5 Experiment 5 Motor Speed Control

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

2 As you have already noticed, there are 4 holes on the motor, the combination of the motor and shaft encoder enables you to measure the frequency of the motor by counting the number of the holes the shaft encoder detects and divide by 4. Hints for Motor Speed Testing There are two ways to measure speed, counting holes in a given period of time or measuring time for a complete revolution of the wheel (or several revolutions to average things out). Whichever method you choose is up to you. The Detector can be read by an interrupt. The detector usually will output a 1 when there isn t a hole, so you can use the falling edge of the detector to trigger an interrupt to count a hole. 1. Method 1: Timing can be done with Timer 0 or any of the other timers in the chip. Count Overflow interrupts to measure a period of one second while counting the number of holes that pass by using an external interrupt. Every second you can update your speed on the LCD. 2. Method 2: Set up the timer to time over an appropriate period. Wait for the first external interrupt to indicate the first hole and record the timer value. After four more external interrupts you know that 1 revolution has occurred. Find the difference between the start and end times (you may also need to count the number of timer overflows) and you can calculate the period of rotation for the wheel. From this value you can work out how many revolutions could occur in a second and display it. The first method is fairly simple but will only update every second. The second method is a little more tricky, but gives you much higher accuracy and a MUCH faster refresh rate (in fact you will probably have to limit this rate if you want to read the number off the LCD in time). Write an AVR assembly language program that measures the speed of the motor by counting the number of holes that has been detected using the shaft encoder, and display the speed of the motor on the LCD. You might need to go back to the previous experiment for how to initialize, and write to LCD properly. Assemble your program using AVR Studio, download the program to the AVR Microcontroller Board and show your working program to the Laboratory assessor. Remember to save and delete your work before you leave the laboratory. Checkpoint 1: Signature: 5.5 Part 2: Pulse Width Modulation Analog circuits An analog signal has a continuously varying value, with infinite resolution in both time and magnitude. A nine-volt battery is an example of an analog device, in that its output voltage is not 76

3 precisely 9V, changes over time, and can take any real-numbered value. Similarly, the amount of current drawn from a battery is not limited to a finite set of possible values. Analog signals are distinguishable from digital signals because the latter always take values only from a finite set of predetermined possibilities, such as the set 0V, 5V. Analog voltages and currents can be used to control things directly, like the motor. In a simple DC motor, a POT is connected to a variable resistor. As you turn the POT, the resistance goes up or down. As that happens, the current flowing through the resistor increases or decreases. This changes the amount of current driving the motor, thus increasing or decreasing the speed. An analog circuit is one, like the motor, whose output is linearly proportional to its input. As intuitive and simple as analog control may seem, it is not always economically attractive or otherwise practical. For one thing, analog circuits tend to drift over time and can, therefore, be very difficult to tune. Precision analog circuits, which solve that problem, can be very large, heavy (just think of older home stereo equipment), and expensive. Analog circuits can also get very hot; the power dissipated is proportional to the voltage across the active elements multiplied by the current through them. Analog circuitry can also be sensitive to noise. Because of its infinite resolution, any perturbation or noise on an analog signal necessarily changes the current value. Digital control By controlling analog circuits digitally, system costs and power consumption can be drastically reduced. What s more, many microcontrollers and already include on-chip PWM controllers, making implementation easy. PWM is a way of digitally encoding analog signal levels. Through the use of high-resolution counters, the duty cycle of a square wave is modulated to encode a specific analog signal level. The PWM signal is still digital because, at any given instant of time, the full DC supply is either fully on or fully off. The voltage or current source is supplied to the analog load by means of a repeating series of on and off pulses. The on-time is the time during which the DC power is supplied and the off-time is the period during which that the power is not supplied. Given a sufficient bandwidth, any analog value can be encoded with PWM. Figure 1 shows three different PWM signals. Figure 1a shows a PWM output at a 10% duty cycle. That is, the signal is on for 10% of the period and off the other 90%. Figures 1b and 1c show PWM outputs at 50% and 90% duty cycles, respectively. These three PWM outputs encode three different analog signal values, at 10%, 50%, and 90% of the full strength. If, for example, the supply is 5V and the duty cycle is 10%, a 0.5V analog signal results. 77

