1 HISTORY OF RACISM AND IMMIGRATION TIME LINE History of Racism and Immigration Time Line Key Events in the Struggle for Racial Equality in the United States 1790: Naturalization Act of 1790; Citizenship restricted to free Whites. 1819: Congress passes Civilization Act of 1819 to assimilate Native Americans. This law provided U.S. government funds to subsidize Protestant missionary educators in order to convert Native Americans to Christianity. 1827: Freedom s Journal, first African American newspaper appears. Cherokee Republic formed in attempt to avoid forced removal. 1830: Congress passes Indian Removal Act, legalized removal of all Indians east of Mississippi to lands west of the river : Indian tribes forcibly resettled to West in Trail of Tears. As part of Andrew Jackson s Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the Trail of Tears, because of its devastating effects. The migrants faced hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march. Over 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokee died : Seminoles resist removal in Second Seminole War. 1845: U.S. government annexes Texas. 1846: U.S. government declares war on Mexico. 1848: U.S. defeats Mexico and purchases for $15 million over one-third of the Mexican nation. The land includes the future states of California, Texas, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo cedes Mexican territory in Southwest to the U.S. The treaty promises to protect the land, language, and culture of Mexicans living in the ceded territory. Mexicans are given the right to become U.S. citizens if they decide to stay. However, Congress refuses to pass Article X, which stipulated the protection of the ancestral lands of Mexican people. Instead, Congress requires them to prove, in U.S. courts, speaking English, with U.S. lawyers, that they have legitimate titles to their lands. Arrival of large numbers of Chinese laborers to the West Coast to work in the mining and agricultural industry. Many of these laborers also help build the Transcontinental Railroad. 1849: The Hounds, a white vigilante group in San Francisco, attacks a Chilean mining community, raping women, burning houses, and lynching two men. 1850: The California legislature passes the Foreign Miners Tax, which requires Chinese and Latin American gold miners to pay a special tax on their holdings, a tax not required of European American miners. Congress passes the Fugitive Slave Law allowing federal marshals to capture runaway slaves and enlist the assistance of
2 other Whites; also makes it possible for a black person to be captured as a slave solely on the sworn statement of a white person with no right to challenge the claim in court. 1855: California requires all instruction to be conducted in English. 1857: Dred Scott v. Sanford endorses southern views on race in the territories when Dred Scott, a slave who followed his owner to a free state, sued for his freedom. The Supreme Court ruled that Scott was still a slave. 1859: White abolitionist John Brown leads raid on Harper s Ferry arsenal to get weapons for arming slaves to resist slavery. Most of his men were killed, and he was tried for treason and hanged. 1862: President Lincoln signs Homestead Act allotting 160 acres of western land Native American land to anyone who could pay $1.25 and cultivate it for five years. European immigrants and land speculators bought 50 million acres. Congress gave another 100 million acres of Indian land free to the railroads. Since the Homestead Act applied only to U.S. citizens, Native Americans, Blacks and non-european immigrants were excluded. 1863: President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation as the nation approaches the third year of bloody civil war declaring that all persons held as slaves within the rebellious states are, and henceforward shall be free. It applied only to states that had seceded from the Union, leaving slavery untouched in loyal border states; and also exempted parts of the Confederacy that had already come under Northern control. Thus the freedom it promised depended upon Union military victory. 1864: Ratification of the 13 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution abolishing slavery. The U.S. army massacres 300 Cheyenne Indians in the Sand Creek Massacre : Reconstruction tried to bring Southern states back into the union and build a non-slave society with full civil rights for former slaves. Black and white teachers from the north traveled south to build schools and teach former slaves eager to become literate. With the protection of the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments and the Civil Rights Act of 1866, African Americans participated in politics, voted, used public accommodations. The former confederates fought against reconstruction and eventually eroded newly gained rights of freedman. 1866: Congress passes Civil Rights Act of : Treaty of Fort Laramie agrees that Whites will not enter Black Hills without Indian permission, but when gold is found there, the terms of treaty are changed by Congress without Indian consent. 1870: Texas law requires English as the language of school instruction. Naturalization Act of 1870 revises the Naturalization Act of 1790 and the 14 th Amendment so that naturalization is limited to white persons and persons of African descent, effectively excluding Chinese and other Asian immigrants from naturalization. 1871: A white mob in Los Angeles attacks a Chinese community, killing 19 and destroying the community. Congress passes Indian Appropriations Act, dissolving the status of Indian tribes as nations : U.S. government permits white traders to slaughter buffalo in order to rid the Plains of Indians. By 1874, Plain Indians Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Comanche have lost control of their territory. 1875: Page Law. Congress bars entry of Chinese, Japanese, and Mongolian prostitute, felons, and contract laborers. 1876: Battle of Little Big Horn; Sioux annihilate white troops led by General Custer. Reciprocity treaty between Kingdom of Hawaii and the United States that allowed for duty-free importation of Hawaiian grown cane sugar into the U.S. This act permanently altered the Hawaiian landscape by promoting sugar plantation agriculture.
