# AVR127: Understanding ADC Parameters. Introduction. Features. Atmel 8-bit and 32-bit Microcontrollers APPLICATION NOTE

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

3 1. Abbreviations ADC CPU db DNL ENOB GND INL khz LSB MHz MSB mv RMS SINAD SNR THD TUE Analog to Digital Converter Central Processing Unit Decibel Differential Non-Linearity Effective Number of Bits Ground Integral Non-Linearity kilohertz Least Significant Bit megahertz Most Significant Bit millivolt Root Mean Square Signal Noise and Distortion Signal to Noise Ratio Total Harmonic Distortion Total Unadjusted Error 3

9 Figure 2-9. Perfect ADC in Differential Mode (Adjusted Quantization) The Quantization error is only considered in a model such as a Perfect ADC. However, in real-time the actual ADC has several other errors apart from quantization error. These errors are explained in the upcoming sections. 9

10 3. ADC Errors To understand the performance of an ADC, it is important to understand various errors that affects the ADC output. The static errors that affect the performance of an ADC are explained in the following topics Offset Error The offset error is defined as the deviation of the actual ADC s transfer function from the perfect ADC s transfer function at the point of zero to the transition measured in the LSB bit. When the transition from output value 0 to 1 does not occur at an input value of 0.5LSB, then we say that there is an offset error. With positive offset errors, the output value is larger than 0 when the input voltage is less than 0.5LSB from below. With negative offset errors, the input value is larger than 0.5LSB when the first output value transition occurs. In other words, if the actual transfer function lies below the ideal line, there is a negative offset and vice versa. Transfer functions of Positive and negative offsets for Ideal, Perfect, and Actual ADCs are shown in the following images: Figure 3-1. Positive Offset Error 10

11 Figure 3-2. Negative Offset Error In Figure 3-1 Positive Offset Error, the first transition occurs at 0.5LSB and the transition is from 1 to 2. But 1 to 2 transitions should occur at 1.5LSB for perfect case. So the difference (Perfect Actual = 1.5LSB 0.5LSB = +1LSB) is the offset error. In the Figure 3-2 Negative Offset Error, the first transition occurs at 2LSB and the transition is from 0 to 1. But 0 to 1 transition should occur at 0.5LSB for perfect case. So the difference (Perfect Actual = 0.5LSB 2LSB = -1.5LSB) is the offset error. Note: Offset errors limit the available range for the ADC. A large positive offset error causes the output value to saturate at maximum before the input voltage reaches maximum. A large negative offset error gives output value as 000 for the smallest input voltages Gain Error The gain error is defined as the deviation of the midpoint of the last step of the actual ADC from the midpoint of the last step of the ideal ADC, after compensated for offset error. After compensating for offset errors, applying an input voltage of 0V will always give an output value of 000. However, gain errors cause the actual transfer function slope to deviate from the ideal slope. This gain error can be measured and compensated by scaling the output values. The Transfer function of Positive and Negative gain errors for a 3-bit ADC is shown as follows: 11

12 Figure 3-3. Positive Gain Error Figure 3-4. Negative Gain Error If the transfer function of the actual ADC occurs above the ideal straight line, then it produces positive gain error and vice versa. The gain error is calculated as LSBs from a vertical straight line drawn between the midpoint of the last step of the actual transfer curve and the ideal straight line. In Figure 3-3 Positive Gain Error, the output value saturates before the input voltage reaches its maximum. The vertical arrow shows the midpoint of the last output step. In Figure 3-4 Negative Gain Error, the output value has only reached six when the input voltage is at its maximum. This results in a negative deviation for the actual transfer function. 12

13 3.3. Full Scale Error Full scale error is the deviation of the last transition (full scale transition) of the actual ADC from the last transition of the perfect ADC, measured in LSB or volts. Full scale error is due to both gain and offset errors. Figure 3-5. Full Scale Error The gain and offset errors of the ADC can be measured and compensated using calibration procedures. For more specific details on calibration methods, refer to AVR120: Characterization and Calibration of the ADC on an AVR Non-Linearity When offset and gain errors are compensated for, the actual transfer function should now be equal to the transfer function of perfect ADC. However, non-linearity in the ADC may cause the actual curve to deviate slightly from the perfect curve, even if the two curves are equal around 0V and at the point where the gain error was measured. There are two major types of non-linearity that degrade the performance of ADC. They are differential non-linearity (DNL) and integral non-linearity (INL) Differential Non-Linearity (DNL) Differential non-linearity (DNL) is defined as the maximum and minimum difference in the step width between actual transfer function and the perfect transfer function. Non-linearity produces quantization steps with varying widths. 13