4 Figure 1: Pulse Width Modulation PWM is a common technique for speed control. A good analogy is bicycle riding. You peddle (exert energy) and then coast (relax) using your momentum to carry you forward. As you slow down (due to wind resistance, friction, road shape) you peddle to speed up and then coast again. The duty cycle is the ratio of peddling time to the total time (peddle+coast time). A 100% duty cycle means you are peddling all the time, and 50% only half the time. PWM for motor speed control works in a very similar way. Instead of peddling, your motor is given a fixed voltage value (say +5 V) and starts spinning. The voltage is then removed and the motor coasts. By continuing this voltage on-off duty cycle, motor speed is controlled. To control the speed of a DC motor, we need a variable voltage DC power source. However, if you take a 5V motor and switch on the power, the motor will start to speed up, motors do not respond immediately so it will take a small time to reach full speed. If we switch the power off, sometimes before the motor reaches full speed, then the motor will start to slow down. If we switch the power on the off quickly enough, the motor will run at some speed part way between zero and full speed. This is exactly what a PWM controller does; it switches the motor on in series of pulses. To control the motor speed it varies the width of the pulses hence Pulse Width Modulation. PWM can be controlled on the Atmega64 through the use of Timer 0 and its Phase Correct PWM mode. This is explained in the datasheet in the Timer 0 chapter (pp99-100). You should read this section before continuing. Basically, you control the timer to vary the duty cycle of the signal on the output pin which varies the average voltage on the pin which controls the motor speed. PWM allows 256 different duty cycles to be output to the device. Not all of these are high enough to overcome the friction of the motor shaft, but most will allow you to control the motor speed with fairly good accuracy. Timer 0 allows control of the PWM on pin B4 of the microcontroller. Therefore you should be connecting PORT B4 to the motor to control it this way. Once the timer is set up to perform PWM, you can control the duty cycle and therefore control the speed of the motor by using the OCR0 port. This can be set up so that increasing the value of this port will increase the duty cycle of the output pin. The ports used to control the PWM are described below. All references to tables and figures 78

5 are those in the Atmega64 datasheet. Timer Counter Control Register (TCCR0): This port controls the timer. The bit values you need to control are described. Bit 7 - FOC0: This bit is not used for PWM it should be 0. Bits 6,3 - WGM01:0: These bits determine what mode the timer is in. Table 52 shows that WGM01(bit 6) should be 0 and WGM00(bit 3) should be 1 to enable PWM mode. Bit 5:4 - COM01:0: These bits further control the output type of the PWM signal. Table 54 shows the values for this pin. To enable the type of PWM we want, set COM01 to 1 and COM00 to 0. Bit 2:0 - CS02:0: These pins select the clock speed used. It doesn t really matter what speed you set the clock to for PWM, so you can just use the value 001 for these three bits Timer/Counter Register (TCNT0): This port contains the current value of the timer. You can read this value if you want to find the current time but it s not required. Output Compare Register (OCR0): The value on this port determines the duty cycle. The larger the value, the higher the duty cycle and the faster the motor will go. Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSK): This allows you to create an interrupt if you wish, but you probably won t need these. The interrupt types are: Timer Overflow (TOIE0): Interrupts every time the timer overflows (i.e. at the frequency of the clock. Output Compare(OCIE0): This interrupt occurs whenever the output is going to change. You can get a better understanding of these interrupts from Figure 40. Write an assembly program for DC motor speed control. You program should work as follows: 1. When it is started, the motor spins at the speed of 20 rps (rounds per second) clockwise. 2. Every time when the key 1 on the keypad is pressed, the motor speed is increased by 10 rps. The maximum speed is 100 rps. 3. Every time when the key 2 on the keypad is pressed, the motor speed is decreased by 10 rps. The minimum speed is 20 rps. 4. When the key 3 is pressed, the motor stops. 5. When the key 4 is pressed, the motor starts spinning at the speed of 20 rps. Assemble your program using AVR Studio, download the program to the AVR Microcontroller Board and show your working program to the Laboratory assessor. Remember to save and delete your work before you leave the laboratory. 79