3 1878: U.S. Supreme Court rules Chinese individuals are ineligible for naturalized citizenship : Helen Hunt Jackson s A Century of Dishonor influences public conscience about poor government treatment of Indians. 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act. Congress prohibits Chinese immigration for 10 years, bowing to pressure from nativists on the West Coast, (renewed 1892, made permanent 1902, repealed 1943) : 3,011 recorded lynchings of African Americans primarily, but not exclusively, in the South. 1883: Supreme Court strikes down 1875 Civil Rights Act and reinforces claim that the federal government cannot regulate behavior of private individuals in matters of race relations. 1886: Apache warrior, Geronimo, surrenders to the U.S. army. His surrender marks the defeat of Southwest Indian nations. 1887: Dawes Act dissolves tribal lands, granting land allotments to individual families leading to division of Indian territory and encroachment by Whites on Indian land. This act explicitly prohibits communal land ownership. The Supreme Court decides in favor of the Maxwell Company, a division of the Santa Fe Ring, allocating millions of acres of Mexican and Indian land in New Mexico to the Anglo corporation. 1890: The Wounded Knee massacre by the U.S. Army marks the end of 19 th -century struggle of the Plain Indians to keep their land free from Whites. The Bennett Law (Wisconsin) forbids recognition of schools teaching in languages other than English, an attack on the German-teaching Lutheran and Catholic parochial schools, removing their eligibility to satisfy the state s compulsory school attendance law. 1895: Booker T. Washington gives Atlanta Compromise speech to an all-white audience claiming that his race would content itself by living with the production of their hands. 1896: Plessy v. Ferguson upholds doctrine of separate but equal among Blacks and Whites in public facilities. 1897: In Re Ricardo Rodriguez, a federal district court in Texas narrowly upholds the right of Mexicans to naturalized citizenship under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, holding Mexicans to be white for purposes of naturalization. 1898: The U.S. defeats Spain and acquires Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. The U.S. annexes Hawaii. 1900: Congress passes the Foraker Act, establishing a colonial government in Puerto Rico and stipulating both the governor and executive council be appointed by the U.S. 1901: U.S. citizenship granted to the Five Civilized Tribes Cherokee, Chocktaw, Seminole, Creek, Chickasaw. 1902: Chinese immigration made permanently illegal; Chinese population sharply declines. 1905: W.E.B. DuBois, William Trotter, and others found the Niagara Movement, renouncing the accommodationist policies of Booker T. Washington in his Atlanta Compromise speech and demanding full suffrage. The Niagara Movement is the forerunner to the NAACP. 1908: Israel Zangwill s play, The Melting Pot, popularizes the term. 1909: Founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), dedicated to ending segregation and discrimination against African Americans. 1910: Angel Island opens, billed as the Ellis Island of the West, but used primarily as a detention center to control the flow of Asian immigrants (primarily Chinese) into the U.S. 1913: Leo Frank, a Jewish merchant accused of raping and murdering a 12-year-old girl, is lynched by a mob of leading citizens in Marietta, Georgia. Leads to founding of the Anti-Defamation League but also to a renewal of the Ku Klux Klan.
