Agenda. Spectrum Analyzer Basics.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Agenda. Spectrum Analyzer Basics."

Transcription

1 Agenda Overview: What do we use to measure distortion What is spectrum analysis? Theory of Operation: Spectrum analyzer hardware Specifications: Which are important and why? Features Making the analyzer more effective Demo of Intermodulation and Harmonic Meas ts Using a Spectrum Analyzer Fixed freq and power Using a Network Analyzer Swept freq and power Gain Compression

2 What are Distortion Measurements Principally, we measure the distortion in terms of the products (signals) that are produced when an active device (amplifier or mixer) is driven in a non-linear mode Non-linear means the output power is not a linear function of the input power: The gain is not constant with drive level Products (distortion signals) are harmonics (usually tested with a single tone input), or inter-modulation signals, tested with twotones (or more). We might want to test the distortion while changing: Frequency Power Tone-spacing

3 Amplifiers Measurement Requirements Small Signal Amplifiers Critical Measurements Gain S-Parameters (S 11, S 21, S 12, S 22 ) Output 1 db Compression (P1dB) Output 3 rd Order Intercept Point (OIP3) Harmonics Load Pull Hot S22 Noise Figure

4 Overview Frequency versus Time Domain Amplitude (power) frequency time Time domain Measurements Frequency Domain Measurements

5 Lets first look at the effect of change in gain with power level Non-linear gain means that the gain changes with power level You can test this by sweeping the frequency response, at several different power levels. OR you can see the gain compression effect at one frequency, by holding the frequency constant, and measuring the gain, or the output power, while sweeping the input power A key figure of merit is P-1dB, or the power that causes the apparent gain to be reduced by 1 db

6 Gain Compression CW Power Sweep What can be measured with a CW Power Sweep? Gain Vs. Drive Requires an Enhanced Response (ER) or a 2-Port Calibration. ER is recommended since amplifier is being driven into compression and the 2-Port correction math does not hold true under non-linear conditions. Input Power at P1dB Strictly speaking, this only requires a source power cal on the input port and receiver cal for the reference receiver. If corrected Gain numbers are also required, then an ER cal should also be done. Output Power at P1dB Again strictly speaking, this only requires a receiver power cal on measurement receive port, but this also requires a calibrated source. Also again if corrected Gain numbers are required, then an ER cal should be done. Phase Vs. Drive This also requires an ER or a 2-port cal. Again, an ER Cal is recommended. Combination of All of The Above This requires a combination of an ER cal and a measurement receiver cal done in a particular way. The following slides will explain the procedure.

7 CW Gain Compression Results DUT = Hittite HMC452ST89 Power Amplifier tuned for 900 MHz Linear Gain Gain vs. Drive Pout OP1dB IP1dB Deviation From Linear Phase Pin Phase vs. Drive

8 Finding The 1 db Compression Point With Markers On the gain trace add a reference marker. Move the Ref marker to the linear region of the gain trace. Add a regular marker to the gain trace and set its property to coupled. With the marker selected, go to the Marker Search dialog and choose target search. Set the target to -1 and turn tracking on. Your marker will now show the point on the gain trace where the gain is 1 db less than the linear gain. On the other traces in the window add the same marker and choose Coupled Markers from the marker dialog. Now all those markers also point to the 1 db Compression point.

9 SPECTRUM ANALYZER 9 khz GHz Other distortion characteristics can be viewed using a Spectrum Analyzer 8563A

10 Overview Types of Tests Made. Modulation Noise Distortion

11 Overview Different Types of Analyzers Swept Analyzer A Filter 'sweeps' over range of interest LCD shows full spectral display f 1 f 2 f

12 Theory of Operation Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagram RF input attenuator mixer IF gain IF filter detector Input signal Pre-Selector Or Low Pass Filter local oscillator Log Amp video filter sweep generator Crystal Reference CRT display

13 Theory of Operation Mixer input MIXER f sig RF LO IF f sig f LO - f sig f LO f LO + f sig f LO

14 Theory of Operation IF Filter IF FILTER Input Spectrum IF Bandwidth (RBW) Display

15 Theory of Operation Detector DETECTOR amplitude "bins" Positive detection: largest value in bin displayed Negative detection: smallest value in bin displayed Sample detection: last value in bin displayed

16 Theory of Operation Video Filter VIDEO FILTER

17 Theory of Operation Other Components RF INPUT ATTENUATOR IF GAIN LO SWEEP GEN frequency LCD DISPLAY

18 Theory of Operation How it all works together f s Signal Range LO Range (GHz) f LO - f s f LO f LO +f s f s IF filter input mixer f s detector 3.6 sweep generator f IF A LO f LO (GHz) LCD display (GHz) f

19 SPECTRUM ANALYZER 9 khz GHz Softkeys Theory of Operation Front Panel Operation Primary functions (Frequency, Amplitude, Span) 8563A Control functions (RBW, sweep time, VBW) RF Input Numeric keypad

20 Specifications Accuracy Absolute Amplitude in dbm Relative Amplitude in db Frequency Relative Frequency

21 Specifications Resolution What Determines Resolution? Resolution Bandwidth Residual FM RBW Type and Selectivity Noise Sidebands

22 Specifications Resolution: Resolution Bandwidth Mixer 3 db BW 3 db Detector Input Spectrum LO IF Filter/ Resolution Bandwidth Filter (RBW) Sweep RBW Display

23 Demo - Theory: IF filter 8447F Amplifier out in Spec An Spectrum Analyzer Setup fc=170 Mhz RBW=1 MHz VBW=300 khz Span=10 MHz ESG-D or DP Sigl Gen ESG-D or DP Sigl Gen Signal Generator Setup f1=170 MHz, F2= MHz A=-25 dbm On Filter Bandpass filter (center frequency = 170 MHz) On Power Splitter (used as combine)

24 Specifications Resolution: Resolution Bandwidth 10 khz RBW 3 db 10 khz

25 Specifications Resolution: RBW Type and Selectivity 3 db 3 db BW 60 db 60 db BW Selectivity = 60 db BW 3 db BW

26 Specifications Resolution: RBW Type and Selectivity RBW = 1 khz Selectivity 15:1 RBW = 10 khz 3 db 7.5 khz Distortion Products 60 db 60 db BW = 15 khz 10 khz 10 khz