6 Checkpoint 2: Signature: 80

Pulse Width Modulation

Pulse Width Modulation Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a powerful technique for controlling analog circuits with a microprocessor's digital outputs. PWM is employed in a wide variety of applications, ranging

Interfacing a Servo to the ATmega16

Learning Objectives: Interfacing a Servo to the ATmega16 After successfully completing this lab, students will be able to: Desribe how a radio control (RC) servo works Interface a RC servo to a microcontroller

MAE106 Laboratory Exercises Lab # 3 Open-loop control of a DC motor

MAE106 Laboratory Exercises Lab # 3 Open-loop control of a DC motor University of California, Irvine Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Goals To understand and gain insight about how a

Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation

Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation Samer El-Haj-Mahmoud Electronics Engineering Technology Program Texas A&M University Instructor s Portion Summary The purpose of this lab is to

CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops

CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops In this chapter, you will be building the part of the circuit that controls the command sequencing. The required circuit must operate the counter and the memory chip. When the teach

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit Using a 555 Timer Chip Goals of Experiment Demonstrate the operation of a simple PWM circuit that can be used to adjust the intensity of a green LED by varying

8-Bit Timer/Counter 0

Counter/Timer 0 and 2 (TCNT0, TCNT2) are nearly identical. Differences: -TCNT0 can run off an external 32Khz clock (Tosc) or the internal clock after it has passed through the prescaler. -TCNT2 can run

This representation is compared to a binary representation of a number with N bits.

Chapter 11 Analog-Digital Conversion One of the common functions that are performed on signals is to convert the voltage into a digital representation. The converse function, digital-analog is also common.

PWM IN AVR. Developed by: Krishna Nand Gupta Prashant Agrawal Mayur Agarwal

PWM IN AVR Developed by: Krishna Nand Gupta Prashant Agrawal Mayur Agarwal PWM (pulse width Modulation) What is PWM? Frequency = (1/T) Duty Cycle = (Thigh/T) What is need of PWM? I answer this in respect

AVR Timer/Counter. Prof Prabhat Ranjan DA-IICT, Gandhinagar

AVR Timer/Counter Prof Prabhat Ranjan DA-IICT, Gandhinagar 8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM Single Compare Unit Counter Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload) Glitch-free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator

1. Learn about the 555 timer integrated circuit and applications 2. Apply the 555 timer to build an infrared (IR) transmitter and receiver

Electronics Exercise 2: The 555 Timer and its Applications Mechatronics Instructional Laboratory Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Lab Director: I. Charles Ume,

DC Motor with Shaft Encoder

Learning Objectives DC Motor with Shaft Encoder By the end of this laboratory experiment, the experimenter should be able to: Explain how an encoder operates and how it can be use determine rotational

COMP2121 Experiment 5

COMP2121 Experiment 5 1. Objectives In this lab, you will learn AVR programming on Parallel input/output; Some typical input/output devices; and Interrupts 2. Preparation Before coming to the laboratory,

Display Board Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Power/Speed Controller Module

Display Board Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Power/Speed Controller Module RS0 Microcontroller LEDs Motor Control Pushbuttons Purpose: To demonstrate an easy way of using a Freescale RS0K2 microcontroller

Application of PWM speed control

The Fan Company www.jmcproducts.com Application of PWM speed control Prepared by JMC Engineering Team Introduction: Technical Report Regulating fan speed according to the temperature inside an enclosure

DC motors direction and speed control by(roman)

DC motors direction and speed control by(roman) Purpose: This article is intended for beginners whose project contains DC motors that have power supply Voltage and Current rates higher than MCU (microcontroller)

ETEC 421 - Digital Controls PIC Lab 10 Pulse Width Modulation

ETEC 421 - Digital Controls PIC Lab 10 Pulse Width Modulation Program Definition: Write a program to control the speed of a dc motor using pulse width modulation. Discussion: The speed of a dc motor is

EET272 Worksheet Week 9

EET272 Worksheet Week 9 answer questions 1-5 in preparation for discussion for the quiz on Monday. Finish the rest of the questions for discussion in class on Wednesday. Question 1 Questions AC s are becoming

(Refer Slide Time 6:09)

Digital Circuits and Systems Prof. S. Srinivasan Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture 3 Combinational Logic Basics We defined digital signal as a signal which

