Cloud Service Trust Model and Its Application Research Based on the Third Party Certification

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1 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology, pp hp://dx.doi.org/ /ijuness Cloud Service Trus Model and Is Applicaion Research Based on he Third Pary Cerificaion Haiyong Xu 1, Junhai Ma 1 and Lei Li, Xueli Zhan 1,2 1 College of Managemen Economic, Tianjin Universiy, Tianjin 372, China 2 School of Economics, Beijing Wuzi Universiy, Beijing 11149, China Absrac Wih he developmen of compuer and Inerne echnology, he concep of cloud compuing has been acceped by relaed indusries worldwide, especially on he developmen in he field of elecommunicaions and elecronic commerce field rapidly. This paper inroduces he meaning, characerisics of cloud compuing, advanages and service paern, and wih he inroducion of echnology developmen presen siuaion and he crisis of confidence by he cloud compuing, describes he safey boleneck problems faced in he promoion process of he cloud calculaion. This paper presens cloud service rus model based on hird pary cerificaion, and hen hrough he analysis and sudy of he model, describes he securiy siuaion in he presence of hird pary cerificaion body under he condiion of cloud services, he Nash equilibrium soluion; and he general cloud compuing and e-commerce rus sysem were compared, he hird pary auhenicaion mechanism can effecively play is advanages in supervision, has he huge influence of credi risk raing on is own ransacions and fuure credi decision. Keywords: Cloud Compuing, The Third Pary Cerificaion, Game Theory, Nash Equilibrium 1. Inroducion Lae 9s of he 2h cenury he rapid developmen of Inerne, enerprises and individuals for daa processing and sorage, online ransacion services business has pu forward higher requiremens, in order o mee he needs of peoples needs and developmen, Inerne Co invened he cloud compuing echnology, based on he largescale compuing problems also reduces he cos of compuing become, Yu Shiyun anoher innovaion of he informaion indusry in 23. Afer years of developmen, he Unied Saes Naional Insiue of sandards and Technology (NIST) in 211, gives he definiion of cloud compuing is he auhoriy of he official, cloud compuing is a pay per use paern, his paern available, convenien, on-demand nework access o compuing resources, configurable shared pool (resources including nework, servers, sorage, applicaions, services), hese resources can be provided, only small invesmen managemen, or very lile ineracion wih he service provider. And, NIST, cloud compuing is divided ino he following hree levels of service mode, namely SaaS (Sofware as a Service, sofware as a service), PaaS (Plaform as a Service, plaform as a service) and IaaS (Infrasrucure as a Service, infrasrucure as a service). As can be seen, cloud mainly involves wo aspecs, one is he infrasrucure of cloud compuing, which provides users wih a more perfec sysem plaform; he wo is he applicaion of cloud compuing, which maximize he use of exising resources and cos savings. The cloud infrasrucure can be buil on op of a large number of cheap server cluser, he redundancy among numerous servers, sofware can achieve high availabiliy, so ISSN: IJUNESST Copyrigh c 215 SERSC

2 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology compared wih he radiional mainframes, he cloud o save he high cos, has an obvious advanage. And cloud compuing using he underlying srucure and applicaion form of cooperaion, o maximize he use of exising resources. Overall, cloud compuing has he following hree main feaures. Cloud compuing echnology can according o he acual needs of users will be dynamic planning of physical and virual resources. Cloud compuing has virualizaion echnology, can be used o compue resources in differen regions of he summary, he effecive realizaion of sharing all kinds of resources based on he plaform. Cloud compuing is differen wih previous compuing is ha he user in he use of more convenien, fas and low cos. In conclusion, he cloud of comprehensive applicaion of disribued compuing, Inerne and large-scale resource managemen and informaion echnology (as shown in Figure 1), including daa cener managemen, resource virualizaion, massive daa processing, compuer securiy relaed issues, which belongs o he comprehensive sysem engineering. Figure 1. The Relaionship Beween Cloud Compuing And Relaed Technology 2. Advanage of Cloud Compuing Compared wih he radiional IT echnology, cloud compuing echnology has he advanage. 2.1 Improve Resource Uilizaion Cloud compuing echnology has virualizaion echnology is powerful, i can be a virual server ino muliple, can also be a number of physical IT resources are inegraed ino a virual pool of resources, he effecive realizaion of he flexible allocaion of resources according o he user demand, improve he uilizaion efficiency of resources. 2.2 The Effecive Realizaion of Auomaic Operaion Cloud compuing cener is equipped wih auomaic scheduling of resources sysem, by monioring he CPU, memory, I/O, sorage and oher funcions, can realize he auomaic deploymen of resources o provide imely and perfec service for he user. 26 Copyrigh c 215 SERSC