27 Specifications Resolution: Residual FM Residual FM "Smears" the Signal

28 Specifications Resolution: Noise Sidebands Phase Noise Noise Sidebands can prevent resolution of unequal signals

29 Specifications Resolution: RBW Determines Measurement Time Swept too fast Penalty For Sweeping Too Fast Is An Uncalibrated Display

30 Specifications Resolution: Digital Resolution Bandwidths ANALOG FILTER Typical Selectivity Analog 15:1 Digital 5:1 DIGITAL FILTER RES BW 100 Hz SPAN 3 khz

31 Specifications Sensitivity/DANL RF Input Mixer RES BW Filter Detector LO Sweep A Spectrum Analyzer Generates and Amplifies Noise Just Like Any Active Circuit

32 Specifications Sensitivity/DANL Effective Level of of Displayed Noise is is a Function of of RF Input Attenuation signal level 10 db Attenuation = 10 db Attenuation = 20 db Signal -To -Noise Ratio Decreases as RF Input Attenuation is Increased

33 Specifications Sensitivity/DANL: IF Filter (RBW) Displayed Noise is is a Function of of IF IF Filter Bandwidth 100 khz RBW 10 db 10 db 10 khz RBW 1 khz RBW Decreased BW = Decreased Noise

34 Specifications Sensitivity/DANL: VBW Video BW Smoothes Noise for Easier Identification of of Low Level Signals

35 Specifications Sensitivity/DANL Sensitivity is is the Smallest Signal That Can Be Measured Signal Equals Noise 2.2 db

36 Specifications Distortion Most Influential Distortion is the Second and Third Order < -50 dbc < -40 dbc < -50 dbc Two-Tone Intermod Harmonic Distortion

37 Specifications Distortion Distortion Products Increase as a Function of Fundamental's Power Power in db 2f - f f f 3 2f - f 2 1 Third-order distortion Second-order distortion Two-Tone Intermod Second Order: 2 db/db of Fundamental Third Order: 3 db/db of Fundamental Power in db 2 3 f 2f 3f Harmonic Distortion

38 Specifications Distortion Relative Amplitude Distortion Changes with Input Power Level 1 db 21 db 1 db 20 db 2 db 3 db f 2f 3f

39 Specifications Distortion RF INPUT ATTENUATOR Distortion Test: Is it Internally or Externally Generated? IF GAIN 1 Change Input Attn by 10 db Watch Signal on Screen: No change in amplitude = distortion is part of input signal (external) Change in amplitude = at least some of the distortion is being generated inside the analyzer (internal) 2

40 Specifications Dynamic Range Dynamic Range for Spur Search Depends on Closeness to Carrier Dynamic Range Limited By Noise Sidebands dbc/hz Dynamic Range Limited By Compression/Noise Noise Sidebands Displayed Average Noise Level 100 khz to 1 MHz

41 Specifications Dynamic Range Actual Dynamic Range is the Minimum of: Maximum dynamic range calculation Maximum dynamic range calculation Calculated from: distortion sensitivity Noise sidebands at the offset frequency Noise sidebands at the offset frequency

42 Specifications Dynamic Range +30 dbm MAXIMUM POWER LEVEL -10 dbm MIXER COMPRESSION LCD-DISPLAY RANGE 80 db INCREASING BANDWIDTH OR ATTENUATION -35 dbm MEASUREMENT RANGE 145 db SIGNAL/NOISE RANGE 105 db SIGNAL /3rd ORDER DISTORTION 80 db RANGE THIRD-ORDER DISTORTION -45 dbm SECOND-ORDER DISTORTION 0 dbc NOISE SIDEBANDS SIGNAL/ 2nd ORDER DISTORTION SIGNAL/NOISE 70 db RANGE SIDEBANDS 60 dbc/1khz -115 dbm (1 khz BW & 0 db ATTENUATION) MINIMUM NOISE FLOOR

43 Features Modulation Measurements: Time Domain (use Zero Span) LIN MARKER 10 msec X CENTER 100 MHz SPAN 0 Hz RES BW 1 MHz VBW 3 MHz SWP 50 msec

44 Features Modulation Measurements: Time-Gating Time-Gated Measurements in the Frequency Domain "time gating" Envelope Detector GATE time Video Filter Frequency

45 Advanced Measurements with a VNA You can use Frequency Offset mode to do swept power OR swept frequency distortion measurements with a VNA The dual-source PNA allows you to do swept TOI measurements Lets see how the block diagram works to enable this.

46 OUT 1 PNA-X Block Diagram 4 Port Option 419, 423 Source Pulse modulator 1 OUT 2 OUT 1 Pulse modulator Source 2 (standard) OUT 2 LO To receivers Rear panel Pulse generators J11 J10 J9 J8 J7 J4 J3 J2 J R1 SW1 SW3 SW4 SW2 R3 R4 R2 A C D B 65 db 35 db 35 db 35 db 65 db 65 db 65 db 35 db Test port 1 Test port 3 Test port 4 Test port 2 RF jumpers Receivers Mechanical switch

47 Setting Up FOM Activate FOM Setup the primary stimulus Setup the source(s) & receiver frequencies Choose the range to display on the X-Axis Enable Frequency Offset FOM is the enabling technology that is the key to many critical measurements, such as Harmonics and Intermodulation Distortion

48 Power as You Like it Port powers in the PNA can be controlled together or individually. The primary output of each source in the PNA-X can support both Internal or Open Loop Leveling. Through the use of FOM, one source can be set to sweep power while the other sweeps frequency. State: Auto = turn on when dictated by the parameters in the channel. ON = Turn on whenever this channel is sweeping OFF = Turn off whenever this channel is sweeping

49 If You Can t Measure it, Compute It!! The Equation Editor is a powerful and convenient tool to add computation results as a new trace to your measurement display. Equations can be based on any combination of existing traces or underlying channel parameters or memory traces along with any user defined constants. You can use any of the basic operators or choose from an extensive library of functions and standard constants. Equations can be stored for later use.