Accurate Measurement of the Mains Electricity Frequency

Accurate Measurement of the Mains Electricity Frequency Dogan Ibrahim Near East University, Faculty of Engineering, Lefkosa, TRNC dogan@neu.edu.tr Abstract The frequency of the mains electricity supply

M8 Transistor Tester(Ver.12864) Installation Instruction

M8 Transistor Tester(Ver.12864) Installation Instruction Thank you for purchasing our M8 Transistor Tester Kit Tools. We believe our product will bring you an experience of convenience and accuracy. Before

PROGRAMMING WITH ARDUINO - 1

PROGRAMMING WITH ARDUINO - 1 IESL RoboGames 2014 University of Moratuwa Department of Computer Science & Engineering Table of Contents Introduction... 2 Arduino Development Board... 2 How to Setup Arduino

NM-AN04 Position Control using NanoMuscle Actuators Rev March 2003 Applicable NanoMuscle Families: RS Rotary and NM Commercial

NM-AN0 Position Control using Actuators Rev. 9 March 00 Applicable Families: RS Rotary and NM Commercial Application Note In their standard form all actuators can provide simple full-range motion by simply

Differential Signaling Doesn t Require Differential Impedance. Or, How to Design a Differential Signaling Circuit

Article for Printed Circuit Design By Lee W. Ritchey, 3Com Corporation Differential Signaling Doesn t Require Differential Impedance Or, How to Design a Differential Signaling Circuit That title may seem

PROJECT PRESENTATION ON CELLPHONE OPERATED ROBOTIC ASSISTANT

PROJECT PRESENTATION ON CELLPHONE OPERATED ROBOTIC ASSISTANT ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT SVNIT, SURAT-395007, INDIA Prepared by: Anurag Gupta (U05EC401) Dhrumeel Bakshi (U05EC326) Dileep Dhakal

The Electronic Scale

The Electronic Scale Learning Objectives By the end of this laboratory experiment, the experimenter should be able to: Explain what an operational amplifier is and how it can be used in amplifying signal

Incremental Encoder Laboratory For Testing and Simulating Incremental Encoder signals Part No. ES002 Users Manual

Incremental Encoder Laboratory For Testing and Simulating Incremental Encoder signals Part No. ES002 Users Manual The Encoder Laboratory combines into the one housing and updates two separate encoder instruments

ATMega. Development Board. Manual V1.0

ATMega Development Board Manual V1.0 ATMega Development Board.doc Page 1/9 Introduction Development boards allow a quick implementation of a prototype design and successive downloads of the program directly

Chapter 4: One-Shots, Counters, and Clocks

Chapter 4: One-Shots, Counters, and Clocks I. The Monostable Multivibrator (One-Shot) The timing pulse is one of the most common elements of laboratory electronics. Pulses can control logical sequences

LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Infrared Transmitter/Receiver (Note to Teaching Assistant: The week before this experiment is performed, place students into groups of two and assign each group a specific frequency

Eric Mitchell April 2, 2012 Application Note: Control of a 180 Servo Motor with Arduino UNO Development Board

Eric Mitchell April 2, 2012 Application Note: Control of a 180 Servo Motor with Arduino UNO Development Board Abstract This application note is a tutorial of how to use an Arduino UNO microcontroller to

LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS

LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS Objective In this experiment you will study the i-v characteristics of an MOS transistor. You will use the MOSFET as a variable resistor and as a switch. BACKGROUND

555 Timers. We are going to look at using the 555 to create two very different types of timer. A MONOSTABLE timer and an ASTABLE timer.

555 Timers We are now going to concentrate on specific IC s and how they can be used to perform useful functions. In turn we shall be looking at Timers, Amplifiers, Counters, Microprocessors and finally

Using Arduino Microcontrollers to Sense DC Motor Speed and Position

ECE480 Design Team 3 Using Arduino Microcontrollers to Sense DC Motor Speed and Position Tom Manner April 4, 2011 page 1 of 7 Table of Contents 1. Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------

Programmable Timer. Build Instructions. Issue 1.1

Build Instructions Issue 1.1 Build Instructions Before you put any components in the board or pick up the soldering iron, just take a look at the Printed Circuit Board (PCB). The components go in the side