4 1914: During Mexican Revolution, U.S. troops invade Mexico. 1915: D. W. Griffith directs Birth of a Nation, sympathetically depicting the lynching of a black man by a white mob and supporting the rise of the Klan. One of the most popular films of the silent movie era among white people, it is widely protested against by the NAACP. 1917: Whites attack African Americans in race riots in East St. Louis, Illinois. Immigration Act of 1917, also known as the Asian Barred Zone Act, imposes a literacy test and establishes an Asiatic Barred Zone restricting immigration from southern and eastern Asia and the Pacific islands, but excluding Japan and American territories of Guam and the Philippines. Because these geographic regions were then home to many of the world s Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs, these religious groups were effectively shut out of the United States. The Jones Act makes Puerto Ricans U.S. citizens, eligible to serve in the military but not eligible to vote in national elections. 1918: Texas makes it a criminal offense to use any language but English in school instruction. 1923: Japanese businessman Takao Ozawa petitions the Supreme Court for naturalization, arguing that his skin is as white, if not whiter than any so-called Caucasian. The Court rules that Ozawa cannot be a citizen because he is not white within the meaning of the statute, asserting that the best known science of the time defined Ozawa as of the Mongolian race. In U.S. v Bhagat Singh Thind, the U.S. Supreme Court recognizes that Indians are scientifically classified as Caucasians but concludes that they are not white in popular (white) understanding, thus reversing the logic used in the Ozawa case. The lawyers for the United States attacked Thind s meltability by defining Hinduism as an alien and barbaric system and not fit for membership in the civilization of white men. Ku Klux Klan activity peaks. 1924: Indian Citizenship Act Native Americans granted U.S. citizenship. Immigration Act of 1924 (also known as the National Origins Act) virtually closes the door on immigration to the U.S. The Act set a percentage for immigrants entering the U.S. at 2% of the total of any nation s residents in the U.S. as reported in the 1890 census. Eventually the 2% rule is replaced by a limit of 150,000 immigrants annually and quotas determined by national origins as reported in the 1920 census. The intent of the law is to restrict the entry of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, while welcoming relatively large numbers of newcomers from Britain, Ireland, and Northern Europe. It also resulted in severely restricting non- Protestant immigration. Initially immigration from the other Americas was allowed, but measures were quickly developed to deny legal entry to Mexican laborers : U.S. deports 600,000 Mexicans, many of whom are U.S. citizens. 130,000 Arabs present in the United States. 1930: Mexican parents in Texas, in Independent School District v. Salvatierra, prove that the school district illegally segregated their children based on race. 1931: Mexican parents in California overturn school segregation through Alvarez v. Lemon Grove. The court ruled in favor of the Mexican community on the grounds that separate facilities for Mexican American students were not conducive to their Americanization and prevented them from learning English. Alvarez vs. Lemon Grove was the first successful desegregation case in the U.S. Nine African American men falsely accused of rape by two white women in what became known as the Scottsboro Affair. Judged and sentenced by an all-white jury, their case resulted in a landmark victory for civil rights when the Supreme Court ruled that the defendants were denied due process because they did not have a lawyer and were denied a jury of their peers by the barring of Blacks from serving on the jury. 1934: Wheeler Howard (Indian Reorganization) Act restores over 2 million acres of land to tribal ownership, and restores Indian management of their assets. Termination and
5 relocation phases of the Act, implemented in 1954, led to legal dismantling of 61 tribal nations within the U.S. The Tydings-McDuffie Act grants independence to the Philippines and limits Filipino immigration to 50 persons per year. The act specifies that in 1946, when independence is complete, all Filipinos will be excluded under the provisions of the Oriental Exclusion Act. 1935: California law declares Mexican Americans are foreign-born Indians. Filipino Repatriation Act offered free transportation to Filipinos who would return to their homeland and restricted future immigration to the U.S. The National Labor Relations Act (the Wagner Act) legalizes the right to organize and create unions but excludes farm workers and domestic workers, most of whom are Chicano/a, Asian, and African American. 1941: African Americans threaten to march on Washington to protest unequal access to defense jobs; Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) prohibits discrimination in war industries and government. 1942: FDR signs Executive Order 9066, ordering the evacuation and mass incarceration of 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast, most of whom are U.S. citizens or documented immigrants. The Bracero Program invites Mexican workers to work temporarily in the U.S. during the war period where they develop the U.S. agricultural industry. Later they are sent home without the promised pay due to them. 1943: Congress lifts the ban on Chinese immigration and Chinese people are permitted to become naturalized citizens. White mobs in Detroit murder 34 African Americans. White mobs in Los Angeles attack young Mexicans leading to the famous Zoot Suit riots. The police arrest only Mexican youth, not Anglos. 1944: Korematsu v. United States, a landmark case, rules that the exclusion order leading to Japanese American internment was not unconstitutional. 1946: Court ends de jure segregation in California in Mendez v. Westminster, finding that Mexican American children were segregated based on their Latinized appearance and district boundaries manipulated to insure that Mexican American children attended separate schools. 1948: Truman appoints Presidential Committee on Equality of Treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services. 1951: Spanish is restored as a language of instruction in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. 1952: Immigration and Nationality Act, also known as the McCarran-Walter Act, relaxes some immigration restrictions, abolishing the Asiatic Barred Zone and imposing a minimum quota for each nation of 100 persons per year. 1953: Congress passed the Refugee Relief Act, the first American immigration law to specifically mention refugees as a type of immigrant. Under this law, 2000 Palestinian refugees are admitted to the U.S. Muslim Arabs begin arriving in larger numbers than Arab Christians. 1954: The Supreme Court unanimously decides in Brown v. Board of Education that segregation in education is inherently unequal. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service sets up Operation Wetback to round up and deport illegal Mexicans living the U.S. 1955: (Aug.) Fourteen-year-old Emmett Till is kidnapped, brutally beaten, shot and killed for allegedly whistling at a white woman. Two white men arrested for the murder are acquitted by an all-white jury and boast about the murder in a Look magazine interview. (Dec.) Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat at the front of the colored section to a white passenger and is arrested. In response the Montgomery bus boycott begins and lasts over a year until the busses are desegregated. 1957: When nine black students attempt to desegregate all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Governor Orville Faubus orders that they be blocked from attending. President Eisenhower sends federal troops to intervene on behalf of the students.