50 Harmonic Measurements Setup Example Use the multiplier to make a quick job of setting the receiver frequencies for the desired harmonics

51 Harmonic Measurement Results DUT = Hittite HMC452ST89 Power Amplifier tuned for 900 MHz Window 1 = Fundamental + 2 nd, 3 rd, and 4 th harmonic absolute levels Window 2 = 2 nd, 3 rd, and 4 th harmonics relative to carrier

52 Harmonic Measurement Results Swept Power DUT = Hittite HMC452ST89 Power Amplifier tuned for 900 MHz Window 1 = Fundamental + 2 nd, 3 rd, and 4 th harmonic absolute levels Window 2 = 2 nd, 3 rd, and 4 th harmonics relative to carrier Note: To change from swept frequency to swept power, simply change the sweep type of each channel to power sweep and set the power levels and the CW Frequency. If the frequency is already within the calibrated range of the swept frequency setup, no further calibration is required.

53 Setting Up the 2-Tone Stimulus & the Receiver We will use the Frequency Offset dialog to configure the source and receiver frequencies:

54 CW Fixed Power IMD Results DUT = Hittite HMC452ST89 Power Amplifier tuned for 900 MHz 5 th Order Products

55 Swept Center Frequency Fixed Power IMD Measurements Channel Setup A swept frequency IMD measurement requires multiple channels. A Calibration Channel This is for convenience. It allows for 1 set of source power calibrations (1 for each tone) and 1 B receiver cal and 1 Enhanced Response Cal [optional] to be later shared among all the other channels. An [optional] channel to measure the device gain at the center frequency of the IMD sweep. A channel to measure the input and output power levels of tone 1. A channel to measure the input and output power levels of tone 2. A channel to measure the output level of the lower 3 rd order product. A channel to measure the output level of the higher 3 rd order product.

56 Setting Up Channels to Measure the IMD Products Channels to Measure the lower and higher 3 rd order IMD products Using Copy Channel copy the tone 2 channel to a new unused channel. In the FOM dialog change the receiver frequencies to measure the lower 3 rd order IMD product. Relative to the primary that is an offset of -1.5 MHz. In the Power & Attenuation dialog turn on Port 1 and turn on Port 1 Src 2. Change the S11 measurement to B,1. Follow the same process in a new channel and set the receiver to measure the higher 3 rd order IMD product. IMD = 2F1 F 2 + IMD = 2F2 F1 ToneSpacing F1 = F 2 = Pr imary.5 MHz Pr imary +.5 MHz IMD = 2(Pr imary.5) (Pr imary +.5 ) = Pr imary = 1 MHz 1.5 MHz + IMD = 2(Pr imary +.5) (Pr imary.5) = Pr imary MHz Continued

57 Setting Up Channels to Compute the IP3 Computing the 3 rd Order Intercept points. Input & Output, High & Low IP3 values can be computed based on all the existing measurements in the channels we have already setup. Use one of the existing channels (other than the cal channel) * and create enough traces for each of the IP3 measurements that you want. IP3 is typically expressed in db, so choose S-Parameters as the base trace for your equations. Use the equation editor and use the equations on the right for the desired IP3 result. Remember that in the equation editor, each of the variables are referred by trace number in order to user the error corrected result in the equation. IM3 = Output power level of the lower 3rd order IMD product + IM3 = Output power level of the higher 3rd order IMD product OF1= Output power level of the lower fundamental tone IF1= Input power level of the lower fundamental tone OF2 = Output power level of the higher fundamental tone IF2 = Input power level of the higher fundamental tone IIP3 IIP3 + OIP3 + OIP3 = Higher input referred IP3 - IIP3 = Lower input referred IP3 + = IF2 - IIP3 = IF1 + = Higher output referred IP3 - OIP3 = Lower output referred IP3 In Complex Form: = OF2 - OIP3 = OF1 OF1 + IM3 OF2 IM3 = = OF1 + IM3 OF2 IM3 + OIP3 Gain OIP3 Gain This is where having an optional gain (S21) measurement at the center frequencies may be useful. * Equation traces have to be in a channel that has the same number of points as the equation s constituent traces.

58 Swept Frequency IMD Measurement Results DUT = Hittite HMC452ST89 Power Amplifier tuned for 900 MHz

59 Swept Power IMD Measurement Results DUT = Hittite HMC452ST89 Power Amplifier tuned for 900 MHz

Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower. Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics

Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower. Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics Agenda Overview: Spectrum analysis and its measurements Theory of Operation: Spectrum analyzer hardware Frequency Specifications

More information

Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower. Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics

Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower. Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics Learning Objectives Name the major measurement strengths of a swept-tuned spectrum analyzer Explain the importance of frequency

More information

Signal Sourcing Requirements for Spectrum Analyzer Calibration

Signal Sourcing Requirements for Spectrum Analyzer Calibration Signal Sourcing Requirements for Spectrum Analyzer Calibration Paul Roberts Fluke Precision Measurement Ltd Norwich, UK. +44 (0)1603 256781 paul.roberts@fluke.com Calibrating a Spectrum Analyzer usually

More information

IMD Measurement with E5072A ENA Series Network Analyzer. Agilent Technologies June 2012

IMD Measurement with E5072A ENA Series Network Analyzer. Agilent Technologies June 2012 IMD Measurement with E5072A ENA Series Network Analyzer Agilent Technologies June 2012 1 Contents What is intermodulation distortion (IMD)? IMD Measurement Wizard for E5072A Measurement Results Summary

More information

Netzwerkanalyse an Verstärkern

Netzwerkanalyse an Verstärkern Netzwerkanalyse an Verstärkern presented by Michael Benzinger Application Engineer - RF & MW Agenda Netzwerkanalyse an Verstärkern Intorducing the PNA-X Gain Compression Intermodulation Distortion Agilent

More information

Agilent PN RF Component Measurements Mixer Measurements Using the 8753B Network Analyzer. Product Note

Agilent PN RF Component Measurements Mixer Measurements Using the 8753B Network Analyzer. Product Note Agilent PN 8753-2 RF Component Measurements Mixer Measurements Using the 8753B Network Analyzer Product Note Introduction Table of contents 2 Introduction 3 Mixer term definitions 4 Measurement considerations

More information

A Guide to Calibrating Your Spectrum Analyzer

A Guide to Calibrating Your Spectrum Analyzer A Guide to Calibrating Your Application Note Introduction As a technician or engineer who works with electronics, you rely on your spectrum analyzer to verify that the devices you design, manufacture,