14 Figure 3-6. Differential Non-Linearity (DNL) For the case of Perfect ADC, the step width must be 1LSB. But an ADC with DNL shows step widths which are not exactly 1LSB. In Figure 3-6 Differential Non-Linearity (DNL), in a maximum case the width of the step with output value 101 is 1.5LSB which should be 1LSB. The DNL in this case would be +0.5LSB. Whereas in a minimum case, the width of the step with output value 001 is only 0.5LSB which is 0.5LSB less than the expected width. Now, the DNL would be ±0.5LSB Integral Non-Linearity (INL) Integral non-linearity (INL) is defined as the maximum vertical difference between the actual and the ideal curve. It indicates the amount of deviation of the actual curve from the ideal transfer curve. INL can be interpreted as a sum of DNLs. For example, several consecutive negative DNLs raise the actual curve above the ideal curve as shown in Figure 3-7 Integral Non-Linearity (INL) and the INL in this case would be positive. Negative INLs indicate that the actual curve is below the ideal curve. This means that the distribution of the DNLs determines the integral linearity of the ADC. 14

15 Figure 3-7. Integral Non-Linearity (INL) The INL can be measured by connecting the midpoints of all output steps of the actual ADC and finding the maximum deviation from the ideal curve in terms of LSBs. In the example shown, we can note that the maximum INL is +0.75LSB Missing code There are some special cases where the actual transfer function of the ADC appears as shown in following graphic. Figure 3-8. Missing Code shown in 3-bit ADC In the following example, the first code transition (from 000 to 001) occurs when the value of input changes by 250mV. This is exactly as expected. The second transition, from 001 to 010 has an input change that is 1.25LS. So it is larger by 0.25LSB. The change in the input for the third transition is exactly the right size. The digital output remains constant when the input voltage changes from 1000mV to 1500mV and the code 100 can never appear at the output. It is missing. The higher the resolution of the 15

16 ADC, lesser the severity of the missing code is. An ADC with DNL error less than ±1LSB guarantees no missing code Total Unadjusted Error (TUE) The Total Unadjusted Error or Absolute error is the total uncompensated error that includes Quantization, Offset, Gain and Non-Linearity Errors. In other words, it is the maximum deviation between ideal expected value and actual value obtained from the ADC for any input voltage. In a perfect case, the TUE is 0.5LSB which is due to the quantization error. The gain and offset errors are more significant contributors to the absolute error. As seen from earlier sections, offset and gain error reduces the effective ADC range. The Total Unadjusted Error represents a reduction in the ADC range. Applications prone to higher TUE should have some margins against the minimum and maximum input values to avoid the TUE impact. 16

18 Note: In practical applications, to achieve better performance, the SINAD value of an ADC should be higher Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB) Effective number of bits (ENOB) is the number of bits with which the ADC behaves like a perfect ADC. It is another way of representing the signal to noise ratio and distortion (SINAD) and can be derived from the following formula. Note: In practical applications, to achieve better performance, the ENOB value of an ADC should be as close as possible to the resolution of the ADC. 18

19 5. Oversampling Oversampling is a process of sampling the analog input signal at a significantly higher sampling rate than the Nyquist sampling rate. The main advantages of oversampling are: 1. It avoids the aliasing problem, since the sampling rate is higher compared to the Nyquist sampling rate. 2. It provides a way of increasing the resolution of the ADC. For example, to implement a 14-bit converter, it is enough to have a 10-bit converter which can run at 256 times the target sampling rate. Averaging a group of 256 consecutive 10-bit samples adds four bits to the resolution of the average, producing a single sample with 14-bit resolution. 3. The number of samples required to get additional n bits is = 2 2n. 4. It improves the SNR of the ADC. More samples are measured to increase the resolution, which leads to reduced throughput of the ADC module. For example, a 10-bit converter with a capacity of sampling 1 kilo samples per second can be used as a 14-bit converter with a throughput of 4 samples per second. 19

21 the analog input signal is limited to 38.5kHz, which represents the bandwidth of the ADC in single ended mode. Similarly, if 1MHz is the maximum clock frequency that can be applied to an ADC which takes at least 13 ADC clock cycles for converting one sample, then 77k samples per second is the maximum throughput rate of the ADC. While using differential mode, the bandwidth is also limited to the frequency of the internal differential amplifier. Before providing the analog input to the ADC, any frequency component beyond the specified bandwidth must be filtered using an external filter to avoid any non-linearity. 21

23 8. Revision History Doc. Rev. Date Comments 8456D 05/2016 General improvements of descriptions. 8456C 10/2013 Updated typo in list item 3 in section Oversampling 2 2 n corrected to 2 2n 8456B 07/2013 General improvements in regards of descriptions. 8456A 11/2011 Initial revision 23

