in cntact with fld waters? Yur Hme After a Fld Checking Fld-Damaged Buildings Restring Flded Water Systems Cleaning Fld-damaged Hmes Disinfecting Wells Cntrlling Rdents after Flds Septic Systems: After the Fld Cleaning and Repairing Flded Basements Finding and Repairing Leaks in Rfs Cntrlling Insects after Flds Dispsing f Animal Carcasses Mld Remval Guidelines fr Yur Flded Hme Agricultural Buildings & Landscapes Special Cnsideratins fr Agricultural Prducers Returning t a Farm after a Fld Salvaging Fld-damaged Agricultural Buildings Managing Flded Grain Bins Recvering the Flded Landscape Evaluating Fld Damage in Crn All this rain Hrses Emergency Streambank Restratin/Stabilizatin Insurance & Scams Flds: Making Claims Flds: Aviding Scams
4 Flded Feelings
7 Fr residents f Ballard, Callway, Carlisle, Fultn, Graves, Hickman, Livingstn, Marshall, and McCracken Cunties, Fur Rivers Behaviral Health Crisis Line phne number is
8 HELPING CHILDREN COPE AFTER A DISASTER Children may require special attentin after experiencing a disaster. Fur cmmn fears children have are death, darkness, animals and abandnment. In a disaster children may experience any r all f these. Yu shuld encurage children t talk abut what they are feeling and t express this thrugh play, drawing r painting. A child's reactin t a disaster may vary depending n age, maturity and previus experience. In all cases it is imprtant t acknwledge what happened and take time t talk with children abut their fears. Sme behavirs yu may find children exhibiting after a disaster include: Being upset at the lss f a favrite ty, blanket, teddy bear, etc. Hitting, thrwing r kicking t shw their anger and frustratin. Fear f the disaster cming again. Fear f being left alne r sleeping alne. They may want t sleep with anther persn. Behaving as they did when they were yunger, including wetting the bed, sucking their thumb, wanting t be held, etc. Exhibiting symptms f illness such as nausea, fever, headaches, nt wanting t eat, etc. Becming quiet and withdrawn. Becming easily upset. Feeling that they caused the disaster in sme way. Feeling neglected by parents wh are busy cleaning up r rebuilding. Refusing t g t schl r t be ut f the parent's sight. Parents and ther adults can help children cme t terms with their feelings in several ways. Let children knw yu lve them and they can cunt n yu. Reassure them that they are nt respnsible fr what ccurred. Talk with yur children abut yur wn feelings. Give simple, accurate answers t children's questins. Hld them. Clse cntact assures children yu are there fr them and will nt abandn them. Let children grieve fr a lst ty r blanket that was special t them. It will help them cpe with their feelings. Prvide play experiences t relieve stress. Repeat assurances and infrmatin as ften as yu need t; d nt stp respnding. Spend extra time putting children t bed at night. Listen t what children say. Repeat their wrds t clarify what they are feeling. If additinal help is needed fr adults r children, cntact a cmmunity resurce such as a cunseling center, minister r mental health agency. Prvided by Alabama Cperative Extensin System;
9 After a Fld
10 After a Fld The fllwing are guidelines fr the perid fllwing a fld: Listen fr news reprts t learn whether the cmmunity s water supply is safe t drink. Avid fldwaters; water may be cntaminated by il, gasline, r raw sewage. Water may als be electrically charged frm undergrund r dwned pwer lines. Avid mving water. Be aware f areas where fldwaters have receded. Rads may have weakened and culd cllapse under the weight f a car. Stay away frm dwned pwer lines, and reprt them t the pwer cmpany. Return hme nly when authrities indicate it is safe. Stay ut f any building if it is surrunded by fldwaters. Use extreme cautin when entering buildings; there may be hidden damage, particularly in fundatins. Service damaged septic tanks, cesspls, pits, and leaching systems as sn as pssible. Damaged sewage systems are serius health hazards. Clean and disinfect everything that gt wet. Mud left frm fldwater can cntain sewage and chemicals. Prvided by FEMA;
11 Flds: First Entry f a Flded Hme - Precautins Structural Integrity When first returning t a flded hme, yu may face many threats t life and health. The first and mst bvius issue: is the building structurally sund? Only a structural engineer r ther building fficial can answer this with any certainty, but sme warning signs include: Is the building shifted ff its fundatin? Is the fundatin itself damaged? Is the building racking n lnger square, but leaning t ne side? Is the building partly destryed missing a wall, fr example, r partially crushed? Is the rfline ut f psitin? If any f these are true, then the building may cllapse at any time. It must nt be entered unless a qualified fficial has declared it safe. Dn t take any chances! Is the basement flded? If s, then make sure grund water has receded befre pumping it ut. Basements that are pumped ut while the grund is still saked may cllapse as the utside water pressure is n lnger balanced by pressure inside the basement. Site Hazards Beware f debris piles: They may shift r cllapse at any time. They may harbr rdents, snakes r ther vermin. Beware f walking thrugh flded areas; there may be hles r drpffs that yu can t see. Other Hazards Electrical hazards: Is the electricity turned ff? D yu knw this fr certain? If yu are nt certain: D nt enter the basement if it is flded. D nt tuch any electrical devices especially if yu are standing in water r in cntact with the earth. Cmbustible r explsive gases: When flding is severe, gas lines are ften brken if the building has shifted r if majr appliances have mved abut. Open all windws when first entering a building. If yu smell gas r hear it escaping: Dn t smke r light matches.
12 Dn t use cell phnes r regular phnes. Dn t perate any electrical switches, which may spark. Dn't create any ther surce f ignitin. Exit the building immediately, leaving drs and windws pen. D ntify emergency authrities. Carbn mnxide: Carbn mnxide (CO) is a clrless, drless gas that is prduced when any fuel is burned. High cncentratins can kill! When cming back t a huse that is wet, cld and withut heat r pwer, it is tempting t use an electric generatr, r an imprvised heater, such as a BBQ r camp stve. D nt perate these devices indrs. (Opening windws is nt sufficient t prevent CO buildup.) Make sure gaspwered electric generatrs are utdrs (r, if indrs, prperly vented) and away frm windws r ther air intakes. Fuel-fired, unvented space heaters can be used if manufacturers' directins are carefully fllwed. Nte that these devices prduce large amunts f misture as fuel is burned, s their drying ability is quite limited. D check chimneys and flues fr blckage by debris befre using furnaces, ht water heaters, wd stves, etc. Mld: Mld and ther rganisms, such as bacteria and viruses that thrive in wet envirnments can trigger negative health effects. These range frm irritatin, cughing and headache t asthma attacks and pssibly life-threatening infectins. Here are a few f the mst imprtant things that yu shuld knw abut mld: There is an assciatin between expsure t mld spres and debris frm mld cells and health prblems. Mld that is killed can still cause health prblems; killing mld, with bleach fr example, des nt make it harmless. Sme peple are especially sensitive t mld, and react strngly t levels that dn t bther thers. There are likely t be large amunts f mld in the air after a fld, bth inside and utside. Disturbing dry mldy materials can release large amunts f spres and debris int the air. Cmmn dust masks d nt give needed prtectin against mld. The minimum needed is a mask with an N 95 designatin. Strnger prtectin - N 100 masks r txic particle respiratrs alng with gggles and ther prtective gear - will be needed fr high levels f mld expsure. Prvided by extensin;
13 Flds: First Entry f a Flded Hme - What t d: Dcument and Prtect Befre yu try t enter r fix things in a flded huse, first take a lk at Precautins n First Entry fr sme imprtant safeguards. Be safe. Be aware f the many hazards in and arund a damaged building. There are tw things that need t be dne as yu start repairing damage frm a fld: 1) Make a recrd f damage and lsses. 2) T the extent that yu are able, prevent further damage t the building. If yu are nt sure hw t d any f these things, ask. In mst cmmunities, shrtly after a fld r similar disaster, there are lts f experts wh have helpful infrmatin arriving t the area t assist residents. MAKING A RECORD OF LOSSES AND DAMAGE: Take phts. D this inside and ut. Yu can t have t many pictures. Pictures shuld shw any structural damage t the building and furnishings, and any items f particular value. Recrd the serial numbers f any appliances r equipment that is thrwn ut. This infrmatin is valuable fr filing insurance claims and fr dcumenting lsses fr ther purpses, such as tax deductins. Insurance after natural disasters such as flding is a cmplicated, difficult and ften frustrating issue, and is dealt with in mre detail in the sectin n risk management r elsewhere (see, fr example, the Luisiana State University Strm Recvery Guide, Chapter 6). One imprtant pint t remember is that the insurance cmpany will try t settle a claim fr as little mney as pssible, and their adjusters wrk twards that gal. Fr this reasn, cnsider hiring yur wn adjuster t deal with the insurance cmpany. Yu can find independent adjusters listed in the Yellw Pages. Lk under "Adjusters." These individuals are skilled at negtiating with insurers, and their fee is usually based n a percentage f the recvery that is received frm the cmpany. PREVENT FURTHER DAMAGE: Remve fldwaters, mud and silt. Open drs t allw water t exit. Arrange t have basement pumped ut. Only d this when yu are certain that the earth arund the building is n lnger saturated! Otherwise, water pressure may cllapse basement walls as the basement is drained. If water is running frm brken pipes, shut ff the water supply t the huse. Usually, there is a valve at the meter. If yu cannt find this, cntact the water cmpany.