More information

Spectrum Analyzer Basics www. agilent.com/find/backtobasics

Spectrum Analyzer Basics www. agilent.com/find/backtobasics www. agilent.com/find/backtobasics Abstract Learn why spectrum analysis is important for a variety of applications and how to measure system and device performance using a spectrum analyzer. To introduce

More information

CRP718 RF and Microwave Measurements Laboratory

CRP718 RF and Microwave Measurements Laboratory CRP718 RF and Microwave Measurements Laboratory Experiment- MW2 Handout. Updated Jan 13, 2011 SPECTRUM ANALYZER BASED MEASUREMENTS (groups of 2 may omit part 2.1, but are advised to study the procedures

More information

Spectrum Analysis Back to Basics

Spectrum Analysis Back to Basics Spectrum Analysis Back to Basics Agilent Technologies 1 Agenda Introduction Overview: What is Spectrum and Signal Analysis? What Measurements are available? Theory of Operation Specifications Modern Signal

More information

Agilent AN 1316 Optimizing Spectrum Analyzer Amplitude Accuracy

Agilent AN 1316 Optimizing Spectrum Analyzer Amplitude Accuracy Agilent AN 1316 Optimizing Spectrum Analyzer Amplitude Accuracy Application Note RF & Microwave Spectrum Analyzers Table of Contents 3 3 4 4 5 7 8 8 13 13 14 16 16 Introduction Absolute versus relative

More information

Agilent AN Hints. for making. Better. Spectrum Analyzer. Measurements

Agilent AN Hints. for making. Better. Spectrum Analyzer. Measurements Agilent AN 1286-1 Hints for making Better Spectrum Analyzer Measurements The Heterodyne Spectrum Analyzer The spectrum analyzer, like an oscilloscope, is a basic tool used for observing signals. Where

More information

Spectrum Analysis Basics

Spectrum Analysis Basics 8563A SPECTRUM A NALYZER 9 kz - 26.5 Gz Christie Brown ewlett-packard Company Microwave Instruments Division 1400 Fountaingrove Parkway Santa Rosa, California 95403 U.S.A. 1997 Back to Basics Seminar (c)

More information

DSA800/DSA800E Series Spectrum Analyzer

DSA800/DSA800E Series Spectrum Analyzer DSA800/DSA800E Series Spectrum Analyzer Frequency Frequency Frequency range Frequency resolution 9 khz to 3.2 9 khz to 3.2 9 khz to 7.5 9 khz to 1.5 1 Hz Internal Reference Frequency Reference 10 MHz frequency

More information

Specification RIGOL. 6 Specification

Specification RIGOL. 6 Specification Specification RIGOL 6 Specification This chapter lists the specifications and general specifications of the analyzer. All the specifications are guaranteed when the following conditions are met unless

More information

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ROHDE AND SCHWARZ FSP38 SPECTRUM ANALYZER Specifications Specifications are guaranteed under the following conditions: 30 minutes warm-up time at ambient temperature, specified

More information

8 Hints for Making Better Measurements Using Analog RF Signal Generators. Application Note

8 Hints for Making Better Measurements Using Analog RF Signal Generators. Application Note 8 Hints for Making Better Measurements Using Analog RF Signal Generators Application Note 1306-1 Signal sources provide precise, highly stable test signals for a variety of component and system test applications.

More information

Agilent PSA High-Performance Spectrum Analyzer Series Amplitude Accuracy

Agilent PSA High-Performance Spectrum Analyzer Series Amplitude Accuracy Agilent PSA High-Performance Spectrum Analyzer Series Amplitude Accuracy Product Note Accurate measurement of signal power level is critical in modern communications systems. Specifications and margins

More information

Advances in EMI Receiver Architecture

Advances in EMI Receiver Architecture Advances in EMI Receiver Architecture Agenda EMI Receiver Requirements Architecture Improvements Digital IF 2dB Attenuation Improved Upgradability Processor, I/O storage Enhanced Diagnostic capability

More information

Microwave signal generators

Microwave signal generators Course on Microwave Measurements Microwave signal generators Prof. Luca Perregrini Dept. of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering University of Pavia e-mail: luca.perregrini@unipv.it web: microwave.unipv.it

More information

8 Hints for Better Spectrum Analysis. Application Note

8 Hints for Better Spectrum Analysis. Application Note 8 Hints for Better Spectrum Analysis Application Note 1286-1 The Spectrum Analyzer The spectrum analyzer, like an oscilloscope, is a basic tool used for observing signals. Where the oscilloscope provides

More information

Phase Noise Measurement Techniques

Phase Noise Measurement Techniques Phase Noise Measurement Techniques Agenda What is Phase Noise? Why is Phase Noise Important? Quantifying Phase Noise Causes of Phase Noise Phase Noise Measurement Techniques Additive Phase Noise AM Noise

More information

SG8 RF Signal Generator : Datasheet. Overview

SG8 RF Signal Generator : Datasheet. Overview Overview Key Features of SG8 RF Signal Generator Output frequency range: 10 MHz 8 GHz Frequency resolution: < 0.001 Hz Spectral purity o non-harmonics (typ.):hpss (auxiliary option): 65 HP (default option):

More information

Intermodulation Distortion Measurements on Modern Spectrum Analyzers

Intermodulation Distortion Measurements on Modern Spectrum Analyzers Application Note Dr. Florian Ramian June 01 1EF79_E Intermodulation Distortion Measurements on Modern Spectrum Analyzers Application Note Products: R&S FSV R&S FSW This Application Note describes the differences

More information

Group Delay and Phase Measurement on Frequency Converters Application Note

Group Delay and Phase Measurement on Frequency Converters Application Note Group Delay and Phase Measurement on Frequency Converters Application Note Products: R&S ZVA8 R&S ZVA24 R&S ZVA40 R&S ZVA50 R&S ZVT8 R&S ZVT20 Frequency converters e.g. in satellite transponders need to

More information

Optimizing IP3 and ACPR Measurements

Optimizing IP3 and ACPR Measurements Optimizing IP3 and ACPR Measurements Table of Contents 1. Overview... 2 2. Theory of Intermodulation Distortion... 2 3. Optimizing IP3 Measurements... 4 4. Theory of Adjacent Channel Power Ratio... 9 5.

More information

Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range. Application Note

Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range. Application Note Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range Application Note Table of Contents 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 1. Introduction What is dynamic range?