24 Atmel Corporation 1600 Technology Drive, San Jose, CA USA T: (+1)(408) F: (+1)(408) Atmel Corporation. / Rev.: Atmel, Atmel logo and combinations thereof, Enabling Unlimited Possibilities, AVR, XMEGA and others are registered trademarks or trademarks of Atmel Corporation in U.S. and other countries. Other terms and product names may be trademarks of others. DISCLAIMER: The information in this document is provided in connection with Atmel products. No license, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property right is granted by this document or in connection with the sale of Atmel products. EXCEPT AS SET FORTH IN THE ATMEL TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALES LOCATED ON THE ATMEL WEBSITE, ATMEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER AND DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY WARRANTY RELATING TO ITS PRODUCTS INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL ATMEL BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE, SPECIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS AND PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, OR LOSS OF INFORMATION) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THIS DOCUMENT, EVEN IF ATMEL HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. Atmel makes no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this document and reserves the right to make changes to specifications and products descriptions at any time without notice. Atmel does not make any commitment to update the information contained herein. Unless specifically provided otherwise, Atmel products are not suitable for, and shall not be used in, automotive applications. Atmel products are not intended, authorized, or warranted for use as components in applications intended to support or sustain life. SAFETY-CRITICAL, MILITARY, AND AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS DISCLAIMER: Atmel products are not designed for and will not be used in connection with any applications where the failure of such products would reasonably be expected to result in significant personal injury or death ( Safety-Critical Applications ) without an Atmel officer's specific written consent. Safety-Critical Applications include, without limitation, life support devices and systems, equipment or systems for the operation of nuclear facilities and weapons systems. Atmel products are not designed nor intended for use in military or aerospace applications or environments unless specifically designated by Atmel as military-grade. Atmel products are not designed nor intended for use in automotive applications unless specifically designated by Atmel as automotive-grade.

### b 1 is the most significant bit (MSB) The MSB is the bit that has the most (largest) influence on the analog output

CMOS Analog IC Design - Chapter 10 Page 10.0-5 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A DIGITAL-ANALOG CONVERTER b 1 is the most significant bit (MSB) The MSB is the bit that has the most (largest) influence on the analog output

### AVR131: Using the AVR s High-speed PWM. Introduction. Features. AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers APPLICATION NOTE

AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers AVR131: Using the AVR s High-speed PWM APPLICATION NOTE Introduction This application note is an introduction to the use of the high-speed Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) available

### AVR151: Setup and Use of the SPI. Introduction. Features. Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontroller APPLICATION NOTE

Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontroller AVR151: Setup and Use of the SPI APPLICATION NOTE Introduction This application note describes how to set up and use the on-chip Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) of the

### AVR125: ADC of tinyavr in Single Ended Mode. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR125: ADC of tinyavr in Single Ended Mode Features Up to 10bit resolution Up to 15kSPS Auto triggered and single conversion mode Optional left adjustment for ADC result readout Driver source code included

### AVR126: ADC of megaavr in Single Ended Mode. Introduction. Features. AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers APPLICATION NOTE

AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers AVR126: ADC of megaavr in Single Ended Mode APPLICATION NOTE Introduction Atmel megaavr devices have a successive approximation Analog-to- Digital Converter (ADC) capable of

### AVR120: Characterization and Calibration of the ADC on an AVR. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. Introduction

AVR120: Characterization and Calibration of the ADC on an AVR Features Understanding Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) characteristics Measuring parameters describing ADC characteristics Temperature, frequency

### AVR1301: Using the XMEGA DAC. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR1301: Using the XMEGA DAC Features 12 bit resolution Up to 1 M conversions per second Continuous drive or sample-and-hold output Built-in offset and gain calibration High drive capabilities Driver source

### AT11805: Capacitive Touch Long Slider Design with PTC. Introduction. Features. Touch Solutions APPLICATION NOTE

Touch Solutions AT11805: Capacitive Touch Long Slider Design with PTC APPLICATION NOTE Introduction Slider is a one-dimensional sensor that detects the linear movement of a finger during touch. Sliders

### AVR32138: How to optimize the ADC usage on AT32UC3A0/1, AT32UC3A3 and AT32UC3B0/1 series. 32-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note.

AVR32138: How to optimize the ADC usage on AT32UC3A0/1, AT32UC3A3 and AT32UC3B0/1 series 1 Introduction This application note outlines the steps necessary to optimize analog to digital conversions on AT32UC3A0/1,

### AN1991. Audio decibel level detector with meter driver

Rev. 2.1 20 March 2015 Application note Document information Info Keywords Abstract Content SA604A, LM358, RSSI, cellular radio The SA604A can provide a logarithmic response proportional to the input signal

### APPLICATION NOTE. Atmel AVR134: Real Time Clock (RTC) Using the Asynchronous Timer. Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontroller. Introduction.

APPLICATION NOTE Atmel AVR134: Real Time Clock (RTC) Using the Asynchronous Timer Introduction Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontroller This application note describes how to implement a real time counter (RTC)

### SMARTCARD XPRO. Preface. SMART ARM-based Microcontrollers USER GUIDE

SMART ARM-based Microcontrollers SMARTCARD XPRO USER GUIDE Preface Atmel SMARTCARD Xplained Pro is an extension board to the Atmel Xplained Pro evaluation platform. Atmel SMARTCARD Xplained Pro is designed

### APPLICATION NOTE. Secure Personalization with Transport Key Authentication. ATSHA204A, ATECC108A, and ATECC508A. Introduction.