3 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology 2.3 Wih Elasic Compuing and Sorage Capaciy Because he compuing plaform is used in he verical expansion of he radiional way, so he compuing and sorage capaciy is no flexible enough, canno mee he demand of compuing and sorage of sudden. A he same ime, he radiional compuing plaform can mee he demand is limied, he use of planning, consrucion, operaion resources generally low rae. However, cloud compuing is used in expanded mode ransverse; grealy promoe he flexibiliy of resource uilizaion. 2.4 Reduce he Terminal Reques of User An imporan feaure of cloud compuing services is, only need o pay a fee o acquire resources, compuaion required by nework service. Wih inerne access, cloud compuing can se he complex compuing asks on he server, and simple inerface can be sandardized can enjoy cloud services. 3. Cloud Compuing Developmen Presen Siuaion and he Crisis of Confidence 3.1 The Developmen Saus of Cloud Compuing Cloud compuing is he foundaion of relaed echnology in cluser compuing, uiliy compuing, grid compuing, service compuing and so on, a new echnology o produce he evoluion, he. Cloud compuing is a grea innovaion of informaion indusry. In 27, Sanford Universiy and many oher famous American universiies began o cooperae wih Google, IBM, IT enerprise, join research and developmen of cloud compuing echnology. Wih he deep research of scholars, academic circles in he cloud compuing relaed o find more and more field, many research achievemens have been published in academic journals and heir Inernaional Conference on compuing echnology, graifying achievemens. And in he Eucalypus and oher open source cloud compuing plaform, cloud compuing echnology obained he beer popularizaion and applicaion. A he same ime, research and developmen of each IT indusry leading enerprises are also in he cloud compuing echnology has made he resuls arac peoples aenion. In addiion, many counries in he world are he same in cloud compuing research and applicaion fields of invesed a lo of manpower, maerial and financial resources, and he developmen of cloud compuing as a sraegic period of developmen in he fuure. For example, he Unied Saes governmen has esablished he applicaion of cloud compuing echnology in he federal governmens websie. Save he money for he governmen; he Briish governmen has esablished a naional plaform for Cloud Compuing (G-Cloud), and abou 66.7% of Briish companies used a cloud compuing service, which provides echnical suppor for he developmen and innovaion of each enerprise; China will cloud compuing developmen included in he "Twelfh Five Year" plan, and sar from he developed Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen Ciy, in elecommunicaions, peroleum and perochemical, ransporaion and oher indusries as a pilo, for he developmen of cloud compuing service innovaion demonsraion work gradually, has grealy promoed he developmen of naional informaion. 3.2 The Trus Crisis of Cloud Compuing Faced In he informaion age brings us convenien a he same ime, also bring unpredicable challenges, informaion securiy is one of he bigges challenges. Cloud compuing brings hihero unknown change o is unique advanages for he IT indusry. Cloud compuing applicaions rely on he powerful cloud plaform o ensure ha he service flexibiliy, bu he infrasrucure for each applicaion is no fixed, which makes Copyrigh c 215 SERSC 261