6 1960: Four black students begin a sit-in at a Woolworth s lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. Six months later the same four students are served. Student sit-ins continue throughout the South and succeed in desegregating swimming pools, parks, theatres, libraries, and other public facilities. Founding of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) providing young black people with a place in the Civil Rights Movement. John F. Kennedy, the first Catholic, elected to President of the United States. 1961: Freedom Rides organized by the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) brought black and white protesters to the South to protest segregation in public facilities. National Indian Youth Council formed by Native Americans to advocate for native rights. 1962: James Meredith is the first black student to enter University of Mississippi, under federal guard. President Kennedy sends in 5,000 troops to quell white violence. 1963: Martin Luther King jailed during anti-segregation protests; writes his famous Letter from the Birmingham Jail, arguing that individuals have a moral duty to disobey unjust laws. Two hundred thousand people attend the March on Washington where Martin Luther King delivers his I Have a Dream speech. A Baptist Church in Birmingham is bombed, killing four young girls in Sunday school. 1964: Economic Opportunity Act allocates funds to fight poverty. President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964, outlawing discrimination in jobs and public accommodations based on race, color, religion, or national origin and providing the federal government with the power to enforce desegregation. Three civil rights workers, Michael Schwerner, James Chaney, and Andrew Goodman, are murdered by Klansmen in Mississippi. 1965: Civil rights workers marching for voting rights are stopped at the Pettus Bridge by police who use tear gas, clubs, and whips against them. Dubbed Bloody Sunday. Immigration and Naturalization Act Immigration reform law repeals national origins quotas, impacting peoples of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. It allows for annual admission of 170,000 from the Eastern hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere. Immediate family members of U.S. citizens are exempt from quotas. This immigration act contributed to the changing demographics of the immigrant population and, also to the increasing racial, ethnic, and religious diversity of the U.S. Mexican American labor leader, Cesar Chavez, organizes the United Farm Workers to strike to change the terrible working conditions of migrant workers. 1966: King begins Chicago campaign to organize against landlords who discriminate. The Black Panther Party is founded in Oakland, California. Muhammed Ali refuses to fight in white man s war and his boxing title is taken away. SNCC calls for U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam. Malcolm X is assassinated. 1967: Congress passes the Voting Rights Act of 1965, outlawing poll taxes, literacy tests, and other measures used to prevent black people from voting, thus making it possible for Southern Blacks to register to vote. 1968: In Loving v. Virginia the Supreme Court rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional, forcing 16 states that still banned interracial marriage to change their laws. Martin Luther King is murdered by racist James Earl Ray. African Americans riot in 168 towns and cities across the United States. 1970: President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968, outlawing discrimination in financing, sale and rental of housing. National Guard is sent to Jackson State and Kent State universities to quell student protests against the Viet Nam War and racial discrimination. (Students are shot at both schools.) 1972: In Lau v. Nichols the Supreme Court rules that school programs conducted exclusively in English deny equal access to education to students who speak other languages; determines that districts have a responsibility to help students overcome their language disadvantage.