14 Allw the building t dry ut. This can reduce r prevent mld grwth, but must be dne quickly, usually in 48 hurs r less. Open drs and windws, and pen up wall cavities if walls have gtten wet. Remember that these measures will nly be effective if utside humidity is lw. In high misture cnditins, a heat surce r sme srt f mechanical drying equipment will be needed. Remve mud and silt. Be sure t use persnal prtectin against mld and ther harmful pllutants. This is especially imprtant if mld has dried ut, and als very imprtant if fldwaters are cntaminated. Yu may als need t secure the building frm lters when yu are nt present. Drs and windws shuld be lcked, r secured with plywd, if pssible. Prtable valuables shuld be remved t a secure lcatin. Prevent further water damage. If the rf r walls have been damaged, temprary r permanent repairs shuld be arranged as sn as pssible. Salvage valuable items first. These include such things as cash, jewelry, imprtant dcuments and family treasures. Clean ff the mud and allw items t dry. If items like phts and bks cannt be immediately dried, clean ff the mud, place in plastic bags and find a friend with an perating freezer. These items can be frzen and dried later. Discard items that cannt be salvaged. The general rule is that hard materials and building cmpnents that are nt damaged by water can be dried ut and salvaged, althugh if mld is invlved, cleaning may require mre labr than the item is wrth. Since fld waters are cnsidered t be cntaminated, generally absrbent materials shuld be discarded. Rugs r ther items that can be laundered r thrughly cleaned may be salvaged. Unless absrbent materials can be dried ut within 48 hurs (lnger if temperatures are cl r sner if temperatures are warm), mld grwth may make cleaning impssible. Heirlms and items f special value can be saved by the use f specific treatments and prcedures, if available. Cntact lcal r area museums r search the Web sites prvided belw. Paper recrds can be spread ut and air-dried, preferably n bltting paper. Papers that can t be dried in 48 hurs can be put in a freezer until it is pssible t dry them. While it may be pssible t salvage husehld appliances, heaters, etc., it can be very difficult t dry and remve mud and silt frm their inner wrkings s these are ften discarded. This is especially true fr saltwater flding. Service damaged septic tanks, cesspls, pits and leaching systems as sn as pssible. These can be serius health hazards. TAKE CARE OF YOURSELF Flding and ther disasters are highly stressful fr all invlved. Keep the family tgether fr mutual supprt. Discuss prblems with thers - friends and neighbrs can ffer mutual supprt, t. Rest ften and eat well. Set manageable gals. Take care f, and cmfrt, yur kids. If prblems seem verwhelming, seek prfessinal help. Such feelings are cmmn after disasters, and talking t a prfessinal can help a lt. Prvided by extensin;
15 Prtect Yurself and Others Frm Electrical Hazards After a Disaster After a hurricane, fld r ther natural disaster yu need t be careful t avid electrical hazards bth in yur hme and elsewhere. Never tuch a fallen pwer line. Call the pwer cmpany t reprt fallen pwer lines. Avid cntact with verhead pwer lines during cleanup and ther activities. D nt drive thrugh standing water if dwned pwer lines are in the water. If a pwer line falls acrss yur car while yu are driving, stay inside the vehicle and cntinue t drive away frm the line. If the engine stalls, d nt turn ff the ignitin. Warn peple nt t tuch the car r the line. Call r ask smene t call the lcal utility cmpany and emergency services. D nt allw anyne ther than emergency persnnel t apprach yur vehicle. If electrical circuits and electrical equipment have gtten wet r are in r near water, turn ff the pwer at the main breaker r fuse n the service panel. D nt enter standing water t access the main pwer switch. Call an electrician t turn it ff. Never turn pwer n r ff yurself r use an electric tl r appliance while standing in water. D nt turn the pwer back n until electrical equipment has been inspected by a qualified electrician. All electrical equipment and appliances must be cmpletely dry befre returning them t service. Have a certified electrician check these items if there is any questin. If yu see frayed wiring r sparks when yu restre pwer, r if there is an dr f smething burning but n visible fire, yu shuld immediately shut ff the electrical system at the main circuit breaker. Cnsult yur utility cmpany abut using electrical equipment, including pwer generatrs. D nt cnnect generatrs t yur hme's electrical circuits withut the apprved, autmatic-interrupt devices. If a generatr is n line when electrical service is restred, it can becme a majr fire hazard and it may endanger line wrkers helping t restre pwer in yur area. If yu believe smene has been electrcuted take the fllwing steps: 1. Lk first. Dn't tuch. The persn may still be in cntact with the electrical surce. Tuching the persn may pass the current thrugh yu. 2. Call r have smene else call 911 r emergency medical help. 3. Turn ff the surce f electricity if pssible. If nt, mve the surce away frm yu and the affected persn using a nncnducting bject made f cardbard, plastic r wd. 4. Once the persn is free f the surce f electricity, check the persn's breathing and pulse. If either has stpped r seems dangerusly slw r shallw, begin cardipulmnary resuscitatin (CPR) immediately. 5. If the persn is faint r pale r shws ther signs f shck, lay him r her dwn with the head slightly lwer than the trunk f the bdy and the legs elevated. 6. Dn't tuch burns, break blisters, r remve burned clthing. Electrical shck may cause burns inside the bdy, s be sure the persn is taken t a dctr. Prvided by the CDC (Center fr Disease Cntrl);
16 CLEANING UP AFTER A FLOOD SETTING PRIORITIES Pririties will vary with the kind and seriusness f damage. Buildings may nt be habitable during repair. Examine building structure. Check fundatins fr settling, cracking r undermining. Examine walls, flrs, drs and windws t determine what repairs are necessary. Yu may want t repair nly temprarily until extensive wrk can be dne. If basement is flded, start pumping the water in stages. Pump abut ne-third f the water each day. Get the electrical system in peratin. If the switch bx is in a flded basement, d nt turn electricity back n until water has been pumped ut. Take electrical appliances t a serviceman as sn as pssible. Get the water system in peratin. Disinfect wells and water system. Shvel ut mud and silt befre it dries. Befre they dry, wash dwn flded walls and flrs with a hse. Start at upper limit f flding and wrk dwnward. Scrub and disinfect walls and flrs. Start the heating system if pssible t speed up drying. Befre perating it, the heating system may need t be cleaned, dried and recnditined. Make sure chimneys are clean befre starting system. Dry ut walls and flrs. If necessary fr prper drying, strip walls pen up t water level. Drill hles in exterir siding. Cmplete drying may take mnths. Repair buckled walls and flrs. Clean and dry husehld items, furniture, carpets, clthing, dishes and bedding. Disinfect when necessary. Treat items fr mildew as needed. Care fr damaged trees, shrubs and lawn. Repaint, repair, refinish as necessary. Prvided by Alabama Cperative Extensin System;
17 Salvaging After Flding Absrbent Materials; Belngings Fldwater is cnsidered t be cntaminated with bilgical and chemical cntaminants. As a general rule, sft absrbent materials must be dried ut within 48 hurs (this perid may extend t 72 hurs in cler cnditins and may be shrtened in warmer temperatures.) This has t d with mld grwth. Mld cells reprduce quickly, ften dubling in a matter f hurs. This prcess ges faster when temperatures are warmer. Carpet: Since fld water is cntaminated, salvaging flded carpet invlves mre than drying. Carpeting can smetimes be saved if it can be cleaned by a prfessinal. Mattresses: It is unlikely that mattresses can be adequately dried. Uphlstered furniture: It is unlikely that uphlstery can be adequately cleaned and dried sn enugh. It may be pssible t salvage the frame and re-uphlster the piece, but first decide if the piece is wrth salvaging. Wd furniture: Slid wd furniture can ften be saved if it is nt severely damaged. It may be necessary t disassemble and re-glue. Refinishing may als be necessary. Cleaning and drying are essential first steps. Further repairs can be dne at a later time. Veneered furniture repairs invlve cnsiderable time and skill and are best left t prfessinals unless damage is slight. Replacement may be the better chice unless the piece has special mnetary r sentimental value. Hard, Nn-Absrbent Gds These can usually be cleaned, dried, and salvaged. General Rules - Electrical Appliances: 1) Be extremely cautius! Plugging in an appliance that has nt cmpletely dried can deliver a fatal shck. Opening up sme appliances, such as TV sets, can pse a shck hazard even when the device is nt plugged in. 2) Unplug the appliance befre wrking n it; make sure that pwer t the huse is ff befre unplugging r tuching the appliance. Befre pwer is turned back n, unplug all appliances that have gtten wet. Flding can cause shrt circuits that can later deliver a fatal shck. 3) Appliances that have been submerged generally cannt be salvaged. It may be pssible t repair thse that have gtten wet by rainwater but were nt flded. 4) Small appliances - r lder, large appliances -- are generally nt wrth salvaging.