4 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology he sysem difficul o mainain he users daa securiy and privacy. A he same ime, he relaed resources provide cloud services unified sorage in a pool of resources, by muliple managers o supervise, i is impossible o implemen unified securiy managemen or esablishmen of safey proecion measures and perfec. The cloud plaform processing massive daa compuaion and sorage asks all he ime, he need for srong securiy measures o proec he massive informaion processing needs. Because of he lack of ime for cloud compuing research field of informaion securiy, has no formed he heoreical basis and esablishing and mainaining he required informaion securiy and relaed echnology producs. Cloud compuing in he majoriy of people is he main form of he fuure o provide nework services. However, he sudy on cloud compuing is sill facing many difficulies, he urgen key problems including cloud cloud securiy, sandardizaion managemen, unified Cloud Archiecure, parallel compuing programmabiliy, virualizaion echnology and service migraion smoohly ec. Wih he popularizaion of applicaions on he cloud, cloud securiy issue has become he bigges boleneck resricing curren cloud compuing promoion. 29 survey: more han 7% of he surveyed enerprises despie he urgen demand of he cloud, bu for he privae daa securiy and privacy concerns and delay accepance of cloud compuing schedule. In 29 March, Google has leaked a large number of user file evens. In 29, February and July, Amazon because of "simple sorage service" for he wo ime he disrupion caused a cloud service websie Yong paralysis. A series of cloud securiy acciden oubreak exacerbaed people concerned abou he securiy of cloud. Therefore, carries on a horough analysis of he cloud sysem, solve he cloud securiy problems is he firs prioriy o promoe he coninuous developmen of cloud compuing. 4. Analysis of Energy use Efficiency of Each Ciy in Shandong Province A large number of facs show ha he rus relaionship beween differen eniies of indeph sudy of he cloud environmen, and securiy mechanism based on rus o ensure safey operaion of he cloud sysem is very necessary. However, rus is a concep which is difficul o handle, i is difficul o find an appropriae mehod o accuraely define and evaluae he rus relaionship beween eniies. Therefore he design o adap o he new rus cloud compuing model and solve he rus based securiy scheme is a difficul and challenging work. Finish he job or be furher will provide a useful reference for he soluion of cloud securiy issues, so as o promoe he furher developmen of cloud compuing research. Based on he analysis of rus crisis which cloud compuing faces, his paper esablished a rus cloud service model based on hird pary cerificaion, o maximize he improvemen of he exising cloud service securiy sysem, provides a scienific, comprehensive, sysem operaion sysem for cloud users and cloud service providers. 4.1 Cloud Service Flow Figure based on Third Pary Cerificaion As shown in Figure 2, he so-called hird pary cerificaion refers o he cerified for safey, find a neural body can cloud services o paries, and consrain each ohers behavior. By he mehod of sandardizaion echnical measures o supervise he cloud service, for securiy vulnerabiliies exis o modify, and o evaluae he level of securiy sysem, is conducive o safeguarding he ineress of boh sides of cloud services, enhance he level of rus each oher. 262 Copyrigh c 215 SERSC

5 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology Figure 2. Cloud SERVICE FLOW FIGURE based on Third Pary Cerificaion Hypohesis: Based on he cloud service flow Figure, his paper pu forward he following hypohesis. Firs, he cloud service providers and recipiens are perfecly raional economic man. Second, boh sides cloud service process can obain all informaion hrough appropriae channels, and wo muually independen, and make a decision. Third, he cloud service process will only exis in wo saes and rusworhy and fraud. The Relaed Parameers S Meanscredi coefficien of hird pary cerificaion body in he phase, his paper assumes ha he iniial credi coefficien S zero. s Means he credi value of hird pary cerificaion body in one exchange made, credi coefficien by accumulaion mode is simple o calculae he hird pary cerificaion body, S S s. 1 p( s ) Means he cos when he cloud users ener ino he cloud services plaform in he phase. Meanshe reurn he cloud users go afer he cloud services rade is end in phase, only when, he hree pary cerificaion body can ge commission. Means he resuling percenage ha hird pary cerificaion body in a cloud service ransacions and he cloud user gains is posiive, 1. M Means he price of service produc in phase. N Means he gain of hird pary cerificaion body, which mainly includes each ransacion commission and dismiss fraud cloud users wo pars. N p ( S ) ( M, S ) The mehod can effecively ensure he cloud users and cloud service providers in he cloud producs rading ineress, cloud users will fully rely on credi evaluaion of he suppliers o make he hird pary cerificaion body level in he choice of he cloud service provider, so he hird pary cerificaion body of he credi raing is very imporan. Posiive feedback can increase revenue for he hird pary cerificaion body, he cloud Copyrigh c 215 SERSC 263