7 1975: Indochina Migration and Refugee Act allows special entry into the United States of over 759,000 Vietnamese, 145,000 Cambodians, 186,300 Hmong, and 242,000 Laotians through 2002, many of them Buddhist, Catholic, and Confucianist. 1978: In Bakke v. University of California the Supreme Court outlaws quotas but upholds affirmative action in university admissions. 1980: President Carter signs the Refugee Act of 1980, creating the Federal Refugee Settlement Program to provide for the effective resettlement of refugees and to help them develop economic self-sufficiency. 1982: Unemployed auto workers in Detroit, blaming the Japanese for the loss of their jobs, murder Vincent Chin, a Chinese American mistaken for Japanese. 1986: The Immigration Reform and Control Act criminalizes the employment of undocumented workers; establishes one-year amnesty for undocumented workers living in the U.S. since 1982; and mandates intensification of the Border Patrol. 1988: Congress overrides veto by President Reagan to pass the Civil Rights Restoration Act expanding anti-discrimination laws to private institutions that receive federal funds. 1989: The U.S. government issues $20,000 and a formal apology to each of the surviving 60,000 WWII internees of all the camps within the U.S. 1990: Congress passes a comprehensive new immigration law that sanctions employers for knowingly hiring workers without papers, discouraging employers from hiring Latino and Asian American workers for fear they may not have the right papers (e.g., social security card, legal residency). 1991: After two years of debate, President Bush reverses himself and signs the Civil Rights Act of 1991, strengthening existing civil rights law and providing for damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination. 1992: Riots in Los Angeles, the first in decades, follow the acquittal of four white police officers following the videotaped beating African American Rodney King. 2001: The U.S.A. PATRIOT Act is passed by Congress with virtually no debate, giving the federal government the power to detain suspected terrorists for an unlimited time period without access to legal representation. Over 1000 Arab, Muslim, and South Asian men are detained in secret locations. 2002: The Supreme Court upholds the use of race as one of many factors in admissions to colleges and universities. 2005: Edgar J. Killen, the ringleader in the murder of the Mississippi civil rights workers (Schwerner, Chaney, and Goodman) is convicted of manslaughter on the 41 st anniversary of the crime.
8 Cho, E.H., Arguelles Paz y Puente, F., Louie, M. C. Y., & Khokha, S. (2004). Bridge: Building a race and immigration dialogue in the global economy. Oakland, CA: National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights. Davis, J. E. (2000). The civil rights movement. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Donato, R. (1997). The other struggle for equal schools: Mexican Americans during the civil rights era. Albany: The State University of New York Press. Gonzalez, J. (2000). Harvest of empire: A history of Latinos in the U.S. New York: Penguin. Martinas, S. (1993). Challenging white supremacy: A workshop for activists. Unpublished manuscript (mimeo). Nies, J. (1996). Native American history: A chronology. New York: Ballantine Books. Norton, M. B. et al. (1994). A people and a nation: A history of the United States (4 th ed.). New York: Houghton-Mifflin. Pohlman, M. D. & Whisenhunt, L. V. (2000). Students guide to landmark Congressional laws on civil rights. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Springs, J. (2001). Deculturalization and the struggle for equality (3 rd ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill. Takaki, R. (1989). Strangers from a different shore: A history of Asian Americans. Boston: Little, Brown.
1776 Only people who own land can vote Declaration of Independence signed. Right to vote during the Colonial and Revolutionary periods is restricted to property owners most of whom are white male Protestants
TOPIC/BENCHMARK COMPLETED by the following dates: September 12, 2014 September 22, 2014 October 23, 2014 November 10, 2014 November 25, 2014 December 15, 2014 January 15, 2015 January 29, 2015 U.S. HISTORY
SECTION 1 Note Taking Study Guide EARLY DEMANDS FOR EQUALITY Focus Question: How did African Americans challenge segregation after World War II? Fill in the timeline below with events of the early civil
USA - A Divided Union? - African American Civil Rights In 1865 slaves the Southern states of America were freed - however African Americans across America continued to face discrimination, especially in
How successful was the Civil Rights campaign in achieving its aims between 1950 and 1965? I have a dream... Civil Rights Aims Desegregation Voting Rights Civil Rights End to Discrimination Methods Legal
Name Period Civil Rights Movement (1954-1975) Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of these African Americans is famous for breaking into
1860 s and Before *Slavery *Uncle Toms Cabin *Harriet Tubman *Undergroun d RR Civil Rights Timeline 1860s-1880s *Civil War and Reconstructio n Emancipation Proclamation *13 th -15 th Amendments *KKK 1890s-1950s
Social Studies Name: Directions: Complete the following questions using the link listed below. http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-movement 1. In general, what is meant by civil rights?