18 5) Electrnic appliances - TV sets, audi equipment, media players and s n -- generally cannt be salvaged. Restratin f an appliance invlves tw basic steps: cleaning and drying the device itself and cleaning and drying the mtr, switches and cntrls. Cleaning and drying will be cmplicated if fibrus insulatin (such as fiberglass, fund in sme stves, refrigeratrs, etc.) has gtten wet. Mtrs and ther cmpnents will need t be disassembled. All repaired appliances must be tested by a qualified individual befre being put back int service. Prvided by extensin; CLEANING FLOOD-SOILED PILLOWS AND MATTRESSES Mattresses 1. A gd innerspring mattress shuld be sent t a cmmercial renvating cmpany. Renvatin is t difficult t d at hme. Ask abut the cst f the wrk. It may be less expensive t buy a gd recnditined r new mattress. 2. If a mattress must be used temprarily, scrape ff surface dirt and expse mattress t sunlight t dry as much as pssible. Cver mattress with a rubber r plastic sheet r mattress cver befre using it. 3. If yu decide t keep a fld-siled mattress, it shuld be sterilized. This must be dne at a sterilizing plant such as a mattress cmpany r a state hspital. Ask yur lcal public health department r cunty Extensin agent fr infrmatin n mattress sterilizing plants in yur area. Have mattresses as dry as pssible befre taking them t a sterilizing plant. Use crp drying fans r husehld fans t speed up the drying prcess. Feather Pillws 1. Fr feather pillws, if ticking is in gd cnditin and des nt cntain red r yellw stains, wash feather and ticking tgether. Brush ff surface dirt. Wash in machine r by hand in warm (nt ht) suds 15 t 20 minutes. Use a disinfectant, fllwing prduct directins fr use. If using an autmatic washer, wash n mre than tw pillws at ne time. If washing by hand, rinse at least three times in clear warm water. Spin ff water r squeeze ut as much water as pssible. D nt put pillws thrugh a wringer. Dry in an autmatic dryer at mderate heat setting. Put several bath twels in the dryer with the pillw t speed up drying. Allw abut 2 hurs. Or dry pillws in a warm rm n a sweater drying rack with a fan n them. Shake and turn pillws ccasinally t fluff feathers and hasten drying. Or hang pillws n a clthesline by tw crners. Change psitin end t end and shake ccasinally t fluff feathers and speed drying. 2. If ticking is nt in gd cnditin r is stained with red r yellw mud, wash feathers and ticking separately. Find r make a bag f light weight, firmly wven fabric such as muslin. The bag shuld be tw t three times larger than the ticking. Open ne edge f the ticking. Pin the pen edges f the ticking and the bag tgether. Shake feathers frm ticking int bag. Sew seam in bag t clse it. Wash and dry the bag f feathers, fllwing directins fr washing feathers and ticking tgether. Wash the ticking, using a disinfectant in the first wash. Fllw prduct directins fr use. Repeat washing until
19 stains have been remved. Difficult red and yellw stains may need t be bleached r treated with rust remver. 3. Avid drying the ticking with heat until all stains have been remved. Transfer clean feathers t clean ticking, using the same methd as fr emptying the ticking. Sew seam in ticking t clse it. Feathers will slide int the ticking mre easily if ticking has been starched and irned. 4. If pillws have been badly saked with fld water, it may nt be pssible t remve all bjectinable drs. Plyester Fiberfill Pillws 1. Brush ff surface dirt. 2. Wash in machine n gentle cycle r by hand in warm (nt ht) suds, using a disinfectant. Fllw prduct directins fr use. If washing by hand, flush water thrugh the pillw by cmpressing it. D nt wring r twist. Repeat if all stains are nt remved. 3. If washing by hand, rinse three times in clear, warm water. 4. Spin ff water r press ut as much water as pssible by hand. 5. Fllw directins fr drying given fr feather pillws. Fam Rubber r Urethane Pillws 1. Brush ff surface dirt. 2. Fllw manufacturer's directins if available. Otherwise, wash in machine n gentle cycle r by hand in warm (nt ht) suds, using a disinfectant. Fllw prduct directins fr use. If washing by hand, use a bathtub r large sink. Wash by pushing dwn n the pillw, releasing and pushing dwn again. Rinse the same way. D nt wring r twist. 3. Rinse well with lukewarm water. 4. Gently squeeze r spin ut excess water. Blt with twels. 5. Dry away frm heat r sunlight. Pillws may be tumbled in an autmatic dryer n "air nly" setting. D nt use heat. Or air dry n a flat surface, turning regularly. Pillws may dry very slwly in the air. Prvided by Alabama Extensin System;
20 CLEANING FLOOD-SOILED BLANKETS, QUILTS, COMFORTERS, LINENS Wash nly ne blanket, quilt r cmfrter at a time. Shake and brush t remve surface dirt. Fllw manufacturer's laundering directins if available. Otherwise fllw the directins belw. Wl Blankets, Quilts and Cmfrters 1. Sak fr 15 t 20 minutes in lukewarm water. Use a bathtub r large sink. Turn tw r three times during sak perid. Drain ff water. Several sak perids may be needed if the blanket is very siled. 2. Wash in lukewarm water with mild detergent and disinfectant apprpriate fr fiber cntent. Fllw prduct directins fr use. Immerse blanket and wrk suds thrugh gently, using as little agitatin as pssible. If necessary, repeat washing prcedure. Rinse in clear water three r fur times. Gently squeeze ut water. Hang blanket ver tw r mre cltheslines. Let blanket drp between lines t distribute weight evenly. Or use autmatic dryer set n lw heat r air nly. Remve blanket frm dryer while it is still damp and hang ver cltheslines t finish drying. Gently stretch blanket int shape as it dries. Brush blanket n bth sides t raise nap. Steam press binding, using a synthetic setting. Quilts and cmfrters d nt need brushing r pressing. Cttn and Synthetic Blankets (Nt Electric) 1. Machine wash n gentle cycle in warm (nt ht) water with detergent and disinfectant. Fllw prduct directins fr use. Repeat if necessary. Use bleach r rust remver t remve red r yellw stains. Test befre use because sme bleaches and rust remvers may remve r change the clrs. 2. Dry in autmatic dryer n mderate heat. Add several twels t speed drying. Or air dry n a clthesline. 3. Press binding if needed. Electric Blankets 1. Avid twisting, crimping and wringing the wiring. 2. Machine wash n gentle in warm (nt ht) water n mre than 5 minutes. Disslve detergent in wash water befre putting blanket in machine. Disinfect, fllwing prduct directins. D nt use chlrine bleach as the disinfectant. Evenly distribute the blanket in the machine. Use cld rinse. D nt put blanket thrugh a wringer. 3. Machine dry by preheating dryer at a mderate r warm setting. Add the blanket and allw it t tumble fr ten minutes. Remve blanket while still damp and hang ver tw r
21 mre cltheslines t finish drying. Straighten and shape blanket as it dries. 4. If washing by hand, fllw directins fr wl blankets. Electric mattress pad and ftwarmer pads may be washed like electric blankets. Sheets, Twels, Linens 1. Brush and shake ff as much lse dirt as pssible. 2. Sak r rinse mud-stained fabric in cl water in washing machine t remve sme f the sil. 3. Wash in warm suds and disinfectant several times if necessary. Fllw prduct label directins fr use. D nt use ht water r dry with heat until all stains have been remved. 4. If stains remain after several washings, bleach with sdium perbrate r chlrine bleach. Rust remver may remve red r yellw stains. Test these use because they may remve r change clrs. Prvided by Alabama Extensin System;
26 Fd, water & ther husehld gds
27 What d I need t d t keep fd safe after a fld? When in dubt, thrw it ut" is gd advice when dealing with fd that has been expsed t fldwater. Fldwater may carry silt, raw sewage, il, r chemical waste that makes waterdamaged fds unsafe t eat. If fldwater has cvered, dripped n, r seeped int a package f fd, discard it. Cnsider these additinal tips fr fd safety after a fld. Fds * Discard a fd item that is mldy r has an unusual lk r dr. Keep in mind, hwever, that clr and dr are nt always sure ways t test a fd s safety. Sme fds may lk and smell fine, but if they have been warm t lng, they may cntain fd pisning bacteria in quantities that can cause illness. Never taste fd t determine its safety. * Frzen fds that have partially thawed but are still partly cated with ice crystals may be safely refrzen. Mst previusly frzen fds may be cked and eaten immediately after thawing if their temperatures haven't exceeded 40 F fr mre than tw hurs. The fds als can be refrzen after cking. * Canned fd that is neither dented nr rusted can be saved if handled crrectly befre pening. Fr added safety, bil the canned fd at least 10 minutes befre cnsuming it. * Take care t wash and sanitize undamaged cntainers befre pening. T disinfect the cans, remve paper labels and wash the cntainers with a strng detergent slutin, brushing t remve dirt and silt. This is imprtant because paper can harbr bacteria. After rinsing is cmpleted, re-label the cans with a permanent marker. * Thrugh remval f dirt and silt is especially imprtant because they can undermine the next step applicatin f a chlrine slutin. Immerse clean, rinsed cans in a lukewarm (75 t 120 F) chlrine slutin fr tw minutes. The slutin shuld be cmpsed f tw tablespns f 5 percent chlrine bleach per galln f water. A wrd f cautin: Chlrine lses its effectiveness when it is in a slutin and pen t air r when it cmes in cntact with unclean materials. As a result, the slutin shuld be changed frequently. Wear rubber glves fr prtectin during the disinfectin prcess, as strng detergent and bleach slutins can damage bare hands. After expsure t this slutin, the cans shuld be air-dried befre pening r strage. Because f their susceptibility t rust, disinfected cans shuld be used as sn as pssible.
28 Dishes and Utensils * Dishes and utensils shuld be washed in and brushed with ht, sapy water t remve dirt. The same slutin used with undamaged cans shuld be used t sanitize glass, ceramic, and china dishes; glass baby bttles; and empty canning jars. * Dishes with deep cracks shuld be thrwn away. * Metal pans and utensils can be disinfected by biling fr 10 minutes. * Irn kitchen utensils will be prne t rust, thugh this can be remved thrugh scuring with steel wl. Fllw this with disinfectin with a bleach slutin and with re-seasning using a light cat f unsalted fat r il. The utensils shuld then be placed in a 350 F ven fr apprximately an hur. Fd pisning can be serius and even deadly. This is the reasn why prper handling is essential in cases where kitchen appliances, fds, and utensils have been expsed t fldwater. If yu are unable t clean and disinfect canned items, utensils, and dishes, it's best t thrw them away. If yu have questins r cncerns abut fd safety issues, cntact yur lcal Cperative Extensin ffice. Prvided by extensin; What shuld yu d with fd, csmetics, and medicines that have cme in cntact with fld waters? If they have been expsed directly t fld water, the general guideline is "if in dubt thrw them ut". This is because the items have ptentially been expsed t cntaminated water and shuld nt be used. Sme fd in sealed cntainers can be salvaged fllwing the guidelines prvided in the questin referenced as a supplement t this questin. Prvided by extensin; FLOODED FOOD RECOVERY Fld waters may carry cntaminants such as silt, raw sewage r chemical waste. Disease bacteria in the water als can cntaminate any fd it tuches. If yu have experienced fld cnditins, fllw these guidelines: Save undamaged cmmercially canned fds (except as nted later). D nt use hme-canned fds that have been cvered with fld water. Cmmercial glass jars f fd are safe if the cntainers are sanitized (except as nted later). Remve the labels frm jars and cans and mark the cntents n can r jar lid with indelible ink.
