Block 072: Lewis Dot Structures of Ionic Compounds

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1 PDP Chemistry Topic H Bonding 02 Block 072 Lewis Dot Structures of Ionic Compounds Page 1 of 5 Block 072: Lewis Dot Structures of Ionic Compounds NAME: Anions and cations have opposite charges. They attract one another by electrostatic forces. The forces of attraction that bind these oppositely charged ions are called ionic bonds. Compounds that consist of electrically neutral groups of ions joined by electrostatic forces are called ionic compounds. In any sample of an ionic compound, the total positive charges of the cations must equal the total negative charges of the anions. This same principal of electrical neutrality is used when writing chemical formulas. Consider the ionic bond formed between sodium and chlorine. Sodium has a single valence electron that it can easily lose. (If the sodium loses its valence electron, it achieves the stable electron configuration of neon.) Chlorine has seven valence electrons and can easily gain one. (If the chlorine gains one valence electron, it achieves the stable electron configuration of argon.) When sodium and chlorine react to form a compound, the sodium atom gives its one valence electron to a chlorine atom. Thus, sodium and chlorine atoms combine in a one-to-one ratio and both ions have stable octets. At room temperature, most ionic compounds are crystalline solids. The component ions in such crystals are arranged in a repeating three-dimensional pattern, known as a crystal lattice. In solid NaCl, each sodium ion is surrounded by six chloride ions, and each chloride ion is surrounded by six sodium ions. In this arrangement, each ion is attracted strongly to each of its neighbors and repulsions are minimized. The large attractive forces result in a very stable structure. This is reflected in the fact that NaCl and ionic compounds in general have high melting temperatures. Sodium loses an electron to chlorine. Many sodium and chlorine ions will form a three dimensional lattice.

2 PDP Chemistry Topic H Bonding 02 Block 072 Lewis Dot Structures of Ionic Compounds Page 2 of 5 Although the bonds holding these lattices together are very strong, ionic compounds are brittle. The strong electrostatic forces of attraction that hold ions together into a lattice are the forces that cause it to shatter, if an external force causes it to distort enough to get ions of the same charge to get close to each other. The coordination number of an ion is the number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal. The coordination number can be used to determine the ratio of each ion in the crystal. The internal structure of the crystals can be determined through a method called x-ray crystallography. In this process, x-rays that pass through a crystal are recorded on film. The pattern of the exposed film shows how ions in the crystal deflect the x-rays. The pattern is used to calculate the positions of ions in the crystal and to define the structure of the crystal. Writing out an ionically bonded compound as an electron dot structure is a three-step process: 1. First, the electron dot structures of each of the ions involved must be written out. 2. Next, the proportion of the ions in the formula must be maintained. 3. Finally, ions of like charge must be spread apart, to reflect their position in the lattice (positive charges repel other positive charges, just as negative charges repel other negative charges). Write the formula for the ion formed when each of the following elements loses its valence electrons. a. aluminum g. sodium b. lithium h. magnesium c. barium i. rubidium d. potassium j. beryllium e. calcium k. hydrogen f. strontium l. cesium

3 PDP Chemistry Topic H Bonding 02 Block 072 Lewis Dot Structures of Ionic Compounds Page 3 of 5 Write electron configurations for the tripositive ions (3+) of these elements: a. chromium b. manganese c. iron Why do nonmetals tend to form anions when they react to form compounds? How many electrons must be gained by each of the following atoms to achieve a stable electron configuration? a. N c. S b. Cl d. P Write the formula for the ion formed when each element gains electrons and attains a noble-gas configuration? a. Br c. H b. As d. Se Explain why ionic compounds are electrically neutral.

4 PDP Chemistry Topic H Bonding 02 Block 072 Lewis Dot Structures of Ionic Compounds Page 4 of 5 Explain why ionic compounds are brittle, and not malleable. Write the electron dot structure for the compound formed by magnesium and chlorine. Write the electron dot structure for the compound formed by potassium and nitrogen. Write the electron dot structure for the compound formed by aluminum and oxygen.

5 PDP Chemistry Topic H Bonding 02 Block 072 Lewis Dot Structures of Ionic Compounds Page 5 of 5 Can you predict the coordination number of an ion from the formula of an ionic compound? Explain. Explain why ionic solids do not conduct electrical current. You might find the diagram on the right to be helpful. Under what conditions might you expect an ionic compound to conduct electricity?

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