1 Foundation of World Civilizations / Owen: Chicago citation style p. 1 Chicago citation style History papers typically require the Chicago style, using endnotes and a bibliography. While this format is inconvenient and arbitrary in some ways, it is the standard, so it is what you will practice in this course. For a good description of this style, see For an example of a paper in Chicago style with some helpful comments, see In the text: In the text of your paper, cite sources of information or quotations with a superscript number that refers to an endnote. All quotations and any fact that is not common knowledge must have a source indicated. Your text should look like these examples: Babylon was usually ruled by a king, but at times was led by a queen. 1 Herodotus gathered information by talking to people with knowledge of the events, as is clear from such comments as no one I talked to professed to know anything about it 2 and I did hear something, however, from some inhabitants of Cyrene. 3 The number comes immediately after the information it refers to. Sometimes that may be in the middle of a sentence, as with note 2 in the second example. The number follows the punctuation marks that end the sentence or the phrase. Endnote numbers start with 1 and appear in the text in numerical order. The numbers are never repeated. If you need to cite the same source later on, do so with a new endnote number. You may use your word processor s built-in endnotes features, which may help with automatically numbering the notes. If you do not want to learn how to use the endnote features, you may just type the number and change its style to a superscript. The author of a historical source is sometimes unkown. The preferred Chicago style is to identify such a source by its title, but in this class we will use the more consistent option, also allowed in Chicago style, of identifying the author as Anonymous. Endnotes: At the end of the paper is a list of endnotes, in the same numerical order in which they appear in the text, entitled Notes. A single note may contain more than one source, if they are relevant. A single source may be cited in numerous notes. The first time a source appears in an endnote, the reference must be in the full format as explained below. If it appears again in
2 Foundation of World Civilizations / Owen: Chicago citation style p. 2 a later endnote, that note needs to have only the author, title (abbreviated if long), and page number (or section heading, if the item is an unpaginated web page). See the example paper for details. Where possible, the endnote should indicate the page(s) where the specific cited information is. If the source has no page numbers, try to give a section heading or other clue to help locate the relevant part of the source. In the list of endnotes, the note numbers are normal text, not superscripts, and each is followed by a period. Notice that the first line of each endnote is indented about two spaces, and the author is given first name first. The punctuation involves mostly commas, not periods, and for items such as books, the publisher, city, and date are in parentheses. Bibliography: After the endnotes comes a bibliography, which lists all the sources cited in alphabetical order by the first author s last name. (Technically, some items such as s and blog posts are not required to be in the bibliography, but for the purposes of this class, please simply include every item cited in an endnote.) This section is entitled Bibliography. Each source appears only once in the bibliography. Every source cited in a note must be in the bibliography, and every item in the bibliography must be cited in at least one note. That is, the bibliography must be a complete listing of the sources used, and you can t pad the bibliography with items that are not actually cited in the text. Bibliography entries do not give the page number or other detailed information about locations within the source. That information found in the endnotes related to specific points in the text. However, page numbers are used in the bibliography for journal articles or chapters in edited volumes, where the page numbers show the location of the entire article or chapter within the larger published volume. Bibliography entries are not numbered. Notice that all the lines after the first one in a bibliographic entry are indented about two spaces, and the author is given last name first both opposite from the endnotes. Some of the punctuation is periods, rather than commas, and the publisher, city, and date are never in parentheses. Online sources: Many online documents are intended to be an exact copy of a printed source. This is usually the case with historical primary sources online, including many of the class reading assignments. The more reputable ones include the reference information for the printed book or journal article that they were copied from, although the information is not necessarily provided in Chicago style. If the source information is not given, use Google or another search engine to look for another website that has the same text but also gives the original publication data, and then use that web page instead.
3 Foundation of World Civilizations / Owen: Chicago citation style p. 3 To cite an online source that is supposed to be the same as a printed one, note the publication information for the original printed source. Cite the online source in the same way that you would if you had the original source on paper, but add the URL of the website and the date that you accessed it in this form: (accessed August 30, 2009). The URL is necessary because the online version might be different from the original printed version. The access date is necessary because online items may change over time. Be sure to include the name of the translator and/or editor, since different translators and editors may produce fairly different versions of the same original text. Note and bibliography format examples Below are examples of how to format the endnotes and bibliography entries for different kinds of sources. (Do not include the labels and Biblio: in your list of endnotes or your bibliography.) These examples are from the SSU library website, at and the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide, at with some additions and adjustments based on my understanding of The Chicago Manual of Style, 15 th edition. Check the library s copy for more complete instructions. Book, one author 1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 65. Biblio.: Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Book, two authors 6. Guy Cowlishaw and Robin Dunbar, Primate Conservation Biology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), Biblio.: Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. Primate Conservation Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
4 Foundation of World Civilizations / Owen: Chicago citation style p. 4 Book, four or more authors 13. Edward O. Laumann et al., The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 262. Biblio.: Laumann, Edward O., John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Book, listed by the editor, translator, or compiler instead of author 4. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), Biblio.: Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Book, listed by the author with the editor, translator, or compiler in addition 16. Yves Bonnefoy, New and Selected Poems, ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 22. Biblio.: Bonnefoy, Yves. New and Selected Poems. Edited by John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Chapter in an edited book made up of chapters by different authors 5. Andrew Wiese, The House I Live In : Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States, in The New Suburban History, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), Biblio.: Wiese, Andrew. The House I Live In : Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States. In The New Suburban History, edited by Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book 17. James Rieger, introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), xx xxi.