Jenna Stallings. Keybot Master. Instructors: Dr. Arroyo Dr. Schwartz. TAs: Josh Weaver, Ryan Stevens, Tim Martin

Jenna Stallings Keybot Master Instructors: Dr. Arroyo Dr. Schwartz TAs: Josh Weaver, Ryan Stevens, Tim Martin Table of Contents Abstract The Keybot Master is an autonomous robot that will search for misplaced

1/22/16. You Tube Video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ympzipfabyw. Definitions. Duty Cycle: on-time per period (specified in per cent)

Definition Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is simply a way of getting the micro-controller to manage pulsing a pin on and off at a set period and duty cycle. The LPC11U24 has four timers with four match registers

Experiment 8 : Pulse Width Modulation

Name/NetID: Teammate/NetID: Experiment 8 : Pulse Width Modulation Laboratory Outline In experiment 5 we learned how to control the speed of a DC motor using a variable resistor. This week, we will learn

Meters, Power Supplies and Generators

1. Meters Meters, Power Supplies and Generators Generally analog meters respond to the average of the signal being measured. This is due to the mechanical mass of the pointer and the RC response time of

PERIPHERAL INTERFACE CONTROLLERS. There are many different Peripheral Interface Controllers: examples include the PIC16F873 and the PIC16F876 and the

PERIPHERAL INTERFACE CONTROLLERS There are many different Peripheral Interface Controllers: examples include the PIC16F873 and the PIC16F876 and the PIC16F877. The PIC16F873 and PIC16F876 have the same

Using a Multimeter to Analyze a Circuit: Measuring Current and Voltage Calculating Power and Resistance

Name: Date: Using a Multimeter to Analyze a Circuit: Measuring Current and Voltage Calculating Power and Resistance Background Information and Pre-Lab Activity Materials: One solar module One small DC

Timer A (0 and 1) and PWM EE3376

Timer A (0 and 1) and PWM EE3376 General Peripheral Programming Model Each peripheral has a range of addresses in the memory map peripheral has base address (i.e. 0x00A0) each register used in the peripheral

Design of Automatic Transformer Winding Machine

Design of Automatic Transformer Winding Machine Nishad S.Joshi 1, Chetan B. Bulbule 2, Sagar D.Domale 3,Prof.Jayashree Deka 4 1,2,3, B.E. Electrical, 4 Asst Prof. Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical

Lab #4 Capacitors and Inductors. Capacitor and Inductor Transient Response

Capacitor and Inductor Transient Response Capacitor Theory Like resistors, capacitors are also basic circuit elements. Capacitors come in a seemingly endless variety of shapes and sizes, and they can all

Constructing a precision SWR meter and antenna analyzer. Mike Brink HNF, Design Technologist.

Constructing a precision SWR meter and antenna analyzer. Mike Brink HNF, Design Technologist. Abstract. I have been asked to put together a detailed article on a SWR meter. In this article I will deal

Step 1: Create the voltage source.

Glucose meter In this lab we will build a blood glucose meter, similar to the commercial devices that are used to monitor glucose levels in patients with diabetes. Diabetes is a serious disease which affects

Pulse Width Modulation Applications

Pulse Width Modulation Applications Lecture 21 EE 383 Microcomputers Learning Objectives What is DTMF? How to use PWM to generate DTMF? How to use PWM to control a servo motor? How to use PWM to control

Iowa State University Electrical and Computer Engineering. E E 452. Electric Machines and Power Electronic Drives

Electrical and Computer Engineering E E 452. Electric Machines and Power Electronic Drives Laboratory #10 Quadrature Encoder Basics Summary Machine control techniques often require accurate speed and/or

PHYSICS 176 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II. Experiment 2 (two weeks) Direct Current Measurement and Ohm's Law

PHYSICS 176 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II Experiment 2 (two weeks) Direct Current Measurement and Ohm's Law Equipment: Supplies: VOM (volt-ohm-milliammeter), digital multimeter, power supply. 1/2 watt carbon

Digital Systems Based on Principles and Applications of Electrical Engineering/Rizzoni (McGraw Hill

Digital Systems Based on Principles and Applications of Electrical Engineering/Rizzoni (McGraw Hill Objectives: Analyze the operation of sequential logic circuits. Understand the operation of digital counters.