More information

Demo Circuit DC807A Quick Start Guide.

Demo Circuit DC807A Quick Start Guide. December 03, 2004 Demo Circuit DC807A. Introduction Demo circuit DC807A demonstrates operation of the IC, a DC-600MHz bandwidth open loop transconductance amplifier with high impedance open collector outputs.

More information

Performing Mixer Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVA + ZVA-K4 Frequency Conversion option. Application Note

Performing Mixer Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVA + ZVA-K4 Frequency Conversion option. Application Note Product: Vector Network Analyzer R&S ZVA Performing Mixer Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVA + ZVA-K4 Frequency Conversion option Application Note This document describes the typical measurements

More information

Awareness Brochure. Design and Test Solution for VCR, HDTV, HDD, ODD, DVD, CATV, GPS, GSM, VSAT and Other Communications

Awareness Brochure. Design and Test Solution for VCR, HDTV, HDD, ODD, DVD, CATV, GPS, GSM, VSAT and Other Communications Agilent 4395A 10 Hz to 500 MHz Agilent 4396B 2 Hz to 1.8 GHz Spectrum Analyzers Dramatic Speed Improvement for Narrow RBW Sweeps by Audio/Video/IF/RF Spectrum Analyzers Awareness Brochure Design and Test

More information

Internal Signal Generator Control Function Simple Operation Guide

Internal Signal Generator Control Function Simple Operation Guide User Guide Internal Signal Generator Control Function Simple Operation Guide Signal Analyzer MS80A This guide outlines the operation procedure for the Internal Signal Generator Control Function (Opt-0)

More information

Agilent E4401B, E4402B, E4404B, E4405B, and E4407B ESA-E Series Spectrum Analyzers

Agilent E4401B, E4402B, E4404B, E4405B, and E4407B ESA-E Series Spectrum Analyzers Agilent, E4402B, E4404B, E4405B, and E4407B ESA-E Series Spectrum Analyzers Technical Specifications All specifications apply over 0 C to + 55 C unless otherwise noted. The analyzer will meet its specifications

More information

Agilent AN Network Analyzer Measurements: Filter and Amplifier Examples

Agilent AN Network Analyzer Measurements: Filter and Amplifier Examples Agilent AN 87-4 Network Analyzer Measurements: Filter and Amplifier Examples Application Note Table of Contents Introduction Measuring a Filter 3 Error rection for Accurate Passband Measurements 4 Swept-Power

More information

Agilent PN 8753-1 RF Component Measurements: Amplifier Measurements Using the Agilent 8753 Network Analyzer. Product Note

Agilent PN 8753-1 RF Component Measurements: Amplifier Measurements Using the Agilent 8753 Network Analyzer. Product Note Agilent PN 8753-1 RF Component Measurements: Amplifier Measurements Using the Agilent 8753 Network Analyzer Product Note 2 3 4 4 4 4 6 7 8 8 10 10 11 12 12 12 13 15 15 Introduction Table of contents Introduction

More information

Agilent Performance Spectrum Analyzer Series Swept and FFT Analysis. Application Note

Agilent Performance Spectrum Analyzer Series Swept and FFT Analysis. Application Note Agilent Performance Spectrum Analyzer Series Swept and FFT Analysis Application Note Spectrum analysis measurements often involve trade-offs between accuracy, speed and dynamic range. In most cases, emphasis

More information

AV1464 Series Synthesized Signal Generator

AV1464 Series Synthesized Signal Generator AV1464 Series Synthesized Signal Generator OVERVIEW: AV1464 Series Synthesized Signal Generator is a microwave synthesized signal generator product with world-class performances introduced recently by

More information

The front end of the receiver performs the frequency translation, channel selection and amplification of the signal.

The front end of the receiver performs the frequency translation, channel selection and amplification of the signal. Many receivers must be capable of handling a very wide range of signal powers at the input while still producing the correct output. This must be done in the presence of noise and interference which occasionally

More information

0HDVXULQJWKHHOHFWULFDOSHUIRUPDQFH FKDUDFWHULVWLFVRI5),)DQGPLFURZDYHVLJQDO SURFHVVLQJFRPSRQHQWV

0HDVXULQJWKHHOHFWULFDOSHUIRUPDQFH FKDUDFWHULVWLFVRI5),)DQGPLFURZDYHVLJQDO SURFHVVLQJFRPSRQHQWV 0HDVXULQJWKHHOHFWULFDOSHUIRUPDQFH FKDUDFWHULVWLFVRI5),)DQGPLFURZDYHVLJQDO SURFHVVLQJFRPSRQHQWV The treatment given here is introductory, and will assist the reader who wishes to consult the standard texts

More information

ENGINEERING COMMITTEE Interface Practices Subcommittee

ENGINEERING COMMITTEE Interface Practices Subcommittee ENGINEERING COMMITTEE Interface Practices Subcommittee SCTE 119 2011 Measurement Procedure for Noise Power Ratio NOTICE The Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE) Standards are intended to

More information

Fundamental Trade-off in Receiver

Fundamental Trade-off in Receiver Today s Agenda Receiver basics Channel selection why not at RF? BPF first or LNA first? Direct digitization of RF signal Receiver architectures Sub-sampling receiver noise problem Heterodyne receiver image

More information

Keysight Technologies 8 Hints for Better Spectrum Analysis. Application Note

Keysight Technologies 8 Hints for Better Spectrum Analysis. Application Note Keysight Technologies 8 Hints for Better Spectrum Analysis Application Note The Spectrum Analyzer The spectrum analyzer, like an oscilloscope, is a basic tool used for observing signals. Where the oscilloscope

More information

Agilent PNA Microwave Network Analyzers

Agilent PNA Microwave Network Analyzers Agilent PNA Microwave Network Analyzers Data Sheet This document describes the performance and features of the Agilent Technologies PNA microwave network analyzers: E8362B E8363B E8364B E836A MHz to 2

More information

DSA800 Series Spectrum Analyzer

DSA800 Series Spectrum Analyzer DSA800 Series Spectrum Analyzer Basic Keys Advanced Measurement Keys Marker Keys USB Port TG Output RF Input Product Dimensions: Width X Height X Depth = 361.6 mm x 178.8 mm x 128 mm Benefits of Rigol's