29 T sanitize jars, cans, dishes and glassware, wash in a strng detergent slutin with a scrub brush. After washing, immerse them in a slutin f 2 teaspns chlrine bleach per galln f rm temperature water. Air dry befre using. If needed, clean empty glass als may be sanitized by biling in water fr 10 minutes. T sanitize metal pans and utensils, bil in water fr 10 minutes. Discard wden and plastic utensils, baby nipples, pacifiers and any ther prus nnfd items that are used with fd. Discard the fllwing fds: Meat, pultry, fish and eggs Fresh prduce Preserves sealed with paraffin Unpened jars with waxed cardbard seals such as maynnaise and salad dressing All fds in cardbard bxes, paper, fil, cellphane r clth Spices, seasnings and extracts Hme-canned fds Opened cntainers and packages Flur, grain, sugar, cffee and ther staples in canisters Dented, leaking, bulging r rusted cans Prvided by Alabama Extensin System;
30 Yur hme after a fld
31 CHECKING FLOOD-DAMAGED BUILDINGS 1. Use extreme cautin when entering any damaged building. 2. If yu must enter at night, carry a flashlight r ther light. 3. If gas lines are brken, turn ff gas at the meter r tank. 4. D nt smke r use any pen flame. 5. Watch fr lse plaster and ceilings that culd fall. 6. Open as many drs and windws as pssible t remve misture, drs and flammable r txic gases. If windws are stuck tight, take ff windw strips and remve entire sash. If drs are stuck, drive ut dr hinge pins with a screwdriver and hammer, and remve drs. 7. If yu are nt qualified t judge the stability f a fundatin, hire a cntractr t make this inspectin. A neighbrhd might jin tgether in hiring a cntractr fr this wrk. 8. Examine fundatins and supprts fr undermining. If walls r fundatins have settled r cracked, uncver ftings and raise, reinfrce r brace any settled sectins. Be extremely careful when uncvering ftings, because f the pssibility f cavernus washuts. 9. If underlying material has been washed away, fill spaces t within 12 inches f the fting with gravel r crushed rck. Fill the remaining space with cncrete reinfrced with steel rds. 10. Check piers fr settling r shifting. 11. If the building has shifted r the flrs have settled badly, it may be necessary t install temprary bracing until extensive wrk can be dne. 12. Drain any crawl spaces which cntain water. 13. Wash ut mud, dirt and debris as sn as pssible with a hse and mp, clth r spnge. Clean walls and flrs befre silt r mud dries. 14. Start cleaning frm the tp flr r upper limit f flding and wrk dwnward tward the first flr r basement. 15. Check walls with a level r plumb bb. 16. Brace walls where necessary. 17. Check mudsills, plates, sles and anchrage. Replace r repair where necessary, using redwd, cedar r treated lumber. 18. T speed up drying f flded studding and insulatin, remve all siding strips r plaster frm upper and lwer parts f the walls. D nt repaint walls until they are cmpletely dry. This may take several mnths. Flded insulatin may be ruined. 19. Remve lse plaster. After huse is cmpletely dry, repair damaged plaster n walls and ceilings. Badly damaged plaster walls can be resurfaced with gypsum bard r plywd. 20. Flded wden flrs will dry ut slwly. Dn't build fires t speed up their drying, as this culd cause cracking r splitting frm uneven drying. Hwever, if the central heating system is perating, keep the temperature f the huse at 60 t 70 F t hasten drying withut causing additinal prblems. 21. T prevent further buckling and warping, drive nails where the flr tends t lift r bulge. 22. After flrs are cmpletely dry, plane r sand them level. 23. If flrs are t badly damaged t be refinished, lay a new flr ver the ld, r cver with carpet, vinyl r linleum. 24. If a cncrete flr is badly damaged, break it up and install a new flr. If damage is minr, patch with a rich mixture f cncrete cntaining n carse gravel aggregate. 25. Use plastic sheeting r rll rfing fr temprary repair n slid deck rfs cvered with asphalt shingles, wd shingles r rll rfing. 26. Use knife cnsistency patching cmpunds t repair minr leaks. 27. Yu prbably will have t replace damaged metal rfing n spaced rf decks. Prvided by Alabama Extensin System;
32 RESTORING FLOODED WATER SYSTEMS 1. D nt start submerged electric mtrs until they have been cleaned, dried and checked fr safety. Discnnect the mtr. An ejectr r jet pump mtr may be a separate unit munted n the pump, r the end bell f the mtr may be part f the pump. The separate mtr unit can be discnnected and serviced easily. With the secnd type, remve the pump and mtr as a unit. It is nt necessary t remve the drp pipes. Take the mtr t an electrical repair shp. In the shp, the mtr shuld be checked fr any shrt circuits r grunding caused by misture. If the mtr was submerged in mud and water, it shuld be thrughly cleaned. Windings shuld be dried in a drying ven. The bearings shuld be lubricated befre yu use the mtr again. Clean and dry electrical cntrls and pressure switches. Check all wiring fr shrt circuits. 2. Pumps usually are damaged by sediment depsited in the bearings. Clean pumps. Check valves fr silt and sand. Remve all dirt and water frm the gears in the gear bx and replace the lubricant with fresh il. Submersible pumps. The bearings n water-lubricated pumps will nt be damaged by fld waters, since these bearings are cnstantly submerged in water. As sn as pssible, flush clean water dwn the casing t remve sediment and silt. Then disinfect the well. Centrifugal pumps. Many centrifugal pumps cntain tw sets f il-lubricated bearings alng the drive shaft between the mtr and the pump. If the pump has been flded, dismantle the cntainer bracket and remve the bearings. Clean the bearings, r install new bearings if the ld nes are wrn ut. Clse-cupled centrifugal pumps cntain n bearings, s there is little chance f fld damage except t the electric mtr. 3. Injectr-type pumps. These pumps usually cntain watertight packing at the grund surface, with sealed impellers. Fld waters prbably will nt damage this type f pump. 4. The strage tank and piping shuld be all right unless muddy water was pumped thrugh it. If tank is cntaminated, disinfect the entire system with a strng chlrine slutin. Use 1 quart husehld laundry bleach r check with lcal health department fr recmmended slutin strength. Open all faucets while the system is being filled. D nt clse the spigt until a definite smell f chlrine is evident. D nt use the system fr 24 hurs. Then start the pump and run water frm all faucets until the chlrine dr is gne. 5. Wells prbably will nt be damaged structurally frm flds, but they may be cntaminated. Have yur well tested by health fficials befre yu use the water. 6. If the well is lcated in a lw spt, it may be cntaminated with silt frm fldwaters draining int it. If s, the well and entire water system shuld be disinfected. T disinfect the well system: Pump the well until water is clear.
33 Pur a slutin f 1 quart liquid laundry bleach (Clrx, Purex, Hilex r a similar hypchlrite slutin) mixed in 3 gallns f water int the well casing. Leave it there at least 4 hurs, r preferably vernight. Pump the chlrinated water int the piping system, and leave it there fr at least 2 hurs r even vernight. The next day, pump and flush ut the system until the taste and dr f chlrine are n lnger apparent. Tw days after yu have disinfected the water system take a sample f water accrding t recmmended prcedures and have it tested fr purity. Bil r treat all drinking water until a water test indicates that water is safe fr all purpses. 7. D nt drink water frm a flded cistern until yu disinfect the cistern and the entire piping system. T disinfect the cistern: Use an auxiliary pump t remve the water and empty the cistern. D nt pump water thrugh the pipeline distributin system. Wash dwn the walls and ceiling with clean water, and pump ut the dirty water with an auxiliary pump. Check the cistern walls, ceiling and flr fr cracks where grundwater culd cme in. Disinfect the interir with a slutin f 1 quart laundry bleach in 3 gallns f water. Be sure the bleach cntains n sap. Apply the chlrine slutin with a sprayer r scrub with a stiff brm. Swab r pump ut the disinfecting slutin that cllects in the bttm f the cistern. Leave the chlrine slutin in the pipes fr at least 2 hurs (vernight if pssible) befre yu drain them. Fill the cistern with water fr use. This water will have a chlrine taste fr awhile, but it will be safe fr all purpses. 8. Regenerate water sfteners befre yu use them. Use clean chlrinated water t backwash the filterbed. Prvided by Alabama Extensin System;
36 DISINFECTING WELLS Disinfect flded wells befre they are used as a surce f drinking water. T disinfect a well: 1. Scrub the pump rm and wash all equipment, including piping, pump and pressure tank. 2. Remve the well seal at the tp f the casing. Pur a slutin f 1 quart laundry bleach and 3 gallns f water int the tp f the well. Pur the slutin s it washes dwn the inside f the casing and the utside f the drp pipes. In sme wells yu will need nly t remve a plug frm the seal t pur the slutin int the well. 3. Leave the slutin in the well abut 4 hurs. Then pump it int the pressure tank and distributin system. Draw the chlrinated water int all piping by pening each faucet until the dr f chlrine is apparent. Leave the chlrine in the piping at least 2 hurs. Then run the water until the taste and dr are n lnger bjectinable. Prvided by Alabama Extensin System; CONTROLLING RODENTS AFTER FLOODS 1. Rats and ther rdents ften mve int buildings t escape fld waters. Rats can carry disease and small vermin. They shuld be eliminated as sn as pssible. 2. Because f the danger f rat infestatin, use cautin when entering flded buildings. Carry a slid club and a flashlight. Inspect likely hiding places fr rats. Check clsets, furniture, drawers, mattresses, stacks f clthes r paper, appliances, uphlstered furniture, dark crners, attics and basements. Be extremely careful when appraching rats. A starving rat can be dangerus. 3. Eliminate rat ppulatins by pisning rats that can't be destryed by clubbing r trapping. Use rat cntrl measures as recmmended by yur cunty Extensin agent. Be extremely careful when using rat pisn r bait, especially if there are children in the huse. 4. After infestatin has been cntrlled, clean up rat harbring places. (Rats may mve int buildings when their hiding places are remved.) Remve trash piles and piles f damaged furniture r equipment. Stre materials n platfrms r shelves 1 t 18 inches abve the grund. 5. Remve fd surces. Stre fd supplies in rat-prf bins r cntainers. Suspend garbage cntainers frm trees r psts. Remve animal carcasses which may attract rats. D nt leave scraps f fd arund. 6. Maintain several permanent rat bait statins in strategic lcatins, even after rat infestatin has been cntrlled. This shuld eliminate rats that can migrate frm neighbring areas, and will help prevent anther infestatin. Inspect baits frequently and replace them with fresh material whenever necessary. 7. If yu are bitten by a rat, take the rat t yur lcal health authrities r a veterinarian. The animal shuld be checked fr rabies. Prvided by Alabama Extensin System;