Servo Info and Centering

Info and Centering A servo is a mechanical motorized device that can be instructed to move the output shaft attached to a servo wheel or arm to a specified position. Inside the servo box is a DC motor

Example 1: 2-wire resistance measurements vs. 4-wire resistance measurements using a DMM

Overview The basic circuits and electronics devices lab is one of the first electrical engineering lab courses students will take. In this lab, students become familiar with making basic electrical measurements

Stepper Motor Drive For Position Control in Robotic Applications

Stepper Motor Drive For Position Control in Robotic Applications MR. SANDEEP S NIMBALKAR PROF MRS SHUBHANGI.S.LANDGE Department of Electrical Engineering AISSMS IOIT Engineering college pune Abstract This

Lab 3. Transistor and Logic Gates

Lab 3. Transistor and Logic Gates Laboratory Instruction Today you will learn how to use a transistor to amplify a small AC signal as well as using it as a switch to construct digital logic circuits. Introduction

[F/T] [5] [KHz] [AMP] [3] [V] 4 ) To set DC offset to -2.5V press the following keys [OFS] [+/-] [2] [.] [5] [V]

FG085 minidds Function Generator Manual of Operation Applicable Models: 08501, 08501K, 08502K, 08503, 08503K Applicable Firmware Version: 1 ) 113-08501-100 or later (for U5) 2 ) 113-08502-030 or later

(Refer Slide Time: 00:01:23 min)

Computer Aided Design Prof. Anoop Chalwa Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Lecture No. # 02 Input Output Devices, Raster Graphics Today we will be talking about

Selecting and Implementing H-Bridges in DC Motor Control. Daniel Phan A37005649

Selecting and Implementing H-Bridges in DC Motor Control Daniel Phan A37005649 ECE 480 Design Team 3 Spring 2011 Abstract DC motors can be used in a number of applications that require automated movements.

Design and Implementation of IR based Line Follower Robot for Cooperative Task Sharing

Design and Implementation of IR based Line Follower Robot for Cooperative Task Sharing Pintu and Alka Dubey * School of Electronics, DAVV, Indore romiaad@gmail.com *,pintumore.31.elex@gmail.com ABSTACT-

Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor

Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor INTRODUCTION Capacitors 1 are devices that can store electric charge and energy. Capacitors have several uses, such as filters in DC power supplies and as energy storage

Experiment 4 1. Objectives The objectives of this experiment are to Implement functions using AVR assembly language. Use a stack to store dynamic data such as parameters and local variables. Use AVR macros.

MD03-50Volt 20Amp H Bridge Motor Drive

MD03-50Volt 20Amp H Bridge Motor Drive Overview The MD03 is a medium power motor driver, designed to supply power beyond that of any of the low power single chip H-Bridges that exist. Main features are

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS AND COMPONENT DRAWINGS

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS AND COMPONENT DRAWINGS Dr. Victor Giurgiutiu Page 70 1/17/01 BASIC MULTIMIETER OPERATION BASIC MULTIMETER INFORMATION Multimeter is a measuring instrument. It can be used to measure voltage,

Digital Fundamentals

Digital Fundamentals Tenth Edition Floyd Chapter 1 2009 Pearson Education, Upper 2008 Pearson Saddle River, Education NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Analog Quantities Most natural quantities that we see

: Line tracking BEAM robot kit 1. Line tracking BEAM robot kit

: Line tracking BEAM robot kit 1 Line tracking BEAM robot kit 2 : Line tracking BEAM robot kit : Line tracking BEAM robot kit 3 Non-programming line tracking robot from Basic Electronic circuit This is

OPTI 380B Intermediate Optics Laboratory

OPTI 380B Intermediate Optics Laboratory Lab 9 Microcontroller / Data Acquisition Project I Objectives: This lab is an introduction to the world of microcontrollers. In particular, we will explore the

The University of Texas at Arlington Lecture 11 Timers, Capture/Compare/PWM

The University of Texas at Arlington Lecture 11 Timers, Capture/Compare/PWM CSE 3442/5442 PIC Timers PIC18 family microcontrollers have two to five timers on board. Timers can be used to generate time