I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CIVIL WAR IN THE USA TASK 1: When and how did USA gain independence? TASK 2: Describe the political structure of the USA. USA before the Civil War
Title Suggested Dates Civil War / Reconstruction / STAAR Review Fri., March 27 Tues., April 21, 2015 (16 days) Big Idea/Enduring Understanding The Civil War and Reconstruction and the effects of each changed
#20 in notebook WHAT EVENTS LED TO THE CHEROKEE REMOVAL? I. BACKGROUND 1733 Georgia was founded. Colonists were welcomed by Tomochichi, a Yamacraw Indian. Most of Georgia was inhabited by Indians. 1838
GRADE LEVEL: 7-9 Calculated Acts: Civil Disobedience and Social Change TIME ALLOTMENT: Two 45-minute class periods (excluding homework time) OVERVIEW In this lesson, students will explore civil disobedience
Chapter 15: The South After the Civil War The Economy of the South After the Civil War Three reasons the economy of the South was not very strong before the Civil War 1. Profits were made because labor
N. UNIT TEST AND MODIFIED UNIT TEST Civil Rights Movement Unit Test Miss Strantz U.S. History Matching: Write the letter that best corresponds to each term. (10 points) 1. Brown v. Board of Education 2.
African American History Month Timeline: 1619-2008 1619 The first African American indentured servants arrive in the American Colonies. Less than a decade later, the first slaves are brought into New Amsterdam
Date CHAPTER 29 Form A CHAPTER TEST Civil Rights Part 1: Main Ideas Write the letter of the person who best matches each description. (4 points each) a. Martin Luther King, Jr. f. Stokely Carmichael b.
10-3 The Birth of the Republican Party Main Idea The issue of slavery dominated U.S. politics in the 1850s. Differences Between North and South North South North economy based on manufacturing and industrialization
What were the main developments in race relations in the US, 1945-1968? America could ve been a very different society today without the significant efforts that were made in the development of race relations
World Book Online: The trusted, student-friendly online reference tool. World Book Student Database Name: Date: Find It! American Civil War: Background The Civil War took more American lives than any other
Civil Rights Movement 14 th Amendment (1868) Reaffirmed state and federal citizenship for persons born or naturalized in the U.S Forbade any state from depriving a person of life, liberty, or prosperity
Race Relations in the USA 1945-1968 GCSE History Revision Notes By Dane O Neill irevise.com 2014. All revision notes have been produced by mockness ltd for irevise.com. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyrighted
GEOG1131: Population, Migration & Settlement Tuesday October 20, 2015 Moving Populations: US-Mexico Border Dr. Kevon Rhiney Department of Geography & Geology University of the West Indies - Mona Lecture
The President, the Chief Justice, and the Cherokee Nation OVERVIEW This lesson examines the power of judicial review, its application in the case of Worchester v. Georgia, and legal rights of the Cherokee
Indian Removal: The Cherokees, Jackson, and the Trail of Tears President Andrew Jackson pursued a policy of removing the Cherokees and other Southeastern tribes from their homelands to the unsettled West.
Teacher s Guide Time Needed: One class period Materials Needed: Student worksheets, scissors, tape or glue Copy Instructions: Poster Activity (half class set; single-sided) Transparency Page Student Reading
1 What are the colors of our flag? Red, white, and blue 2 What do the stars on the flag mean? One for each state 3 How many stars are there on our flag? There are 50 stars on our flag. 4 What color are
Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. Corey B. Enos Elementary school 2016 Chapter:1 Civil rights movement The civil rights movement was in equal rights for the blacks and whites. Civil rights is the right
THE THESIS STATEMENT What is a thesis? How do you write a thesis? What makes a good thesis? What is a thesis? WHAT IS A THESIS? A historical interpretation, supported by evidence. A roadmap for your project.