39 CLEANING AND REPAIRING FLOODED BASEMENTS Befre yu enter a flded basement: 1. Turn ff the electricity, preferably at the meter. 2. Check utside cellar walls fr pssible cave-ins, evidence f structural damage r ther hazards. 3. Turn ff gas r fuel service valves. 4. Open drs and windws r use blwers t frce fresh air int the basement. 5. D nt use an electric pump pwered by yur wn electrical system. Use a gas-pwered pump r ne cnnected t an utside line. Fire departments in sme cmmunities may help with such services. 6. Mre damage may be dne by pumping water frm the basement t sn r t quickly, than frm letting the fldwater remain. Water in the basement helps brace the walls against the extra pressure f water-lgged sil utside. If water is pumped ut t sn, walls may be pushed in r flrs pushed up. T help prevent such structural damage, pump the water frm the basement in stages. Remve abut ne-third f the water each day. Watch walls fr signs f failing. If the utside water level rises again after the day's pumping, start with a new water line. The sil may be very slw t drain, but d nt hurry the pumping. Whatever is submerged in the flded basement will nt be damaged further. By delaying the pumping, serius structural damage may be prevented. 7. After water has been pumped frm the basement, shvel ut the mud and debris while it is still mist. Hse dwn walls t remve as much silt as pssible befre it dries. 8. Flrs and walls may need sanitizing, particularly if sewage has entered the basement. Scrub walls and flrs with ne f these sanitizing slutins: Chlride f lime (25 percent available chlrine). Disslve a 12-unce can in 2 gallns f water. High test hypchlrate (65 percent available chlrine) Stir 5 unces int 2 gallns f water. 9. Oil stains in basements caused by verturned r damaged il tanks may be a prblem fllwing flding. Cmmercial prducts (such as Neutrdal ) will help neutralize fuel il. Prducts are available in pwder frm r an aersl spray fr hard-t-reach places. T remve il stains and destry dr, wipe up excess il, shake r spray prduct n the spt accrding t manufacturer's directins, and let it set. 10. Check supprting clumns, beams, walls and flrs. Structural damage t flded basements usually includes buckled walls, settled walls r heaved flrs. 11. Buckled walls are evidenced by hrizntal cracking and walls mving ut f plumb. When this cnditin is minr, yu need nt repair the wall immediately. Hwever, any nticeably buckled wall will eventually cllapse frm nrmal grund pressures and seasnal temperature changes. When buckling has seriusly weakened the wall, rebuild the damaged parts immediately. Build pilaster int walls ver 15 feet lng fr reinfrcement. Pilaster spacing shuld be 12 t 15 feet. 12. Settled walls and ftings are indicated by vertical cracks either in small areas r thrughut the structure. Repairs are difficult withut special equipment. Cntact a reliable cntractr fr this wrk.
40 13. Heaved flrs are thse that have nt returned t their riginal level, r have cracked badly. Yu may need t cnstruct a new flr: Remve ld, brken cncrete. Place 6 inches f gravel fill n the basement flr surface. Cver area with a plyethylene vapr barrier. Lay a 4-inch cncrete flr with water prf expansin jints between the flr and the walls. The flr shuld be reinfrced with steel. Welded wire reinfrcement placed at mid-height in the slab is minimum reinfrcement. 14. If a flr is badly cracked, but has returned t its riginal level, and if there is sufficient headrm, place a new flr ver the ld ne. Add a vapr barrier between the tw flrs. The new flr shuld be at least 2 inches thick. 15. In huses withut basements, the area belw the flr may be cmpletely filled with mud. Remve the mud as sn as pssible t avid rtting jists r fundatin wd. Jack up the huse, if necessary, t make sure all mud is remved. Prvided by Alabama Extensin System; FINDING AND REPAIRING LEAKS IN ROOFS Causes f Leaks: Defective flashing. Wet spts near a chimney r utside wall may mean the leak is caused by defective flashing, narrw flashing r lse mrtar jints. On slping rf valleys and at junctins f drmers and rf, lk fr crrded, lse r displaced flashing. Defective flashing ften ccurs arund drmers and plumbing vent pipes. Clgged dwnsputs r eaves. Check fr chked dwnsputs n flat rfs. Accumulated water n the rf abve the flashing may cause a leak. Cracks and deteriratin. Rfing (especially wd r cmpsitin shingles) usually deterirates first n suthern expsures. Check suthern slpes fr cracking r deteriratin. Hles. Wet spts n plain rfs usually are caused by missing shingles r hles in the rfing. T find hles, lk fr light cming thrugh places in unsealed attics. Stick a straw thrugh the hle t mark the spt n the utside. Repairing Leaks: Methds f repair will depend n the kind f rfing and the nature and extent f the leak. 1. Replace missing shingles with similar shingles r pieces f rust-resistant metal. (In an emergency yu can use metal cut frm a tin can.) Paint the metal n bth sides and slip it under the upper layer f shingles. Be careful nt t disldge r lsen sund shingles. Cut ut ld nails with a lng thin cld chisel. Cver expsed nails with rfer's cement. 2. Patch small hles with metal screws. Use neprene washers in lw places.
41 3. Repair large hles by replacing metal sheets r patching with a heavy clth r canvas and elastic rfer's cement. Apply cement carefully ver the patch t prevent canvas frm sagging int the hle. 4. T repair cracks in the rf: Place heavy clth r light canvas ver the cracked area, extending the clth apprximately 6 inches beynd the cracked area. Use a rfing brush t smth ut clth, and brush n tw thin cats f rf cating. Keep clth smth while brushing. Prvided by Alabama Extensin System; CONTROLLING INSECTS AFTER FLOODS 1. Eliminate breeding spts. Empty water frm barrels, ld tires, cans and ther vessels. (This water may be plluted by fldwaters and may be a health hazard, in additin t being a breeding place fr insects.) Als, check clgged gutters and flat rfs which have pr drainage. Make sure cisterns, cesspls, septic tanks, fire barrels and rain barrels are cvered tightly. Whenever pssible, drain pnds, pls r any standing water in which msquites may breed. Dispse f refuse. Bury animal carcasses as sn as pssible. Bury r burn garbage at least nce every week. Be sure garbage cans have tightly fitting lids. When using manure and garbage as fertilizer, spread it thinly s it will dry quickly and nt supprt fly develpment. Clean up debris. In sme climates, scrpins may seek refuge in and arund buildings during fld cnditins. During the day they hide beneath lse stnes, lse bark f fallen trees, bards, piles f lumber, and within walls f buildings. 2. Patch screens and ther places where msquites may enter buildings. 3. Use a husehld spray r an aersl bmb t kill msquites, flies r ther insects that get int buildings. D nt apply il-based sprays t flwers r rnamental plants. Spray shrubbery and shaded areas f buildings t kill adult insects. Cntact yur cunty Extensin agent fr specific recmmendatins. 4. If pssible, keep small children indrs, especially in the evening. Persns wh must g utside at dusk shuld use a repellent n expsed parts f the bdy and clthing. Prvided by Alabama Extensin System;
42 DISPOSING OF ANIMAL CARCASSES 1. Prmpt and sanitary dispsal f animal carcasses is necessary t prtect the living animals in an area frm disease. 2. Search all pastures fr dead animals as sn as pssible. Carcasses may have sme cmmercial value, s send them t a rendering plant if pssible. 3. If rendering is impractical, dispse f the dead animals n the premises. Use the fllwing prcedure: Bury carcasses. Use pwer equipment if it is available. Chse a site where subsurface drainage will nt reach water supplies. Bury the carcasses at least 3 t 4 feet deep s predatry animals wn't be able t reach them. If quicklime is available, cver carcasses with it befre filling. Quicklime will hasten decmpsitin. Prvided by Alabama Extensin System;
45 Agricultural Buildings & Landscapes
46 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS In additin t the precautins and respnses, the agricultural prducer will want t cnsider the fllwing measures. Preparing Fr a Fld r Flash Fld n Yur Farm r Ranch 1. If yu graze livestck in areas subject t flash flding, cnsider using the area fr larger animals. Pigs and calves are less likely t survive a fld than larger animals. 2. Leave animals an exit rute t higher grund when pssible. Animals will nt always use an exit wisely. 3. If heavy rains are expected, pen animals n high grund at night. Prtecting Livestck During a Fld Livestck that are nt in a cnfined area usually can take care f themselves during flds. D nt let them becme trapped in lw-lying pens. In brad, level fld plains where fld waters are seldm deeper than 3 r 4 feet, cnstruct munds f sil n which livestck can stay until fld waters recede. Or carry bales f hay fr hgs t climb n. Try t lcate these munds where they will nt be washed away by fast flwing water. 1. Prvide feed and water. Water is essential. Thirsty animals will try t break ut t get t fld waters. If water is in shrt supply, limit feed intake. 2. If animals are hused with machinery, fasten bales f straw in frnt f sharp edges and prtruding parts such as cutter bars r crank handles. D nt use hay because animals will eat it. Try t cver wden paddle wheels n cmbines r chppers because these parts can be dangerus if partially brken. 3. Blck ff narrw passageways where animals wuld be unable t turn arund. A few heavy animals in a narrw dead end can be dangerus bth t themselves and the building. 4. Be abslutely sure that herbicides, pesticides and treated seeds are nt even remtely accessible t livestck and are stred where fld water will nt cntaminate livestck feed r water. 5. Turn ff electricity at the main switch. Livestck culd damage electric fixtures, causing fires r electrcutins. 6. If there is a pssibility that dairy barns may becme inundated, drive cattle ut f the barn. During a rapid rise f water, cattle ften refuse t leave the barn and may drwn if the water rises high enugh. Preparing t Evacuate Yur Farm Ensure family safety first. See the General Family Preparedness sectin fr mre infrmatin n evacuatin prcedures. Be certain yu have enugh time t get t higher grund befre access is cut ff. If yu have time befre yu receive an evacuatin rder, the fllwing precautins may help yu prtect yur farm buildings, livestck and equipment frm fld damage: 1. Mve machinery, feed, grain, pesticides and herbicides t higher elevatins.