APPLICATION NOTE Secure Personalization with Transport Key Authentication ATSHA204A, ATECC108A, and ATECC508A Introduction The Atmel CryptoAuthentication ATSHA204A, ATECC108A, and ATECC508A devices (crypto

### AVR353: Voltage Reference Calibration and Voltage ADC Usage. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR353: Voltage Reference Calibration and Voltage ADC Usage Features Voltage reference calibration. - 1.100V +/-1mV (typical) and < 90ppm/ C drift from 10 C to +70 C. Interrupt controlled voltage ADC sampling.

### AT88CK490 Evaluation Kit

AT88CK490 Evaluation Kit CryptoAuthentication USB Dongle HARDWARE USER GUIDE Atmel AT88CK490 CryptoAuthentication Evaluation Kit Introduction The Atmel AT88CK490 CryptoAuthentication Evaluation Kit is

### APPLICATION NOTE. Authentication Counting. Atmel CryptoAuthentication. Features. Introduction

APPLICATION NOTE Authentication Counting Atmel CryptoAuthentication Features How to achieve high endurance counters in excess of 800,000 counts. How to disable the Atmel CryptoAuthentication ATSHA204A

### ABCs of ADCs. Analog-to-Digital Converter Basics. Nicholas Gray Data Conversion Systems Staff Applications Engineer

ABCs of ADCs Analog-to-Digital Converter Basics Nicholas Gray Data Conversion Systems Staff Applications Engineer November 24, 2003 Corrected August 13, 2004 Additional Corrections June 27, 2006 1 Agenda

### APPLICATION NOTE. Atmel AVR1300: Using the Atmel AVR XMEGA ADC. Atmel 8-bit Microcontrollers PRELIMINARY. Introduction

APPLICATION NOTE Introduction Atmel AVR1300: Using the Atmel AVR XMEGA ADC Atmel 8-bit Microcontrollers PRELIMINARY The Atmel AVR XMEGA ADC module is a high-performance Analog-to-Digital converter capable

### AT15007: Differences between ATmega328/P and ATmega328PB. Introduction. Features. Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers APPLICATION NOTE

Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers AT15007: Differences between ATmega328/P and ATmega328PB APPLICATION NOTE Introduction This application note assists the users of Atmel ATmega328 variants to understand

### APPLICATION NOTE. RF System Architecture Considerations ATAN0014. Description

APPLICATION NOTE RF System Architecture Considerations ATAN0014 Description Highly integrated and advanced radio designs available today, such as the Atmel ATA5830 transceiver and Atmel ATA5780 receiver,

### APPLICATION NOTE. AT12405: Low Power Sensor Design with PTC. Atmel MCU Integrated Touch. Introduction

APPLICATION NOTE AT12405: Low Power Sensor Design with PTC Atmel MCU Integrated Touch Introduction A ma saved (reduced) is a mah gained the philosophical engineer The challenges for improving battery life

### APPLICATION NOTE Atmel AT02509: In House Unit with Bluetooth Low Energy Module Hardware User Guide 8-bit Atmel Microcontroller Features Description

APPLICATION NOTE Atmel AT259: In House Unit with Bluetooth Low Energy Module Hardware User Guide Features 8-bit Atmel Microcontroller Low power consumption Interface with BLE with UART Bi-direction wake

### AVR106: C Functions for Reading and Writing to Flash Memory. Introduction. Features. AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers APPLICATION NOTE

AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers AVR106: C Functions for Reading and Writing to Flash Memory APPLICATION NOTE Introduction The Atmel AVR devices have a feature called Self programming Program memory. This feature

### CS4525 Power Calculator

1. OVERVIEW CS4525 Power Calculator The CS4525 Power Calculator provides many important application-specific performance numbers for the CS4525 based on user-supplied design parameters. The Power Calculator

### APPLICATION NOTE. AT07175: SAM-BA Bootloader for SAM D21. Atmel SAM D21. Introduction. Features

APPLICATION NOTE AT07175: SAM-BA Bootloader for SAM D21 Atmel SAM D21 Introduction Atmel SAM Boot Assistant (Atmel SAM-BA ) allows In-System Programming (ISP) from USB or UART host without any external

### APPLICATION NOTE. AT16268: JD Smart Cloud Based Smart Plug Getting. Started Guide ATSAMW25. Introduction. Features

APPLICATION NOTE AT16268: JD Smart Cloud Based Smart Plug Getting Started Guide ATSAMW25 Introduction This application note aims to help readers to get started with the Atmel smart plug reference design

### Atmel AVR1017: XMEGA - USB Hardware Design Recommendations. 8-bit Atmel Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features.