AMT 102 & 103 capacitive encoder CUI Inc

AMT 102 & 103 capacitive encoder 1 Contents Purpose the purpose of this training module is to familiarize you with rotary encoders and to show the benefits of the AMT102 & 103 Objectives understand what

Wireless DC Motor Speed Control

Wireless DC Motor Speed Control Senior Design Proposal 2012 Spring Yu Qiao & Jing Y. Guo TA: Jim Kolodziej Introduction The title of our project is High-performance low-cost low-loss wireless DC motor

How do you measure voltage and current in electric circuits? Materials

20A Electricity How do you measure voltage and current in electric circuits? Electricity Investigation 20A We use electricity every day, nearly every minute! In this Investigation you will build circuits

If an occupancy of room is zero, i.e. room is empty then light source will be switched off automatically

EE389 Electronic Design Lab Project Report, EE Dept, IIT Bombay, Nov 2009 Fully-automated control of lighting and security system of a Room Group No: D2 Bharat Bhushan (06d04026) Sravan

Dimensions: Specifications:

Rover 5 Rover 5 is a new breed of tracked robot chassis designed specifically for students and hobbyist. Unlike conventional tracked chassis s the clearance can be adjusted by rotating the gearboxes in

Tutorial. replace them with cell-phone operated module. The advantages of a cell-phone operated bot are:-

Tutorial Overview: The basic aim of the project is to find an alternative to the usual RF circuits that are seen so frequently and replace them with cell-phone operated module. The advantages of a cell-phone

AVR127: Understanding ADC Parameters. Introduction. Features. Atmel 8-bit and 32-bit Microcontrollers APPLICATION NOTE

Atmel 8-bit and 32-bit Microcontrollers AVR127: Understanding ADC Parameters APPLICATION NOTE Introduction This application note explains the basic concepts of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and the

Timing pulses & counters

Timing pulses & counters Timing Pulses Important element of laboratory electronics Pulses can control logical sequences with precise timing. If your detector sees a charged particle or a photon, you might

WHY DIFFERENTIAL? instruments connected to the circuit under test and results in V COMMON.

WHY DIFFERENTIAL? Voltage, The Difference Whether aware of it or not, a person using an oscilloscope to make any voltage measurement is actually making a differential voltage measurement. By definition,

Measuring Insulation Resistance of Capacitors

Application Note Measuring Insulation Resistance of Capacitors A common use of high resistance measuring instruments (often called megohmmeters or insulation resistance testers) is measuring the insulation

Lab 3 - DC Circuits and Ohm s Law

Lab 3 DC Circuits and Ohm s Law L3-1 Name Date Partners Lab 3 - DC Circuits and Ohm s Law OBJECTIES To learn to apply the concept of potential difference (voltage) to explain the action of a battery in

Speed and Direction Control of DC Motor Without using Microcontroller

Speed and Direction Control of DC Motor Without using Microcontroller N.Bagyalakshmi 1, R.Abinaya 2 Assistant Professor, Department of EIE, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur, Tamil Nadu, India 1

Rotating Machinery Diagnostics & Instrumentation Solutions for Maintenance That Matters www.mbesi.com

13 Aberdeen Way Elgin, SC 29045 Cell (803) 427-0791 VFD Fundamentals & Troubleshooting 19-Feb-2010 By: Timothy S. Irwin, P.E. Sr. Engineer tsi@mbesi.com Rotating Machinery Diagnostics & Instrumentation

Application Note: MSS-7302

Application Note: MSS-7302 Using Table the MPS160 of Contents ASIC 1. Overview 2. Quadrature Signals 3. Resolution 4. Accuracy 5. Positioning and Speed Applications 5.1. Positioning Applications 5.2. Speed

Electronics 5: Arduino, PWM, Mosfetts and Motors

BIOE 123 Module 6 Electronics 5: Arduino, PWM, Mosfetts and Motors Lecture (30 min) Date Learning Goals Learn about pulse width modulation (PWM) as a control technique Learn how to use a Mosfets to control

Installing, Connecting and Using the Encoder Module

Optical Incremental Encoders Overview SECTION 12 Installing, Connecting and Using the Encoder Module This section describes the Encoder module that is factory installed inside the AX2850, or that may be