47 2. Cnstruct munds f sil fr livestck, r pen gates s livestck can escape high water. Small numbers f hgs can smetimes be saved by bringing them bales f hay t climb n. 3. Animals swim well. The greatest prblem fr grazing animals will be fences and ther bstacles. Try t drive stck thrugh water free f bstructins. Lng swims thrugh calm water are safer than shrt swims thrugh a swift current. 4. Leave building drs and windws pen at least 2 inches t equalize water pressure and help prevent buildings frm shifting. 5. If pssible, mve mtrs and prtable electric equipment t a dry lcatin. 1. Discnnect electric pwer t all buildings which may be flded. Call yur utility cmpany if in dubt abut hw t discnnect pwer electric. 2. Dairymen wh anticipate extensive flding shuld: Check with a veterinarian t be sure cattle are prperly immunized befre being expsed t fld waters. Check with the Department f Health cncerning apprval f temprary milking facilities. Try t btain standby equipment r services fr emergency milk pickup. When pssible, mve grain ut f reach f fld water. 8. Tie dwn lumber, lgs, irrigatin pipes, fuel tanks and ther lse equipment r material. 9. Prepare immvable pwer units and machinery fr flding. Seal radiatr penings (tighten caps and plug verflw). Remve air cleaners and carburetrs; seal penings. Use material strng enugh t withstand water pressure. Fill il reservirs. Plug breather pipes and penings. Fill bearings with fresh lubricant. Prtect pen gears, sprckets, pulleys and wearing and cutting edges f machinery with lubricant r rust inhibitr. Drape plyethylene sheeting ver bell ends f mtr. Tie securely with crd n cylindrical part f mtr husing, r fasten with a strng rubber band. Prvided by Alabama Extensin System;
48 Returning t a Farm after a Fld Disaster recvery can be as dangerus as the disaster itself, especially if n disaster preparedness plan was implemented. This is especially true n farms and ranches where inherent farm hazards such as machinery and equipment, livestck, and agriculture chemicals are displaced and cmingle, putting all emergency respnse persnnel, farm wrkers and family members, and livestck in danger. First respnders shuld recgnize the hazards that exist and prceed with cautin. Utility check Lk carefully fr signs f damage t electrical cmpnents. Electrical cmpnents, such as switches and utlets, may have debris that will cause electrical hazards. Cntact yur electric utility fr guidance. Never try t turn the electricity back n in areas that have been flded befre having the system checked. Depending n the extent f damage, gas lines als culd sustain significant damage. Have the gas utility check the system fr leaks befre cntinuing service. Care fr the animals As with humans, the aftermath f disasters pse significant safety and health prblems t livestck. Agriculture prducers can minimize the safety risk t livestck in the fllwing ways: 1. Gather and dispse f trash, limbs, wire, and damaged equipment that culd harm livestck. Clear and repair damaged fences. 2. Make sure livestck have plenty f water and feed that have nt been cntaminated by pllutants. In sme cases, it will be necessary t truck in water and feed, r mve livestck t an area free frm cntaminatin. 3. Immediately dispse f dead carcasses. Cnsult state rules n carcass dispsal. Check with regulatry authrities t determine if any permits are required fr emergency burial. 4. Observe livestck fr signs f infectius disease such as pneumnia r ft rt. Animals (r a representative sample) that die immediately fllwing a disaster shuld be necrpsied by a veterinarian. 5. Spray livestck with insect repellent t prtect against msquites that may carry disease. Farm disaster assistance Agriculture prducers d nt have t face a disaster alne. If a farm r ranch has suffered a lss due t disaster, it may be eligible fr assistance under Farm Service Agency prgrams. Prvided by extensin;
49 Salvaging Fld-damaged Agricultural Buildings Buildings that have been expsed t fld waters need t be evaluated fr the extent f damage and the amunt f clean-up and repairs necessary t restre them t a useable cnditin. The first thing that needs t be dne with a building that has survived a fld is t check its structural sundness. If the building has been mved, shifted r twisted, it may nt be safe t enter. Check the fundatin, sill plate, rf supprts and walls fr damage. If there is extensive damage t the building, it prbably will be less expensive t tear it dwn and start again with a new building as cmpared t attempting t repair the damaged structure. Cnsider, thugh, that while strm damage t structures is bvius in many cases, that which is nt immediately nticeable als culd weaken the building r cause ther prblems. Clse inspectin required. Building wners shuld d a clse inspectin f the structure frm the utside t check fr damage, advises Ken Hellevang, a Nrth Dakta State University Extensin Service agricultural engineer. He says they shuld check whether the ridge and eaves are straight, walls are vertical and straight, and the building has nt shifted n its fundatin. They als shuld lk fr indicatins that frame members, such as knee braces, have been pushed int the siding r up int the rf. Other damage may becme evident inside the building. Examine the trusses and rafters fr signs f crushed, split r brken wd. Determine whether any members buckled, twisted, are bwing ut f alignment, appear t have slipped relative t each ther r have gaps between members in a truss jint. Als see whether the gussets shw signs f being defrmed. Lk carefully at cnnectins fr indicatins f nail, screw r blt hles being elngated, and see whether nails r ther cnnectrs are pulled ut f the wd r bent. Hellevang ntes that an inspectin fr structural damage als shuld include: An examinatin f the psts f ple buildings fr crushed r brken wd near the grund r at truss cnnectins r knee braces. Make sure the psts are straight and vertical. Lk fr indicatins that psts made f mre than ne bard may have split alng rws f nails. Checking whether drs r windws pen as they did befre flding. If they d nt, this may indicate the structure has shifted. In cases f severe shifting, water lines, gas lines and electrical circuits may have been damaged. A wetness check. If wetness ccurred because f flding r leaking rfs, yu will need t lk fr wet electrical circuits, wet insulatin and ther water damage t the structure s interir. Once insulatin in a wall r attic becmes wet, it must be replaced. Wall insulatin that is sealed within the structure will nt dry.
50 An examinatin f siding and metal rfing. Lk at the siding and rf sheets fr tears arund fasteners, evidence f fasteners being pulled, and bends r buckles in the metal rf sheets. See whether the sheets still are aligned with each ther. Checking wd fr indicatins f rtting r ther damage that culd weaken the building. Dcument the damage with pictures and cntact yur insurance cmpany. "Buildings that shw signs f damage will need t be repaired," Hellevang says. "Truss members may need t be replaced r additinal bards placed frm jint t jint. Additinal and larger gussets may be required fr damaged jints. Additinal nails r screws may be required. Nails and screws shuld nt be placed t clse t each ther r they may weaken the wd. Hellevang warns that cst f repairs may exceed the value f the building in sme cases, and suggests building wners cnsult a building cntractr r engineer if they see several indicatins f damage. "The value f machinery, vehicles and equipment stred in a building can be several hundred thusand dllars," he says. "It des nt make sense t put that value r yurself at risk with a building that is structurally damaged. Once the water has subsided, he suggests, dry ut the building as much as pssible. This can include using a sump pump, mps, fans and/r natural ventilatin. After wd dries, inspect laminated wds, such as plywd, that have been immersed in water t be sure laminatins are still firmly bnded tgether. Check existing nails t determine whether they are still firmly driven. If the building was insulated, the wet insulatin must be remved. Fldwater ften will leave absrbent material with a ful dr that is difficult t remve. When checking the insulatin, expect it t be wet abve the high water level because f the wicking actin f the material. If the interir wall sheathing is drywall, it will need t be replaced. Usually the interir sheathing in the ut-buildings will be wd which can be remved, dried and reused. After the sheathing and insulatin are remved, inspect the wall studs, sills and plates fr structural damage. Damaged cmpnents will need t be repaired r replaced. Inspect wiring and plumbing fr damage frm the fld s pressure. Electrical utlets, switches, sckets and fuse bxes generally need t be replaced. Check lcal electrical cdes. Nte: D nt turn n the pwer t a flded structure until it has been inspected and determined safe by a qualified persn. After the buildings have dried sufficiently, renvatin can begin. All flrs prbably will be cvered with layers f silt and mud. This will need t be remved. Wd flrs that have absrbed a lt f water culd be buckled. D nt repair them until they are fully dried. It may be pssible t pull sme f the flring back int place with nails. Plane and sand as needed t remve humps in the flr. This may nt get it int cnditin t lk gd uncvered, but it will be smth enugh t serve as a base fr a new cvering. Insulatin will need t be replaced in the walls. Cver with a 4 mil r 6 mil plyethylene vapr barrier n the warm side f the insulatin accrding t lcal recmmendatins and then install interir drywall r sheathing.