Atmel AVR1017: XMEGA - USB Hardware Design Recommendations Features USB 2.0 compliance - Signal integrity - Power consumption - Back driver voltage - Inrush current EMC/EMI considerations Layout considerations

### CryptoAuth Xplained Pro

CryptoAuth Xplained Pro CryptoAuthentication Xplained Pro Extension Board HARDWARE USER GUIDE Atmel CryptoAuth Xplained Pro Extension Board Introduction The Atmel CryptoAuth Xplained Pro (CAXPro) Evaluation

### Application Report. 1 Introduction. 2 Resolution of an A-D Converter. 2.1 Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) Harman Grewal... ABSTRACT

Application Report SLAA323 JULY 2006 Oversampling the ADC12 for Higher Resolution Harman Grewal... ABSTRACT This application report describes the theory of oversampling to achieve resolutions greater than

### USER GUIDE EDBG. Description

USER GUIDE EDBG Description The Atmel Embedded Debugger (EDBG) is an onboard debugger for integration into development kits with Atmel MCUs. In addition to programming and debugging support through Atmel

### APPLICATION NOTE. Atmel AVR443: Sensor-based Control of Three Phase Brushless DC Motor. Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers. Features.

APPLICATION NOTE Features Atmel AVR443: Sensor-based Control of Three Phase Brushless DC Motor Less than 5µs response time on Hall sensor output change Theoretical maximum of 1600k RPM Over-current sensing

### Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used

### The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of my R&S Digital Oscilloscope Technical Paper

The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of my R&S Digital Oscilloscope Technical Paper Products: R&S RTO1012 R&S RTO1014 R&S RTO1022 R&S RTO1024 This technical paper provides an introduction to the signal

### UA741. General-purpose single operational amplifier. Features. Applications. Description. N DIP8 (plastic package)

General-purpose single operational amplifier Datasheet - production data N DIP8 (plastic package) D SO8 (plastic micropackage) Pin connections (top view) 1 - Offset null 1 2 - Inverting input 3 - Non-inverting

### QT1 Xplained Pro. Preface. Atmel QTouch USER GUIDE

Atmel QTouch QT1 Xplained Pro USER GUIDE Preface Atmel QT1 Xplained Pro kit is a set of two extension boards that enables evaluation of self- and mutual capacitance mode touch using the Peripheral Touch

### 12-Bit, 4-Channel Parallel Output Sampling ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER

For most current data sheet and other product information, visit www.burr-brown.com 12-Bit, 4-Channel Parallel Output Sampling ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER FEATURES SINGLE SUPPLY: 2.7V to 5V 4-CHANNEL INPUT

### MICROPHONE SPECIFICATIONS EXPLAINED

Application Note AN-1112 MICROPHONE SPECIFICATIONS EXPLAINED INTRODUCTION A MEMS microphone IC is unique among InvenSense, Inc., products in that its input is an acoustic pressure wave. For this reason,

### AP2428.01. A/D Converter. Analog Aspects. C500 and C166 Microcontroller Families. Microcontrollers. Application Note, V 1.

Application Note, V 1.0, May 2001 AP2428.01 A/D Converter C500 and C166 Microcontroller Families Analog Aspects Microcontrollers Never stop thinking. A/D Converter Revision History: 2001-05 V1.0 Previous

### Atmel AVR4921: ASF - USB Device Stack Differences between ASF V1 and V2. 8-bit Atmel Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features.

Atmel AVR4921: ASF - USB Device Stack Differences between ASF V1 and V2 Features Advantages Implementation differences Integration Migration from stack V1 to stack V2 8-bit Atmel Microcontrollers Application

### Simplifying System Design Using the CS4350 PLL DAC

Simplifying System Design Using the CS4350 PLL 1. INTRODUCTION Typical Digital to Analog Converters (s) require a high-speed Master Clock to clock their digital filters and modulators, as well as some

### DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION Introduction The outputs from sensors and communications receivers are analogue signals that have continuously varying amplitudes. In many systems

### Atmel AVR4920: ASF - USB Device Stack - Compliance and Performance Figures. Atmel Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features.

Atmel AVR4920: ASF - USB Device Stack - Compliance and Performance Figures Features Compliance to USB 2.0 - Chapters 8 and 9 - Classes: HID, MSC, CDC, PHDC Interoperability: OS, classes, self- and bus-powered

### Frequency Response of Filters

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

### General Porting Considerations. Memory EEPROM XRAM

AVR097: Migration between ATmega128 and ATmega2561 Features General Porting Considerations Memory Clock sources Interrupts Power Management BOD WDT Timers/Counters USART & SPI ADC Analog Comparator ATmega103

### WHAT DESIGNERS SHOULD KNOW ABOUT DATA CONVERTER DRIFT

WHAT DESIGNERS SHOULD KNOW ABOUT DATA CONVERTER DRIFT Understanding the Components of Worst-Case Degradation Can Help in Avoiding Overspecification Exactly how inaccurate will a change in temperature make

### NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter

NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter Description: The NTE2053 is a CMOS 8 bit successive approximation Analog to Digital converter in a 20 Lead DIP type package which uses a differential

### TDA2004R. 10 + 10 W stereo amplifier for car radio. Features. Description

10 + 10 W stereo amplifier for car radio Features Low distortion Low noise Protection against: Output AC short circuit to ground Overrating chip temperature Load dump voltage surge Fortuitous open ground

### Analog-to-Digital Converters

Analog-to-Digital Converters In this presentation we will look at the Analog-to-Digital Converter Peripherals with Microchip s midrange PICmicro Microcontrollers series. 1 Analog-to-Digital Converters

### AVR2006: Design and characterization of the Radio Controller Board's 2.4GHz PCB Antenna. Application Note. Features.

AVR26: Design and characterization of the Radio Controller Board's 2.4GHz PCB Antenna Features Radiation pattern Impedance measurements WIPL design files NEC model Application Note 1 Introduction This

### AVR311: Using the TWI Module as I2C Slave. Introduction. Features. AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers APPLICATION NOTE

AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers AVR311: Using the TWI Module as I2C Slave APPLICATION NOTE Introduction The Two-wire Serial Interface (TWI) is compatible with Philips I 2 C protocol. The bus allows simple,

### AT91SAM ARM-based Flash MCU. Application Note. Analog-to-Digital Converter in the SAM3S4. 1. Introduction

Analog-to-Digital Converter in the SAM3S4 1. Introduction The purpose of this application note is to describe, from a software point of view while considering analog constraints, correct usage of the ADC

### QUICK START GUIDE FOR DEMONSTRATION CIRCUIT 956 24-BIT DIFFERENTIAL ADC WITH I2C LTC2485 DESCRIPTION

LTC2485 DESCRIPTION Demonstration circuit 956 features the LTC2485, a 24-Bit high performance Σ analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The LTC2485 features 2ppm linearity, 0.5µV offset, and 600nV RMS noise.

### AVR1324: XMEGA ADC Selection Guide. 8-bit Atmel Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR1324: XMEGA ADC Selection Guide Features The Atmel AVR XMEGA A family Pipelined architecture Up to 2M samples per second Up to 12-bit resolution Signed and unsigned mode Selectable gain 2MHz maximum

### MC33079. Low noise quad operational amplifier. Features. Description

Low noise quad operational amplifier Datasheet production data Features Low voltage noise: 4.5 nv/ Hz High gain bandwidth product: 15 MHz High slew rate: 7 V/µs Low distortion: 0.002% Large output voltage

### AN2680 Application note

Application note Fan speed controller based on STDS75 or STLM75 digital temperature sensor and ST72651AR6 MCU Introduction This application note describes the method of defining the system for regulating

### AVR1321: Using the Atmel AVR XMEGA 32-bit Real Time Counter and Battery Backup System. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note.

AVR1321: Using the Atmel AVR XMEGA 32-bit Real Time Counter and Battery Backup System Features 32-bit Real Time Counter (RTC) - 32-bit counter - Selectable clock source 1.024kHz 1Hz - Long overflow time

### AVR1309: Using the XMEGA SPI. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction SCK MOSI MISO SS

AVR1309: Using the XMEGA SPI Features Introduction to SPI and the XMEGA SPI module Setup and use of the XMEGA SPI module Implementation of module drivers Polled master Interrupt controlled master Polled

### AVR315: Using the TWI Module as I2C Master. Introduction. Features. AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers APPLICATION NOTE

AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers AVR315: Using the TWI Module as I2C Master APPLICATION NOTE Introduction The Two-wire Serial Interface (TWI) is compatible with Philips I 2 C protocol. The bus allows simple,

### AVR2004: LC-Balun for AT86RF230. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR2004: LC-Balun for AT86RF230 Features Balun for AT86RF230 with lumped elements Simulation results S-Parameter file 1 Introduction In some cases the used balun on the ATAVR RZ502 Radio Boards must be

### Atmel AVR4903: ASF - USB Device HID Mouse Application. Atmel Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

Atmel AVR4903: ASF - USB Device HID Mouse Application Features USB 2.0 compliance - Chapter 9 compliance - HID compliance - Low-speed (1.5Mb/s) and full-speed (12Mb/s) data rates Standard USB HID mouse

### AND9035/D. BELASIGNA 250 and 300 for Low-Bandwidth Applications APPLICATION NOTE

BELASIGNA 250 and 300 for Low-Bandwidth Applications APPLICATION NOTE Introduction This application note describes the use of BELASIGNA 250 and BELASIGNA 300 in low bandwidth applications. The intended

### AVR1600: Using the XMEGA Quadrature Decoder. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction. Sensors

AVR1600: Using the XMEGA Quadrature Decoder Features Quadrature Decoders 16-bit angular resolution Rotation speed and acceleration 1 Introduction Quadrature encoders are used to determine the position