More information

Using a VNA as a Signal Source

Using a VNA as a Signal Source Introduction A common question from users of Copper Mountain Technologies USB-based Vector Network Analyzers is whether the analyzer can be used as a signal source. Users motivations for doing so vary,

More information

Lab 9: Circuit Envelope Simulations

Lab 9: Circuit Envelope Simulations 9 This chapter shows how to use Circuit Envelope to measure time and frequency of an output signal when the input is a modulated source such as GSM, CDMA, etc. Lab 9: Circuit Envelope Simulations OBJECTIVES

More information

Agilent Signal Studio for Enhanced Multitone

Agilent Signal Studio for Enhanced Multitone Agilent Signal Studio for Enhanced Multitone Option 408 Technical Overview Construct Multitone Test Signals is a powerful tool for creating multitone I/Q waveforms. The software provides many flexible

More information

ECE 451 Automated Microwave Measurements Laboratory

ECE 451 Automated Microwave Measurements Laboratory ECE 451 Automated Microwave Measurements Laboratory Experiment No. 9 Vector Network Analyzer Measurements of Nonlinear Devices This experiment contains two portions: measurement and simulation of nonlinear

More information

Sweep Time There is a tradeoff that must be made between resolution bandwidth and sweep time. As the bandwidth is reduced, the sweep time must be increased. Filters have finite charging/discharging time

More information

Phase Noise Measurement of Oscillators with the DSA815TG to -150 dbc. Introduction:

Phase Noise Measurement of Oscillators with the DSA815TG to -150 dbc. Introduction: Phase Noise Measurement of Oscillators with the DSA815TG to -150 dbc Introduction: Recently, Jos Disselhorst PA3ACJ and Antoon Milatz PA3BWE wrote an article in this magazine about the Rigol DSA815-TG

More information

Interaction of Intermodulation Products between DUT and Spectrum Analyzer White Paper

Interaction of Intermodulation Products between DUT and Spectrum Analyzer White Paper Interaction of Intermodulation Products between DUT and Spectrum Analyzer White Paper Products: R&S FSQ R&S FSW This white paper describes the interaction between intermodulation products generated by

More information

Guide to Spectrum and Signal Analysis

Guide to Spectrum and Signal Analysis Guide to Spectrum and Signal Analysis CONTENTS INTRODUCTION...4 Frequency Domain / Time Domain...4 SPECTRUM ANALYZERS...6 Signal Analyzers...7 Basic Operation...7 Characteristics...8 Frequency Range...8

More information

EIPC (NEE-403) Unit-4 Display Devices & Recorders

EIPC (NEE-403) Unit-4 Display Devices & Recorders EIPC (NEE-403) Unit-4 Display Devices & Recorders Wave Analyzers Complex Waveform is made up of frequency and its harmonics. a fundamental Wave Analyzers are used to measure the amplitude of fundamental

More information

F = S i /N i S o /N o

F = S i /N i S o /N o Noise figure Many receiver manufacturers specify the performance of their receivers in terms of noise figure, rather than sensitivity. As we shall see, the two can be equated. A spectrum analyzer is a

More information

Introduction to Receivers

Introduction to Receivers Introduction to Receivers Purpose: translate RF signals to baseband Shift frequency Amplify Filter Demodulate Why is this a challenge? Interference (selectivity, images and distortion) Large dynamic range

More information

Measurement Guide and Programming Examples

Measurement Guide and Programming Examples Measurement Guide and Programming Examples Agilent Technologies PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers This guide documents firmware revision A.03.xx This manual provides documentation for the following instruments:

More information

Measurement Guide and Programming Examples

Measurement Guide and Programming Examples Measurement Guide and Programming Examples PSA and ESA Series Spectrum Analyzers This manual provides documentation for the following instruments: Agilent Technologies PSA Series E4443A (3 Hz - 6.7 GHz)

More information

AV1442 Radio Frequency Signal Generator

AV1442 Radio Frequency Signal Generator AV1442 Radio Signal Generator Product Overview AV1442 RF Signal Generator is a completely new product designed and developed for communication applications by using the latest technology, covering all

More information

Basics of RF Amplifier Measurements with the E5072A ENA Series Network Analyzer

Basics of RF Amplifier Measurements with the E5072A ENA Series Network Analyzer Basics of RF Amplifier Measurements with the E5072A ENA Series Network Analyzer Application Note Introduction The RF power amplifier is a key component used in a wide variety of industries such as wireless

More information

EE 186 LAB 2 FALL 2004. Network Analyzer Fundamentals and Two Tone Linearity

EE 186 LAB 2 FALL 2004. Network Analyzer Fundamentals and Two Tone Linearity Network Analyzer Fundamentals and Two Tone Linearity Name: Name: Name: Objective: To become familiar with the basic operation of a network analyzer To use the network analyzer to characterize the in-band

More information

Millimeter Wave Scalar Stimulus Response Up to 325 GHz

Millimeter Wave Scalar Stimulus Response Up to 325 GHz Millimeter Wave Scalar Stimulus Response Up to 325 GHz By Mohamed M. Sayed 1, Sai Yang 2, and Mark Lightner 2 Abstract A novel mixer based scalar stimulus response (MSSR) is described. The stimulus millimeter

More information

Lab 3 - Broadband RF Amplifier

Lab 3 - Broadband RF Amplifier Chapter 3 Lab 3 - Broadband RF Amplifier 3.1 Introduction The goal of this lab is to design, simulate, construct, and characterize a broadband small-signal amplifier that will operate over a frequency

More information

MATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES

MATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES 200 WOOD AVENUE, MIDDLESEX, NJ 08846 PHONE (732) 469-9510 FAX (732) 469-0418 MATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES MTN-107 TEST SETUP FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF X-MOD, CTB, AND CSO USING A MEAN SQUARE CIRCUIT AS A DETECTOR

More information

HP 8590 E-Series Portable Spectrum Analyzers Technical Specifications

HP 8590 E-Series Portable Spectrum Analyzers Technical Specifications HP 8590 E-Series Portable Spectrum Analyzers Technical Specifications Product Specifications and data These specifications apply to the, 8593E, 8594E, 8595E, and 8596E spectrum analyzers. Specifications