51 Other farmstead cnsideratins pst-flding Livestck-building and electrical equipment After discnnecting them frm the pwer surce and cmpletely disassembling them, thrughly clean milking equipment, grain augers, ventilatin fans and ther items that were immersed in the fld waters t remve grit r ther cntaminants. D nt run electric mtrs until they are clean, dry, free-running and judged safe by a qualified persn. This means that air cnditiners, furnaces, appliances, feed augers, fans and ther equipment may nt be apprved fr use fr several days. Alternatives may be necessary t get a fld-damaged farmstead back int peratin. This culd invlve mving dairy cws t a neighbr s milking unit, utilizing natural ventilatin instead f mechanical, and feeding by hand. Animals hused in mechanically ventilated buildings may need t be mved t prevent acute expsure t hazardus gases. Water system If a well is used fr the water supply, test the water t determine if it is safe fr human r livestck cnsumptin. A well that has been cntaminated by fldwaters usually can be cleaned and sanitized. If a rural water system is being used, check fr breaks r leaks in the supply and distributin pipes. It als wuld be gd t flush all yur water lines after the fld. Fuel and chemical strage areas If these supplies are spilled r have water damage, special measures may be needed fr prper and safe cleanup and dispsal. Yur cunty Extensin ffice has infrmatin n the methds necessary fr safe cleanup. Farm shp Clean, dry and lightly il all metal tls t prevent rusting. Pwer tls will need individual cleaning and drying befre they are used. Belts, nails, screws, etc., will need t be dried t prevent rusting. Cleaning up after a fld presents many prblems. Try t remain calm. Survey the farmstead, evaluate the amunt and lcatin f the damage, and then priritize the necessary cleanup. Prvided by extensin;
52 Managing Flded Grain Bins Grain bins expsed t fldwaters are likely t have sustained damage and sme grain lss can be expected. It is, hwever, ften pssible t repair bins and salvage at least part f the grain. Water des nt "wick" very far in whle grain, s it is likely that grain abve the water line is still in gd cnditin. It might even be pssible t salvage grain that was submerged in fldwaters, but quick actin will be required t prevent spilage f this very wet grain. Actins necessary fr salvaging fld-damaged grain depend n the extent f damage t bth bin and grain, s the first step is t inspect the bin, including unlading and aeratin equipment, and the stred grain. Then, cntact yur insurance cmpany r disaster relief agency as sn as pssible t find ut what yu need t d t dcument lsses. With nly a few exceptins, fld-saked grain is nt useable fr feed r fd. Flding affects bth the stred grain and the strage structures. Grain and grain prducts Fld-damaged grain is adulterated grain because f the ptential fr many cntaminants t enter thrugh the water. This grain shuld be destryed, never blended. Cntact lcal public health and sanitatin fficials fr the best dispsal prcess in yur area. Water cming up frm tiles and pits is just as suspect as verland water. Even field tile water may cntain animal waste prducts, high chemical levels and ther cntaminants. The misture will nt travel mre than a few inches abve the fld line. Gd grain n tp f flded grain must be remved frm the tp r side, nt dwn thrugh the damaged grain. Remve grain that is in gd cnditin befre attempting t d anything with the prtin damaged by fldwaters. Txins are likely in rewetted grain. Warm wet cnditins are ideal fr mld grwth. Saked grain will spil within a day r tw at high misture and summer temperatures. Rain damaged grain, which may ccur when rfs f strage structures are damaged during strms, can be saved by drying and cleaning. This grain shuld be tested fr myctxins befre use. Use recnditined grain immediately. Take care nt t track r mix mud r gravel frm flded grunds int gd grain during salvage peratins. These materials are ptentially txic fr the same reasns as the fldwaters. The U.S. Fd and Drug Administratin (FDA) allws fr recnditining (washing and drying at high temperatures) in cases where the fldwater did nt remain lng and did nt cntain cntaminants. It is very rare t knw fr certain whether fldwater is clean, hwever.
53 Structures Grains swell when wet s bin damage is likely. This is mre likely t ccur in stred sybeans than ther grains. Blts can shear r hles elngate. Lk fr signs such as stretched caulking seals, misaligned drs r similar structural prblems. Check bins with stirring devices carefully. The bin must be perfectly rund fr them t wrk crrectly. Bin fundatins can shift, flat r deterirate frm flding. Inspect structures and fundatins carefully, and have an engineering evaluatin fr larger bins. Expect electric wiring, cntrls and fans t be ruined. D nt energize wet cmpnents. Be sure the pwer is ff befre tuching any electrical cmpnents f flded systems. Wd structures may sustain mre damage than metal structures and will als retain mld and cntaminants. Clean facilities and grunds cmpletely. Salvage In the rare situatins where the water was nt cntaminated, the grain may be recnditined. If the grain is t be sld, recnditining must be dne with the written cnsent f the FDA. Fr feed n site, prducers have three alternatives: Dry the grain Feed it immediately t their livestck Ensile the grain fr livestck feed Decisins need t be made quickly, because wet grain will spil within a cuple days at warm temperatures. The wet grain will likely plug bttm unlading equipment, s the grain will need t be remved frm the tp. Uncntaminated saked crn can be used as livestck feed if used within a day r tw befre spilage ccurs. Mldy grain shuld nt be fed t livestck. Just replace the crn in the animals' current diet with the wet crn. Remember t adjust amunts fed fr misture. Wet, whle sybeans can be fed t cattle if the sybeans are limited t 10 t 12 percent f the ratin's dry matter. Sybeans substitute well fr the prtein in sybean meal, but they need t be fed with a vitamin-mineral-additive premix if substituted fr a cmplete prtein supplement. It is nt necessary t heat-treat the sybeans fr cattle. Als, if adding whle sybeans t diets high in distillers' grains, watch the ttal ratin fat cntent. Fr hgs, raw sybeans can nly be fed t mature sws. The sybeans need t be heat-treated if fed t yunger pigs.
54 Answers t sme ptential questins abut flded grain bins: Hw much time des it take fr wet grain t spil? The rate f spilage fr wet grain depends n its misture cntent and temperature. Grain that was submerged fr mre than a few days will have a misture cntent f abut 30 t 50 percent. At warm spring and summer temperatures, grain this wet will becme mldy in a few days. If the bin was nly partly submerged, can dry grain be left n tp f the wet grain? Dry grain will be relatively safe fr a few weeks, but it wuld be best t separate it frm the wet grain as sn as yu can because the wet grain will begin t spil in a few days and generate heat and drs that culd reduce the quality f the dry grain abve it. Try t unlad the dry grain withut mixing it with the wet. Using a vacuum-type grain cnveyr t suck the dry grain ut the tp f the bin might be the best way t d this. Cnsider selling the dry grain, mving it t an undamaged strage bin at yur place r a neighbr's place, r temprarily string it in a machine shed r ther building mdified fr grain strage. What can be dne with grain that was expsed t fld waters? If the grain is nt cntaminated with excessive silt, bacteria, fuel, r chemicals, it might be pssible fr yu r a neighbr t feed wet grain directly t livestck. Remember that wet grain will spil quickly; if it cannt be fed in a few days, cnsider adding a grain preservative t extend shelf life. If the grain misture is between 25 and 35 percent, cnsider ensiling it in an upright sil, plastic-cvered hrizntal sil, r plastic silage bag. Beware that grain in ruptured bins culd cntain blts, bin hardware, r ther debris that shuld be separated ut (cnsider using grain cleaners and/r magnets) befre the grain is fed. Anther ptin is t dry the wet grain in a gas-fired dryer. Be aware that after drying, grain shuld be cled t less than 60 degrees Fahrenheit fr safe strage. If yu can remve the dry grain frm the tp f the bin and get the fan ging, yu might be able t use unheated air t dry a very shallw layer f wet grain in bins equipped with full-perfrated flrs and large drying fans. Chances f success fr unheated air drying decrease as grain misture, utside temperature, and grain depth increase. Under certain cnditins, grain mlds can prduce myctxins that can cause animal feed refusal, health prblems, r even death. Since beef cattle (except fr breeding stck), are smewhat less sensitive t mlds and myctxins than ther animals, feeding suspect grain t beef cattle as part f a mixed ratin wuld be safer than feeding t ther animals. If grain develps a lt f visible mld, test fr myctxins befre feeding it r spending mney t dry it. Grain that is badly damaged by mld r has high levels f myctxins shuld be discarded. Hw shuld the bin be unladed? Grain prbably cannt be remved thrugh the bin's unlading system. If electric mtrs n the unlading system have been underwater, it is best nt t start them until they have been cleaned, dried, and lubricated. Very wet grain prbably will nt flw ut f the bttm-unlading sump anyway. Cnsider using a vacuum-type grain cnveyr t suck the grain ut f the tp f the bin. If the water line was belw the level f the side dr n the bin, it might als be pssible t insert an auger int the dry grain thrugh a small pening in the side dr. Make sure the auger extends