### Op Amp Circuit Collection

Op Amp Circuit Collection Note: National Semiconductor recommends replacing 2N2920 and 2N3728 matched pairs with LM394 in all application circuits. Section 1 Basic Circuits Inverting Amplifier Difference

### AAV003-10E Current Sensor

Datasheet AAV003-10E Current Sensor Key Features For Low Current Detection On-Chip Current Strap for Precise Operation 80 ma to +80 ma Linear Range Sensitivity up to 2 mv/ma AC or DC Measurement Ultraminiature

### AVR1318: Using the XMEGA built-in AES accelerator. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR1318: Using the XMEGA built-in AES accelerator Features Full compliance with AES (FIPS Publication 197, 2002) - Both encryption and decryption procedures 128-bit Key and State memory XOR load option

### APPLICATION NOTE. AT03155: Real-Time-Clock Calibration and Compensation. SAM3 / SAM4 Series. Scope

APPLICATION NOTE AT03155: Real-Time-Clock Calibration and Compensation Scope SAM3 / SAM4 Series In most low-cost, low-power systems, the Real Time Clock (RTC) accuracy is inherited from a 32.768kHz crystal

### AN11357. BGU8009 Matching Options for 850 MHz / 2400 MHz Jammer Immunity. Document information. Keywords

BGU89 Matching Options for 85 MHz / 24 MHz Jammer Immunity Rev. 1 27 May 213 Application Note Document information Info Content Keywords LNA, GNSS, GPS, BGU89, WLAN, GSM-85, GSM-9 Abstract This document

### Operational Amplifier - IC 741

Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Tabish December 2005 Aim: To study the working of an 741 operational amplifier by conducting the following experiments: (a) Input bias current measurement (b) Input offset

### Dithering in Analog-to-digital Conversion

Application Note 1. Introduction 2. What is Dither High-speed ADCs today offer higher dynamic performances and every effort is made to push these state-of-the art performances through design improvements

### DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET M3D848. CGD923 870 MHz, 20 db gain power doubler amplifier. Product specification 2002 Oct 08

DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET M3D848 2002 Oct 08 FEATURES High output capability Excellent linearity Extremely low noise Excellent return loss properties Rugged construction Gold metallization ensures

### 1995 Mixed-Signal Products SLAA013

Application Report 995 Mixed-Signal Products SLAA03 IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make changes to their products or to discontinue any product or service

### 3-output Laser Driver for HD-DVD/ Blu-ray/DVD/ CD-ROM ATR0885. Preliminary. Summary. Features. Applications. 1. Description

Features Three Selectable Outputs All Outputs Can Be Used Either for Standard (5V) or High Voltage (9V) Maximum Output Current at All Outputs Up to 150 ma On-chip Low-EMI RF Oscillator With Spread-spectrum

### APPLICATION NOTE. AT09567: ISM Band PCB Antenna Reference Design. Atmel Wireless. Features. Description

APPLICATION NOTE Features AT09567: ISM Band PCB Antenna Reference Design Atmel Wireless Compact PCB antennas for 915MHz and 2.4GHz ISM bands Easy to integrate Altium design files and gerber files Return

### TS321 Low Power Single Operational Amplifier

SOT-25 Pin Definition: 1. Input + 2. Ground 3. Input - 4. Output 5. Vcc General Description The TS321 brings performance and economy to low power systems. With high unity gain frequency and a guaranteed

### Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1

Electronics Operational Amplifier Internal design of an operational amplifier LD Physics Leaflets Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit P4.2.1.1 Objects of the experiment

### LM134-LM234-LM334. Three terminal adjustable current sources. Features. Description

Three terminal adjustable current sources Features Operates from 1V to 40V 0.02%/V current regulation Programmable from 1µA to 10mA ±3% initial accuracy Description The LM134/LM234/LM334 are 3-terminal

### AN2834 Application note

Application note How to get the best ADC accuracy in STM32Fx Series and STM32L1 Series devices Introduction The STM32Fx Series and STM32L1 Series microcontroller families embed up to four advanced 12-bit

### Analog Signal Conditioning

Analog Signal Conditioning Analog and Digital Electronics Electronics Digital Electronics Analog Electronics 2 Analog Electronics Analog Electronics Operational Amplifiers Transistors TRIAC 741 LF351 TL084

### Application Note. Introduction. Terms and Definitions AN2438/D 2/2003. ADC Definitions and Specifications

Application Note 2/2003 ADC Definitions and Specifications By: J. Feddeler and Bill Lucas 8/16 Bit Division Systems Engineering Austin, Texas Introduction Terms and Definitions Measurement Units This application

### Prepared by: Paul Lee ON Semiconductor http://onsemi.com

Introduction to Analog Video Prepared by: Paul Lee ON Semiconductor APPLICATION NOTE Introduction Eventually all video signals being broadcasted or transmitted will be digital, but until then analog video

### Output Filter Design for EMI Rejection of the AAT5101 Class D Audio Amplifier

The AAT50 is a high efficiency, 2.5W mono class D audio power amplifier. It can be used in portable devices, such as MP4s, cell phones, laptops, GPS and PDAs. The device can work as a filterless class

### AVR055: Using a 32kHz XTAL for run-time calibration of the internal RC. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features.