Chapter 10 The Age of Jackson Main Idea The Election of 1824 electoral changes The Election of 1828 Democratic Republicans Details/Notes Henry Clay of Kentucky, Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, and John Quincy
Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement outline The preexisting conditions The Modern Civil Rights Movement Direct action Black veterans Black preachers Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) Southern Christian
Civil Rights for Women and Minorities Unfortunately, the United States has had a long and painful history of racism and discrimination. When European settlers came to North America in the seventeenth century,
Regents Review US History & Government Tuesday 5/13 How did each of the following contribute to the Civil War? Compromise of 1850 California joined the Union as a free state Popular Sovereignty would determine
Manifest Destiny Chapter 13 Mountain Men Rough and tough men who braved the wilderness to trap and capture furs, animals, etc First Americans to move beyond the Rocky Mountains Western Land Americans believed
Name Date Mastering the Content Circle the letter next to the best answer. Assessment: The Civil War 1. Which of these was a Northern advantage at the start of the Civil War? A. highly trained soldiers
Freedom Fighters 10 Great Men and Women Who Fought For Freedom, Justice and Civil Rights For African Americans William H. Carney (1840-1908) Sergeant William H. Carney was the first African American to
Colonial & Revolutionary Periods SAMPLE APUSH ESSAY TOPICS 1) Analyze the cultural and economic responses of TWO of the following groups to the Indians of North America before 1750. British French Spanish
Immigration & Migration in the h 19 th Century AHS Ms.Warnken The Chinese Experience in America beginning in 1848 http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/a_f/angel/gallery.htm On route to America. Photo
MINNESOTA CIVICS TEST The following 50 questions which serve as the Minnesota's civics test were selected from the 100 questions used for the naturalization test administered by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration
Document 10 Native American Right Movement: Background Essay Introduction Dating back to the 1800 s, U. S. government policies isolated Native Americans on reservations and denied them social and political
1 2 Battle Cries and Freedom Songs: The Civil War 1861 1865 Mobilization, North and South What were the North s key advantages at the outset of the war? The Early War, 1861 1862 How did the two sides objectives
Welcome to History 43 The Mexican-American in the History of the United States I Prof. Valadez 1 Today s Topics Review: Texas Revolution 1830s What were the causes of the Mexican- American War 1846-1848?
World Book Online: The trusted, student-friendly online reference tool. World Book Student Database Name: Date: Find It! Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was one of the most important leaders
Lesson Plan Central Historical Question: Why did people in the 1830s support? Materials: PPT United Streaming Video Segment: Forced Westward (from The West: Empire Upon the Trails 1806-1848): http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidassetid=cb1a416
Fifty Years Later: What Would King Say Now? Keith M. Kilty On August 28, 1963, some 250,000 people marched on Washington, DC. The platform for the speakers and singers program was set up on the steps of
United States History II Final Exam Review 1. Because of the Neutrality Act of 1937, America could not? 2. Hitler made his first grab for territory by sending troops into what country? 3. In the 1930s,
FAQ Chickasaw and Choctaw Timber, Mineral Rights and Tribal Lands Q. What is the case currently before the Federal Court? In 2005, the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations brought suit against the U.S. Government
8th Social Studies B Practice Name: Instructions: Copyright 2000-2002 Measured Progress, All Rights Reserved : 8th Social Studies B Practice 1. Which is a correct statement about the Supreme Court s Dred
Read Kansas! Seventh Grade M-18 Overview War for the Union and for Freedom! : Recruitment of Civil War Volunteer Regiments This lesson examines the recruitment of volunteer regiments in Kansas at the beginning
If [people] define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. Social Change Race -W. I. Thomas (1928) The Social Construction of Reality Micro-level Social interactions The process through
QUANTIFICATION OF MIGRATION The Mexican-origin Population of the United States in the Twentieth Century Jennifer E. Glick & Jennifer Van Hook The Mexican-origin population in the United States has grown
Chapter 16: The Economy of the West after the Civil War Labor Most people thought the West would be poor farmland, with extreme temperatures and little rain. They imagined the land had few trees. The West
Name: Date: 1. President Lincoln's decision on what to do about the situation at Fort Sumter in the first weeks of his administration can best be characterized as A) ill thought out. B) rash and hotheaded.
Martin Luther King Jr. A Reading A Z Level P Leveled Book Word Count: 893 LEVELED BOOK P Martin Luther King Jr. M P S Written by Bea Silverberg Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and materials.
Teacher s Guide Time Needed: One class period Materials Needed: Student worksheets, PowerPoint (paper option also available) Copy Instructions: Student Materials (class set; double-sided) Voting Rights
The Bill of Rights did not come from a desire to protect the liberties won in the American Revolution, but rather from a fear of the powers of the new federal government. Assess the validity of the statement.