55 t near the center f the bin, hwever, because unlading a bin frm ne side creates uneven sidewall pressures that can damage the bin. What kind f bin damage is likely in fld situatins? It is nt unusual t find structural damage t bins after flds. Because grain swells when it absrbs misture, it exerts a great deal f pressure n the inside f bin walls, ften resulting in stretched blt hles, brken blts, and trn bin sheets. Smetimes, bins are kncked ff their fundatins r dented by the pressure f mving water r by impacts frm flating debris. Rapidly mving water can als cause ersin arund fundatins. Drying, aeratin, and unlading equipment n bins are likely t be inperable immediately after flds. In many cases, hwever, electric mtrs and cntrls, and gas burners will wrk again after they are cleaned and dried. Mud in electrical mtrs and equipment may cause electrical faults and ther damage. D nt try t start electric mtrs until they have been cleaned and dried r they might burn ut. Yu shuld als clean mud and debris ff f fan blades t prevent imbalances that might lead t bearing damage. In many cases, aeratin ducts and areas under full-perfrated flrs will cntain mud and saturated grain fines. Clean these areas befre the bin is filled again. Cmpanies that wrk n grain bins are likely t be quite busy after widespread flding, s if repair wrk is needed, try t line up a cntractr as sn as pssible t get bins repaired befre next harvest. Are prblems likely if water surrunded the bin fundatin, but did nt actually flw int the grain? If the bin has an elevated, full-perfrated flr, and the water level remained belw the flr, the grain is prbably fine. Yu might still need t check fr ersin arund the fundatin, damage t the fan and unlading system, and mud accumulatin under the flr. If grain rests directly n a cncrete flr, it is pssible that water mved up thrugh small cracks and pres and wet a few inches f grain next t the flr. It is als pssible that in-flr aeratin ducts are full f water and mud and that the fan and unlading system have been damaged by water. If yu can get the aeratin system t wrk, attempt t dry the layer f wet grain by aerating it. Or, if yu can get the unlading system t wrk, cnsider transferring grain frm ne bin t anther t get the layer f wet grain ff the flr befre it mlds. Are there safety cncerns abut wrking arund flded bins? Pssible safety hazards include electrical shrt circuits, gas leaks, sudden rupture f weakened bins, entrapment in flwing grain, and breathing dust and mld spres frm damaged grain. Turn ff gas valves and electrical pwer until yu have a chance t clean, dry, and inspect gas and electrical systems. Wrk in pairs and stay ut f flwing grain. And finally, wear a tight-fitting, high-quality dust mask r respiratr that is designed t filter mld spres and ther txic dusts when handling fld-damaged grain. The mask will generally have an N-95 rating and tw straps. Prvided by extensin;
56 Recvering the Flded Landscape Returning t a flded site can be quite devastating. Fld damage t yur hme r ffice maybe quite extensive and verwhelming. What abut yur landscape and garden? Yur first impulse may be t pull all the plants ut and start ver. But wait! Experience has shwn that yur landscape may at least partially recver. Survival After the fldwaters have receded the landscape will be cvered in thick silt and it may have a raw sewage-like dr, which indicates a lack f xygen in the sil. Many plants will lk dead. Will these plants survive? Plants that have shwn gd survival after tw weeks under fldwaters include mst native trees, shrubs, perennials and hardy bulbs. Other plants that shw gd recvery include crape myrtles (Lagerstremia Spp.), Chinese Hlly (Ilex rtunda sp. including Casissa Hlly and Burfrd Hlly). Plants that d nt typically survive being underwater r shw marginal survival include Japanese Hlly (Ilex crenata Spp.), Japanese Bxwd ( Buxus micrphylla ssp. japnica), Indian Hawthrn (Rhaphilepis Spp.), Nandina (Nandina Spp.), hybrid junipers (Juniperus Spp.), and hybrid azaleas (Rhddendrn Spp.). These are plants that typically d nt like wet feet and typically have lw survival rates. The Clean Up Yu shuld begin the clean up by addressing the safety f the site. Beware f dwn pwer lines. After yu are assured that the site is safe t enter begin by assessing the site. Is it dry enugh t enter and nt cause further rutting r damage? If yur landscape is still saturated, yu will want t wait fr it t dry ut. Once dry remve trash, debris and any uprted plants. Separate trash and yard waste and place in the apprpriate designated spt fr pick up. This is typically curbside, but check with lcal authrities first. Mst deciduus landscape plants will defliate immediately after a fld. Hardy evergreen plants like Chinese Hllies, may hld n t their leaves. I have fund washing the silt ff evergreen plants t be beneficial t survival and re-grwth. A slutin f ne tablespn f dishwashing liquid per galln f water in a sprayer wrks well in mst cases. First wet the plants with plain water and then spray the detergent slutin n the fliage. Wait abut a minute and rinse. Wrk in small areas s as nt t leave the detergent slutin n t lng. In the case where the silt is extra thick and stubbrn, a teaspn f an additinal wetting r rinsing agent such as thse used in dishwashers, has prven beneficial in breaking up the silt. Pressure washing shuld nt be used n plants as it can result in further damage t the leaf and stem areas. Refrain frm using a high nitrgen fertilizer n trees and shrubs at this time. Take a sil sample if pssible t determine is fertilizer is needed. Flded trees and shrubs have undergne a shck and may be experiencing a frced drmancy. Adding a new mulch layer t yur landscape will d wnders fr its aesthetic quality. Yu may find chipped hardwd mulch available fr free due t tree and limb cleanup. Check t be sure that it has been prperly aged. D nt use fresh hardwd mulch, as it has been knw t tie up sil nitrgen as it ages and breaks dwn. Als be sure that yur mulch des nt cntain any trash r cntaminated material.
57 Turf and Lawn Areas Bermuda grass (Cyndn dactyln Sp.) and Bahia grass (Paspalum ntatum) have the mst resiliencies t flding. Hybrids f these grasses have als respnded well. Bermuda grass under fur weeks f fldwater has respnded with re-grwth when a general maintenance and management regime has resumed after a drying ut perid. Remve accumulatins f sediment land rganic debris and mw. Remve nly abut a 1/3 f the height at this time. Applying abut ne-half pund f nitrgen per 1,000 sq ft will encurage turf recvery and then fllw nrmal maintenance practices. The Sprinkler System Yu will want t inspect and flush yur sprinkler system. Be sure the pwer is ff when inspecting electrical cnnectins. If yur irrigatin clck was flded yu will need t replace it. Yur backflw preventin system will need t be checked by a certified prfessinal prir t reintrducing ptable water (i.e. water that is part f yur main drinking water system whether well r municipal). Shut ff the water supply t the irrigatin system and pen up the drain valve t drain the water frm the undergrund pipes. If yur system has rtrs yu may have t remve them, shake them ut and rinse them thrughly. Many rtrs have a built in check valve that prevents the water frm draining ut. If yu have any gear-driven rtrs munted abve grund be sure t check t make sure the water has drained ut f them, remve and thrughly clean them. Unscrew the inside f the head frm the casing and rinse ut bth pieces. Flush the pipe system befre yu replace the heads. Open the valves ne at a time t the full pen psitin and turn the system n manually. Let the water run fr at least 5 minutes at each zne. After yu are dne flushing all the znes, re-install the heads and run yur system fr abut 10 minutes. Are the spray heads r rtr heads spraying a crrect spray pattern? When yu shut the water ff are the heads sticking up instead f retracting back dwn? Smetimes, the heads can be easily cleaned by stepping dwn n the riser while the head is running. Let it pp back up, then step n it again. D this a few times, then turn ff the system and see if the head is still sticking. Finally turn ff the system and make sure all the heads went dwn. If heads are still sticking, yu may find it well wrth yur time t just replace the nes nt wrking crrectly. Drip and micr-irrigatin systems may be plugged by a variety f causes including particulate matter, chemical precipitates, rganic grwths, and insects in the system r a cmbinatin theref. Yu may try cleaning these systems by pening the end f the line and flushing with fresh water. Replace emitters that remain clgged r that are damaged. Patience can save yu mney Salvaging a flded landscape can be ecnmically feasible if yu have the time and patience t let yur plants return naturally. By fllwing these simple steps t access yur landscape and giving it time t recver yu can benefit frm nature's resilience. Fr mre infrmatin cntact Charlene LeBleu at and Prvided by extensin;
60 All this rain!!! Hrses by Fernanda Camarg Prblems with mud and humidity: 1/ Wet pastures get ruined by hrses' hves. S unless yu have a sacrifice lt, it is very pssible that yu will have mre weeds than grass when all this rain stps. It all depends n the size f yur pasture and hw many hrses yu have in it. The result will be that yu may need t feed yur hrses hay during the summer. Yu may als have sme pisnus plants in yur pasture, and since hrses will nt have a lt f grass t eat, they may venture themselves and start eating the weeds. Ask fr yur cunty agent t take a lk at yur pasture s he/she can verify the presence f pisnus plants. In times f rain like this, yu can make a sacrifice lt t turn yur hrses ut and keep yur pastures intact. 2/ Hrses that like t "hrse arund" keep running and slipping and risk falling dwn and getting injured, r bwing a tendn, r ppping a splint. Slippery slpes and hrses are never a gd cmbinatin! 3/ Yu may have a higher incidence f skin diseases such as rain rt and fungal diseases. T prevent these kinds f diseases, make sure t grm yur hrses ften t allw air t penetrate the cat and dry the skin. Have shelters r bring the hrses in fr part f the day s they can get dry. Sme hrses dn't like t sleep in wet grund, and these hrses will appreciate being in a dry stall t rest. Prblems with flds: 1/ A lt f rain and standing water will increase the incidence f msquit-brne diseases. These include the neurlgical diseases Eastern and Western Equine Encephalmyelitis and West Nile Virus. Other diseases transmitted by insects are Equine Infectius Anemia and Ptmac Hrse Fever. Vaccinate yur hrses at least fr the neurlgical diseases as sn as pssible. Cnsult with yur veterinarian t draft a vaccinatin schedule. 2/ Flds will drive rdents ut f their habitat and bring them t a dryer place: yur barn. A barn, hwever, is nt a suitable place fr rdents t live, as they bring diseases, such as leptspirsis, which can cause abrtin in pregnant mares and blindness. Humans can als get leptspirsis. Make sure t exterminate rats and mice frm yur barn and dispse f the carcasses apprpriately. Dn't just thrw the carcasses in the pasture, as that will attract pssums, which in turn can transmit EPM t yur hrses. 3/ Flds will als bring ut trash, wash ut agrtxics t creeks and water beds, all f which can be ptentially dangerus t hrses. Make sure t clear yur pasture f debris if it has been under water. 4/ Flds can als rt vegetatin that has been under water, r a rund bale f hay, fr example. If hrses eat the rtten and mldy hay, they are at risk f acquiring btulism, which can be fatal. Rain is imprtant fr agriculture. But when it rains this much, hrse wners need t be aware f the pssible cmplicatins they may be facing in the near future. Prvided by UK Healthcare;
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