More information

Phase Noise Analyzer System

Phase Noise Analyzer System Established 1981 Advanced Test Equipment Rentals www.atecorp.com 800-404-ATEC (2832) Phase Noise Analyzer System With New Low Noise Downconverter Automated Phase Noise Measurements... In Seconds Frequency

More information

Agilent Option 1DN/1DQ Scalar Measurements with the ESA-L1500A 1.5 GHz Spectrum Analyzer and Tracking Generator. Product Note

Agilent Option 1DN/1DQ Scalar Measurements with the ESA-L1500A 1.5 GHz Spectrum Analyzer and Tracking Generator. Product Note Agilent Option 1DN/1DQ Scalar Measurements with the ESA-L1500A 1.5 GHz Spectrum Analyzer and Tracking Generator Product Note Table of Contents 2 Overview 3 Comparing Test Equipment 4 Introduction to Tracking

More information

A Network Analyzer For Active Components

A Network Analyzer For Active Components A Network Analyzer For Active Components EEEfCom 29-30 Juni ULM Marc Vanden Bossche, NMDG Engineering Remi Tuijtelaars, BSW Copyright 2005 NMDG Engineering Version 2 Outline Review of S-parameters Theory

More information

HF Receiver Testing. Issues & Advances. (also presented at APDXC 2014, Osaka, Japan, November 2014)

HF Receiver Testing. Issues & Advances. (also presented at APDXC 2014, Osaka, Japan, November 2014) HF Receiver Testing: Issues & Advances (also presented at APDXC 2014, Osaka, Japan, November 2014) Adam Farson VA7OJ/AB4OJ Copyright 2014 North Shore Amateur Radio Club 1 HF Receiver Performance Specs

More information

Time Domain Oscillator Stability Measurement Allan variance

Time Domain Oscillator Stability Measurement Allan variance Products: R&S FSUP, R&S FSU, R&S FSQ, R&S FSP, R&S FSV, R&S FSW Time Domain Oscillator Stability Measurement Allan variance This application note gives a short summary on the Allan variance as a measure

More information

Agilent Noise Figure Measurements of Frequency Converting Devices Using the Agilent NFA Series Noise Figure Analyzer

Agilent Noise Figure Measurements of Frequency Converting Devices Using the Agilent NFA Series Noise Figure Analyzer Agilent Noise Figure Measurements of Frequency Converting Devices Using the Agilent NFA Series Noise Figure Analyzer Application Note 1487 Introduction If you design or manufacture subsystems or components

More information

Agilent CaLan 8591C Cable TV Analyzer

Agilent CaLan 8591C Cable TV Analyzer Agilent CaLan 8591C Cable TV Analyzer Data Sheet A complete test solution for your cable TV system The Agilent Technologies CaLan 8591C is the industry s only one-box tester for all RF and video measurements.

More information

Conquering Noise for Accurate RF and Microwave Signal Measurements. Presented by: Ernie Jackson

Conquering Noise for Accurate RF and Microwave Signal Measurements. Presented by: Ernie Jackson Conquering Noise for Accurate RF and Microwave Signal Measurements Presented by: Ernie Jackson The Noise Presentation Review of Basics, Some Advanced & Newer Approaches Noise in Signal Measurements-Summary

More information

ENGINEERING COMMITTEE Interface Practices Subcommittee AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/SCTE

ENGINEERING COMMITTEE Interface Practices Subcommittee AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/SCTE ENGINEERING COMMITTEE Interface Practices Subcommittee AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/SCTE 17 2007 Test Procedure for Carrier to Noise (C/N, CCN, CIN, CTN) NOTICE The Society of Cable Telecommunications

More information

Agilent ESA Series Spectrum Analyzers. Data Sheet. Express analyzer configurations. Industry best typical performance

Agilent ESA Series Spectrum Analyzers. Data Sheet. Express analyzer configurations. Industry best typical performance Agilent ESA Series Spectrum Analyzers Data Sheet The ESA family of spectrum analyzers have proven and guaranteed performance with the flexibility to select the right level of functionality for your test

More information

Appendix. Circuit Envelope Simulator

Appendix. Circuit Envelope Simulator Appendix Circuit Envelope Simulator Circuit Envelope Simulator Circuit envelope simulation offers designers an efficient way to analyze amplifiers, mixers, oscillators, and feedback loops in the presence

More information

Measurement of Adjacent Channel Leakage Power on 3GPP W-CDMA Signals with the FSP

Measurement of Adjacent Channel Leakage Power on 3GPP W-CDMA Signals with the FSP Products: Spectrum Analyzer FSP Measurement of Adjacent Channel Leakage Power on 3GPP W-CDMA Signals with the FSP This application note explains the concept of Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) measurement

More information

Spectrum Analyzer RIGOL TECHNOLOGIES,INC.

Spectrum Analyzer RIGOL TECHNOLOGIES,INC. DSA700 Series Spectrum Analyzer All-Digital IF Technology Frequency Range from 100 khz up to 1 GHz Min. -130 dbm Displayed Average Noise Level (Typ.) Min.

More information

Making Spectrum Measurements with Rohde & Schwarz Network Analyzers

Making Spectrum Measurements with Rohde & Schwarz Network Analyzers Making Spectrum Measurements with Rohde & Schwarz Network Analyzers Application Note Products: R&S ZVA R&S ZVB R&S ZVT R&S ZNB This application note describes how to configure a Rohde & Schwarz Network

More information

5008 Dual MHz Frequency Synthesizer Module Valon Technology, LLC

5008 Dual MHz Frequency Synthesizer Module Valon Technology, LLC 5008 Dual 137.5-4400MHz Frequency Synthesizer Module The 5008 Dual Synthesizer module provides two independent frequency sources suitable for high quality clock, carrier, or local oscillator frequency

More information

1.0 DEFINING THE PROBLEM

1.0 DEFINING THE PROBLEM 1.0 DEFINING THE PROBLEM 1.1 Basics and Terminology Whenever two or more transceivers are used in close proximity there is some level of interference involved. This level can vary from practically no problem

More information

Circuit Envelope Simulation

Circuit Envelope Simulation Circuit Envelope Simulation Slide 8-1 What is Circuit Envelope? Time samples the modulation envelope (not carrier) Compute the spectrum at each time sample Output a time-varying spectrum Use equations