AVR055: Using a 32kHz XTAL for run-time calibration of the internal RC Features Calibration using a 32 khz external crystal Adjustable RC frequency with maximum +/-2% accuracy Tune RC oscillator at any

### APPLICATION NOTE. Atmel AT01095: Joystick Game Controller Reference Design. 8-/16-bit Atmel Microcontrollers. Features.

APPLICATION NOTE Features Atmel AT01095: Joystick Game Controller Reference Design 8-/16-bit Atmel Microcontrollers Joystick Game Controller Atmel ATxmega32A4U microcontroller In System Programming (ISP)

### USER GUIDE. ATWINC1500B Hardware Design Guidelines - IEEE 802.11 b/g/n IoT Module. Atmel SmartConnect. Introduction

USER GUIDE ATWINC1500B Hardware Design Guidelines - IEEE 802.11 b/g/n IoT Module Atmel SmartConnect Introduction This document details the hardware design guidelines for a customer to design the Atmel

### AN3353 Application note

Application note IEC 61000-4-2 standard testing Introduction This Application note is addressed to technical engineers and designers to explain how STMicroelectronics protection devices are tested according

### AN2389 Application note

Application note An MCU-based low cost non-inverting buck-boost converter for battery chargers Introduction As the demand for rechargeable batteries increases, so does the demand for battery chargers.

### 32-bit AVR UC3 Microcontrollers. 32-bit AtmelAVR Application Note. AVR32769: How to Compile the standalone AVR32 Software Framework in AVR32 Studio V2

AVR32769: How to Compile the standalone AVR32 Software Framework in AVR32 Studio V2 1. Introduction The purpose of this application note is to show how to compile any of the application and driver examples

### APPLICATION NOTE. Atmel AVR32848: Android Accessory Demo. 32-bit Atmel Microcontrollers. Features. Introduction

APPLICATION NOTE Atmel AVR32848: Android Accessory Demo 32-bit Atmel Microcontrollers Features Control an accessory from an Android device Send data to and from an Android device to an accessory Supported

### AVR1900: Getting started with ATxmega128A1 on STK600. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. 1 Introduction

AVR1900: Getting started with ATxmega128A1 on STK600 1 Introduction This document contains information about how to get started with the ATxmega128A1 on STK 600. The first three sections contain information

### PCM Encoding and Decoding:

PCM Encoding and Decoding: Aim: Introduction to PCM encoding and decoding. Introduction: PCM Encoding: The input to the PCM ENCODER module is an analog message. This must be constrained to a defined bandwidth

### AVR32701: AVR32AP7 USB Performance. 32-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR32701: AVR32AP7 USB Performance Features Linux USB bulk transfer performance ATSTK1000 (32-bit SDRAM bus width) ATNGW100 (16-bit SDRAM bus width) GadgetFS driver and gadgetfs-test application USB performance

### Op amp DC error characteristics and the effect on high-precision applications

Op amp DC error characteristics and the effect on high-precision applications Srudeep Patil, Member of Technical Staff, Maxim Integrated - January 01, 2014 This article discusses the DC limitations of

### Using CryptoMemory in Full I 2 C Compliant Mode. Using CryptoMemory in Full I 2 C Compliant Mode AT88SC0104CA AT88SC0204CA AT88SC0404CA AT88SC0808CA

Using CryptoMemory in Full I 2 C Compliant Mode 1. Introduction This application note describes how to communicate with CryptoMemory devices in full I 2 C compliant mode. Full I 2 C compliance permits

### Description. 5k (10k) - + 5k (10k)

THAT Corporation Low Noise, High Performance Microphone Preamplifier IC FEATURES Excellent noise performance through the entire gain range Exceptionally low THD+N over the full audio bandwidth Low power

### Basic Op Amp Circuits

Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of

### Digital to Analog and Analog to Digital Conversion

Real world (lab) is Computer (binary) is digital Digital to Analog and Analog to Digital Conversion V t V t D/A or DAC and A/D or ADC D/A Conversion Computer DAC A/D Conversion Computer DAC Digital to

### Triple single-pole double-throw analog switch

Rev. 12 25 March 2016 Product data sheet 1. General description 2. Features and benefits 3. Applications 4. Ordering information The is a triple single-pole double-throw (SPDT) analog switch, suitable

Data Sheet FEATURES Fast throughput rate: 1 MSPS Specified for VDD of 2.7 V to 5.25 V Low power at maximum throughput rates 5.4 mw maximum at 870 ksps with 3 V supplies 12.5 mw maximum at 1 MSPS with 5