5 Foundation of World Civilizations / Owen: Chicago citation style p. 5 Biblio.: Rieger, James. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Scholarly article, in a printed scholarly journal 8. John Maynard Smith, The Origin of Altruism, Nature 393 (1998): 639. Biblio.: Smith, John Maynard. The Origin of Altruism. Nature 393 (1998): Scholarly article, in a scholarly journal stored in a library database 7. Claudia Ringler, "The Millenium Ecosystem Assessment: Tradeoffs between Food Security and the Environment," Turkish Journal of Agriculture & Forestry 32, no. 3 (2008): (accessed June 2, 2008). Biblio: Ringler, Claudia. "The Millenium Ecosystem Assessment: Tradeoffs between Food Security and the Environment." Turkish Journal of Agriculture & Forestry 32, no. 3 (2008): (accessed June 2, 2008). Primary source on paper, published in a book The Chicago style allows for special forms of citations of classical Greek and Latin sources, but for the purposes of this class, please cite all primary sources fully as shown. 8. Aristotle, Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation, ed. J. Barnes, 2 vols, Bollingen Series (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983), 45. Biblio.: Aristotle. Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation. Edited by J. Barnes. 2 vols. Bollingen Series. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, Primary source posted on a website, originally published in a book The Chicago style allows for special forms of citations of classical Greek and Latin sources, but for the purposes of this class, please cite all primary sources fully as shown. 12. Anonymous, The Akkadêan Precepts, in Archaeology and The Bible, 3rd ed., ed. George A. Barton (Philadelphia: American Sunday-School Union, 1920), (accessed August 30, 2009)..
6 Foundation of World Civilizations / Owen: Chicago citation style p. 6 Biblio.: Anonymous. The Akkadêan Precepts. In Archaeology and The Bible, 3rd ed., edited by George A. Barton. Philadelphia: American Sunday-School Union, (accessed August 30, 2009) Primary source on paper, in a collection of sources originally published elsewhere The Chicago style allows for special forms of citations of classical Greek and Latin sources, but for the purposes of this class, please cite all primary sources fully as shown. 8. Quintus Tullius Cicero. Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship, in Rome: Late Republic and Principate, ed. Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White, vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 35. Biblio.: Cicero, Quintus Tullius. Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship. In Rome: Late Republic and Principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, edited by John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The Letters of Cicero, vol. 1. (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908). Primary source or other item in an online database The Chicago style allows for special forms of citations of classical Greek and Latin sources, but for the purposes of this class, please cite all primary sources fully as shown. 7. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, ed. John Bostock and H. T. Riley, in the Perseus Digital Library, (accessed November 17, 2005). Biblio.: Perseus Digital Library. (accessed November 17, 2005). Web page, with author 12. Kathie Nunley, "The Caffeine Craze of Youth," Layered Curriculum, (accessed July 28,2008). Biblio: Nunley, Kathie. "The Caffeine Craze of Youth." Layered Curriculum. (accessed July 28, 2008).
7 Foundation of World Civilizations / Owen: Chicago citation style p. 7 Web page, no author 5. UNPAC, Globalization and Clothes, Women and the Economy, (accessed July 28, 2008). Biblio: UNPAC. Globalization and Clothes. Women and the Economy. (accessed July 28, 2008). Popular magazine article 29. Steve Martin, Sports-Interview Shocker, New Yorker, May 6, 2002, 84. Biblio.: Martin, Steve. Sports-Interview Shocker. New Yorker, May 6, Newspaper article, on paper 10. William S. Niederkorn, A Scholar Recants on His Shakespeare Discovery, New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition. Biblio.: Niederkorn, William S. A Scholar Recants on His Shakespeare Discovery. New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition. Newspaper article, from the newspaper s web page 5. Henry Fountain, "Early Humans Used Heat to Shape Their Tools," The New York Times, August 13, (accessed August 30, 2009). Biblio: Fountain, Henry. "Early Humans Used Heat to Shape Their Tools." The New York Times, August 13, (accessed August 30, 2009). Newspaper article, from library database 3. Steve Lohr, "Health Care Technology is a Promise Unfinanced," The New York Times, December 3, (accessed June 12, 2008). Biblio: Lohr, Steve. "Health Care Technology is a Promise Unfinanced." The New York Times, December 3, (accessed June 12, 2008).
8 Foundation of World Civilizations / Owen: Chicago citation style p. 8 Book review 1. James Gorman, Endangered Species, review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth Gilbert, New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002, 16. Biblio.: Gorman, James. Endangered Species. Review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, June 2, Thesis or dissertation 22. M. Amundin, Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (PhD diss., Stockholm University, 1991), 22 29, 35. Biblio.: Amundin, M. Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena. PhD diss., Stockholm University, Paper presented at a meeting or conference 13. Brian Doyle, Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59 (paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19 22, 2002). Biblio.: Doyle, Brian. Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59. Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19 22, Weblog (blog) entry or comment 8. Peter Pearson, comment on The New American Dilemma: Illegal Immigration, The Becker-Posner Blog, comment posted March 6, 2006, (accessed March 28, 2006). Biblio.: Becker-Posner Blog, The. (accessed March 28, 2006). message Chicago style permits leaving these out of the bibliography, but it is better to cite fully. 2. John Doe, message to author, October 31, Biblio: Doe, John. message to author. October 31, 2005.
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