Introduction 1 Block diagram 1

Electric Druid VCLFO Introduction 1 Block diagram 1 Features 2 Fastest LFO frequency of around 12.8Hz 2 Slowest LFO frequency of around 0.05Hz 2 10-bit LFO output resolution 2 19.5KHz sample output rate

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Drives. AC Drives Using PWM Techniques

Drives AC Drives Using PWM Techniques Power Conversion Unit The block diagram below shows the power conversion unit in Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) drives. In this type of drive, a diode bridge rectifier

APPLICATION NOTE. Atmel AVR134: Real Time Clock (RTC) Using the Asynchronous Timer. Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontroller. Introduction.

APPLICATION NOTE Atmel AVR134: Real Time Clock (RTC) Using the Asynchronous Timer Introduction Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontroller This application note describes how to implement a real time counter (RTC)

12 Converting Between Digital and Analog

12 CONVERTING BETWEEN DIGITAL AND ANALOG 12 Converting Between Digital and Analog For many applications, it is necessary to convert analog signals from a circuit or sensor to digital signals that can be

Light Bulbs in Parallel Circuits

Light Bulbs in Parallel Circuits In the last activity, we analyzed several different series circuits. In a series circuit, there is only one complete pathway for the charge to travel. Here are the basic

UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON. ENGINEERING, SPORTS and SCIENCES BSC (HONS) MECHATRONICS SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATION 2013/2014 ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS

[kh24] UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON ENGINEERING, SPORTS and SCIENCES BSC (HONS) MECHATRONICS SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATION 2013/2014 ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS MODULE NO: MEC6005 Date: 16 December 2013 Time: 10:00

Pulse Width Modulation

Pulse Width Modulation Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a technique in which a series of digital pulses is used to control an analog circuit. The length and frequency of these pulses determines the total

Chapter 12. Common Switching Functional Blocks

Chapter 12 Common Switching Functional Blocks Voltage Comparators In many applications, it is necessary to cause a digital switching action when an analog voltage rises above or drops below some value.

Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, IUPUI Electrical Engineering Technology, ECET307 Bonus Lab, Implementing Matlab to Arduino Dev Board

ECET 307, Bonus Lab Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, IUPUI Electrical Engineering Technology, ECET307 Bonus Lab, Implementing Matlab to Arduino Dev Board Objective: Learn how to compile and

A.4 Specifications for the CPU 224

A.4 Specifications for the CPU 224 Specifications for and Physical Size Dimensions (W x H x D) Weight Power loss (dissipation) CPU Features On-Board digital inputs On-Board digital outputs High speed counters

Interfacing a Servo to the Atmega 128

Interfacing a Servo to the Atmega 128 Purpose: To introduce the servo as a mechatronic actuator. To discover how to control the movement of a servo using the Atmega 128. To practice interfacing power electronics

Data Sheet SIMATIC S7-200 CPU 226 DC/DC/DC and CPU 226 AC/DC/Relay

SIMATIC S7-200 and Table 1 Specifications for and Physical Size Dimensions (W x H x D) Weight Power loss (dissipation) CPU Features On-board digital inputs On-board digital outputs High speed counters

COMPUTERS AND LOGIC CIRCUITS

COMPUTERS AND LOGIC CIRCUITS Dealing with computers can seem overwhelming for those who are accustomed to working with mechanical systems. Since we cannot actually see what is going on inside the computer

MiniPin II development board

MiniPin II development board BY JURIJ MIKELN www.svet-el.si\english MiniPin II is a smaller brother of MegaPin. Smaller, but still very user friendly and versatile development board, where programs for

Material and Equipment NI ELVIS 741 Op Amp, 5k pot, Assorted Resistors (10k, 100k, 220k (2), 100 (2), 560 )

Lab 8 Operational Amplifier Characteristics Purpose The purpose of this lab is to study the non-ideal characteristics of the operational amplifier. The characteristics that will be investigated include

MICROCONTROLLER BASED TEMPERATURE INDICATOR SUBMITTED BY:

MICROCONTROLLER BASED TEMPERATURE INDICATOR SUBMITTED BY: 1 INTRODUCTION The aim of this project is to design an ambient temperature measurement circuit. The motivation for doing this project is the fact