Dates Social Studies Standards LCS Adopted Resource Chapter and pg # Additional Resources 17 Days 1. Compare historical and current economic, political, and geographic information about Alabama on thematic
Name: Class: _ Date: _ Civil War and Reconstruction Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The agrarian South was at a disadvantage against the
Historical Notes on Native Americans 1. Christopher Columbus, Native American Slave Trader 1492 Columbus shipped 10 Arawak men and women to Spain in the first Indian slavery dealings from North America.
AMERICAN *IMPERIALISM NOTES *Imperialism When stronger nations extend economic, political, or military control over weaker nations Like Pacman Gobbling up the little dots As nations industrialized, they
Grade 4 Alabama Studies Fourth-grade students apply geographic concepts obtained in Grade 3 to a study of their own state and relate geography to history, economics, and politics in Alabama. They examine
The Making of a Nation: The French and Indian War During the eighteenth century, Spain, France, and Britain controlled land in North America. Spain controlled Florida. France was powerful in the northern
Internment of Japanese Lesson Plan Central Historical Question Why were Japanese Americans interned during World War II? Materials: Copies of Timeline Copies of Documents B-E Government newsreel: http://www.archive.org/details/japanese1943
U.S I Quarterly Assessment Practice Test Circle the best answer to each question. 1. Which of the following is NOT an argument in support of imperialism or expansionism? A. The United States should become
OVERVIEW: THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT The beginning of the Reconstruction era brought new hope to many African Americans in the South. Slavery had been abolished, and the newly instituted 13 th, 14 th, and
Martin Luther King, Jr. A Reading A Z Level S Leveled Reader Word Count: 1,539 LEVELED READER S Written by Bea Silverberg Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and materials. www.readinga-z.com
1 Citizenship Study Guide 1: Welcome to America 1. Why does the flag have 50 stars? 2. What is the name of the national anthem? 3. What is the capital of the United States? 4. Who is the governor of your
THE IMPACT OF MARTIN LUTHER KING: A PERSONAL VIEW Percy A. Pierre A Keynote Speech at The First Annual Martin Luther King Jr. Celebration Breakfast MIT Lincoln Laboratory Lexington, Massachusetts 27 January
U.S History I - Constitution through World War II Unit Themes Enduring Understandings Essential Questions Historical Questions Wisconsin State Social Studies Standards Curriculum Revision 2011-2012 Declaration
CHAPTER TWENTY-EIGHT: THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT, 1945 1966 ORIGINS OF THE MOVEMENT Civil Rights after World War II The Segregated South Brown v. Board of Education Crisis in Little Rock NO EASY ROAD TO
Name Test Date: Civil War Study Guide Part II This test will cover: SOL 9d: Who s Who in the Civil War - Who are considered leaders of the Civil War? - How did Lincoln s view of the nature of the Union
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Immigration & Naturalization Service 100 Typical Questions 1. WHAT ARE THE COLORS OF OUR FLAG? 2. HOW MANY STARS ARE THERE IN OUR FLAG? 3. WHAT COLOR ARE THE STARS ON OUR FLAG? 4.
The Civil War Chapter 15 The Anaconda Plan (Winfield Scott Essentially a siege Hoped for southern unionists to retake control of their governments Not practical because of lack of ships The war unfolded
POST WAR INTOLERANCE 1. Economy in Turmoil 2. African Americans and politics in the 1920 s 3. The Red Scare 4. Nativism 5. The Ku Klux Klan Rises Again Economy in Turmoil Soldiers coming home needed jobs
Civil War Lesson #1: The Road to War Major Topics: Slavery States Rights Sectional Differences How did slavery cause the Civil War? This first lesson centers on one of the most significant and contested
Chapter 13 IMPENDING CRISIS How were the boundary disputes in Oregon and Texas resolved? Britain and the United States both claimed sovereignty in the Northwest, a dispute initially resolved by an 1818
The American Civil War The American Civil War By ReadWorks Source: United States Marines The American Civil War lasted from 1861 to 1865. It was the result of a period of many tense years between the Northern
Limited A student performing at the Limited Level demonstrates a minimal command of Ohio s Learning Standards for American History. A student at this level has an emerging ability to use and evaluate primary
AFRICAN-AMERICAN CONTRIBUTIONS SERIES presented by BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee THE COLOR OF BLOOD TIME LINE OF MILITARY INTEGRATION 1639 The Virginia House of Burgesses passed the first legislation