More information

HMC-T2240. Synthesized Signal Generator, 10 MHz to 40 GHz

HMC-T2240. Synthesized Signal Generator, 10 MHz to 40 GHz Syn, 10 MHz to 40 GHz Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of

More information

Agilent Network, Spectrum, and Impedance Evaluation of Electronic Circuits and Components

Agilent Network, Spectrum, and Impedance Evaluation of Electronic Circuits and Components Agilent Network, Spectrum, and Impedance Evaluation of Electronic Circuits and Components Application Note 1308-1 Agilent 4395A/Agilent 4396B Network/Spectrum/Impedance Analyzer Introduction With the current

More information

Impedance 50 (75 connectors via adapters)

Impedance 50 (75 connectors via adapters) VECTOR NETWORK ANALYZER PLANAR TR1300/1 DATA SHEET Frequency range: 300 khz to 1.3 GHz Measured parameters: S11, S21 Dynamic range of transmission measurement magnitude: 130 db Measurement time per point:

More information

EE5403 RF Circuit Design II RF Mixer

EE5403 RF Circuit Design II RF Mixer EE5403 RF Circuit Design II RF Mixer Dr Guo Yongxin RF and Optical Department Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R) 20 Science Park Road, #02-21/25 TeleTech ParkScience Park II, Singapore 117674 Tel: 6870-9165

More information

Understanding Phase Noise in RF and Microwave Calibration Applications.

Understanding Phase Noise in RF and Microwave Calibration Applications. Understanding Phase Noise in RF and Microwave Calibration Applications. Speaker/Author: Paul C. A. Roberts Fluke Precision Measurement Ltd. Hurricane Way Norwich, NR6 6JB, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (0)1603

More information

Novel Approaches for Measuring Frequency Converted Group Delay

Novel Approaches for Measuring Frequency Converted Group Delay Novel Approaches for Measuring Frequency Converted Group Delay Trc1 b2/a1 Delay Mem3[Trc1] S21 Delay Trc6 MixDly Real MixDly 50 Trc2 Mem4[Trc2] Mem7[Trc6] MixDly MixDly MixDly Real Real Real 2 45 40 M

More information

Automatic compression measurement using network analyzers

Automatic compression measurement using network analyzers Automatic compression measurement using network analyzers Introduction The dynamic range of an amplifier is determined by noise figure and compression. In multi carrier applications third order intercept

More information

Agilent PN Time-Gated Spectrum Analysis: New Measurement Fundamentals

Agilent PN Time-Gated Spectrum Analysis: New Measurement Fundamentals Agilent PN 8590-2 Time-Gated Spectrum Analysis: New Measurement Fundamentals Product Note Using the Agilent 8590 Series Spectrum Analyzers with Option 105 Table of Contents 3 Chapter 1 Introduction what

More information

Performing Amplifier Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVB

Performing Amplifier Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVB Product: Vector Network Analyzer R&S ZVB Performing Amplifier Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVB Application Note This document describes typical measurements that are required to be made

More information

2398 9 khz to 2.7 GHz Spectrum Analyzer

2398 9 khz to 2.7 GHz Spectrum Analyzer Spectrum Analyzers 2398 9 khz to 2.7 GHz Spectrum Analyzer A breakthrough in high performance spectrum analysis, combining cost effectiveness and portability in a new lightweight instrument 9 khz to 2.7

More information

Harmonic Balance. ADS 2009 (version 1.0) Copyright Agilent Technologies Slide 7-1

Harmonic Balance. ADS 2009 (version 1.0) Copyright Agilent Technologies Slide 7-1 Harmonic Balance Slide 7-1 Harmonic Balance Simulation You define the tones, harmonics, and power levels You get the spectrum: Amplitude vs. Frequency Use only Frequency domain sources Data can be transformed

More information

ECE 2111 Signals and Systems Fall 2012, UMD Experiment 3: The Spectrum Analyzer

ECE 2111 Signals and Systems Fall 2012, UMD Experiment 3: The Spectrum Analyzer ECE 2111 Signals and Systems Fall 2012, UMD Experiment 3: The Spectrum Analyzer Objective: To gain an understanding of the basic controls and measurement techniques of the Rohde & Schwarz Handheld Spectrum

More information

Analysis of Jitter with the R&S FSUP Signal Source Analyzer Application Note

Analysis of Jitter with the R&S FSUP Signal Source Analyzer Application Note Analysis of Jitter with the R&S FSUP Signal Source Analyzer Application Note Products: R&S FSUP8/26/50 This application note describes how to characterize RMS jitter with the R&S FSUP signal source analyzer.

More information

FM DEVIATION MULTIPLICATION

FM DEVIATION MULTIPLICATION FM DEVIATION MULTIPLICATION PREPARATION... 122 the angle modulated signal... 122 FM or PM?...123 the need for frequency multipliers... 123 wideband FM with Armstrong`s modulator... 124 FM UTILITIES...

More information

RIGOL. User s Guide. DSA800 Options and Accessories. Jan. 2012. RIGOL Technologies, Inc.

RIGOL. User s Guide. DSA800 Options and Accessories. Jan. 2012. RIGOL Technologies, Inc. User s Guide Jan. 2012 RIGOL Technologies, Inc. Guaranty and Declaration Copyright 2012 RIGOL Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Trademark Information RIGOL is a registered trademark of RIGOL Technologies,

More information

Agilent PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers Phase Noise Measurement Personality

Agilent PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers Phase Noise Measurement Personality Agilent PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers Phase Noise Measurement Personality Technical Overview with Self-Guided Demonstration Option 226 The PSA Series is Agilent Technologies' highest performing spectrum

More information

Revisiting the Measurement of Phase Noise in Test Oscillators

Revisiting the Measurement of Phase Noise in Test Oscillators Revisiting the Measurement of Phase Noise in Test Oscillators Jeff Smith, VE1ZAC Jan 2015 r3 (article under construction) Sometime back I was interested in making measurements of close in receiver IMD

More information

Measuring and Certifying Phase Noise Performance of a Low-Noise RF Source

Measuring and Certifying Phase Noise Performance of a Low-Noise RF Source Measuring and Certifying Phase Noise Performance of a Low-Noise RF Source Paul Roberts Fluke Precision Measurement Ltd Norwich, UK. +44 (0)1603 256781 paul.roberts@fluke.com Abstract - A low phase noise

More information