6 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology service provider and cloud users, negaive feedback can be made by credi coefficien o p generae fuure income effec. and, hen. S Service Transacion Mechanism Process: S N p S S S Cloud services rading mechanism of hird pary cerificaion is a dynamic managemen process based, mainly divided ino he securiy sysem o preven, manage and pos rewards and punishmens and oher major. Below is mainly abou he services he major seps in he process are analyzed and inroduced. Firs, before he cloud service ransacions, he cloud user needs firs o pay a service fee o he hird pary cerificaion body in he cloud compuing plaform p( S ), and hen in every service afer he success of he ransacion is also required o pay royalies. Second, in a cloud compuing service ransacion process, cloud users and cloud service providers formed a wo person game sae. If he cloud service provider o rade for inegriy, hen he credi coefficiens are hird pary cerificaion insiuions increased s ; if he cloud service provider o rade for fraud, if he hird pary cerificaion agencies o give be fraud compensaion cerain, hen he credi line number increases s, if i fails o o provide compensaion, reduce credi coefficien s. Third, a he end of a cloud service ransacion, if he ransacion is one of he wo paries found he oher pary fraud, you can appeal o apply o he hird pary cerificaion body, coss A. Through he invesigaion and analysis, if he exisence of fraud, he hird pary cerificaion body has he righ o demand paymen fraud is fraud compensaion B, fraud is equally have he righ o decide wheher o accep he resuls of he survey. The mehod o ensure he inegriy of he income is greaer han, he amoun of compensaion B is larger han or equal o he square of fraud losses and he cos of A, i.e., B u A. If he cloud service rade boh sides recognized he exisence of fraud, all need o pay compensaion o he hird pary cerificaion body B. Fourh, if according o he sandard of fraud o pay compensaion, hen he cloud compuing plaform is sill regarded as he inegriy of he cloud user, will no have a negaive impac on he fuure of cloud service ransacions. However, if he fraudulen pary refused o pay compensaion, hen he hird pary cerificaion body will confiscae he iniial paymen of service charges, he dismissal of, and he informaion on he cloud compuing plaform. Fifh, under normal circumsances, if he cloud users wan o exi he hird pary cerificaion body can be fully rerieve iniial pay service fees. Bu, if i is fired, he service fee will be forfeied, no o reurn. 4.2 Cloud Services Trus Game Model The exising cloud service rus game model Assume ha in he absence of hird pary cerificaion insiuion, game siuaion beween he cloud provider and cloud user ransacions occur, as shown in Table 1. u 264 Copyrigh c 215 SERSC

7 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology Table 1. Game Siuaion beween he Cloud Provider and Cloud User Transacions As shown in Table 1, if he cloud service provider and he cloud user boh have an u hones deal, hey boh earn ;if one of hem exis chea acion, hen he cheaer earns (1 ) u u, he hones earns (, ). Because (1 ) u u, when one side choose chea, he opimal decision of he oher side is chea; and owing o u, so when one side choose chea, he opimal decision of he oher side is chea. So he (chea, chea) is he Nash equilibrium. The cloud service rus game model based on hird pary cerificaion body Suppose in he presence of he hird pary cerificaion body condiion, he game process of cloud users and cloud service providers in he ransacion process as shown in Table 2. Table 2. Game Siuaion In The Presence Of he Third Pary Cerificaion In he process of cloud service ransacions, owing o (1 ) u (1 )(1 ) u B So when one side choose hones, he opimal decision of he oher side is hones; and because B u A B, so when one side choose chea, he opimal decision of he oher side is hones eiher; so he (hones, hones) is he Nash equilibrium of he model, so we know ha cloud service rading mechanism based on he hird pary cerificaion mechanism for cloud users and cloud service providers bring securiy assurance. Through he deailed analysis of he cloud service rus game model based on hird pary cerificaion, we have drawn he following conclusions. Firs, When B (1 ) u, The cloud service provider will choose hones fair in he hird pary cerificaion body condiion. When here exis cloud rade beween cloud users and cloud service providers, wo cloud service provider sraegy yields as shown in Table 3. Copyrigh c 215 SERSC 265

8 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology Table 3. The Income of Two Kinds of Cloud Service Provider Sraegies is discoun facor, and mee When he cloud user choose hones, if 1, 1 1 i u 1 1,i is he marke ineres. (1 )(1 ) u B (1 ) u (1 ) (1 ) u, The opimal decision of cloud service provider is hones; when he cloud user choose chea, if B u A (1 ) u B (1 ) u 1 1 The opimal decision of cloud service provider is sill hones. A comprehensive analysis of he above wo inequaliies, we can draw ha when B (1 ) u, no maer he choice of he cloud user, he opimal decision of cloud service provider is hones. Second, when he cloud users find iself is cheaed, i will be o he hird pary cerificaion body for compensaion. Cloud services rading mechanism in his paper can ensure he ransacion inegriy pary gains consan greaer han zero, B u A, hen we can ge B A. When he cloud users find iself is fraud, alhough he need o pay he fee of A, bu he B can effecively make up for he cos, so he cloud user will compensae he appeal o he hird pary cerificaion body. Third, when B p ( S ) (1 ) u k (1 ) u 1 1 Cheaer in he ransacion will pay o be cheaed pary compensaion B.(Among hem, k is he hird pary cerificaion, regisered he probabiliy of success in he oher hird pary cerificaion body; (1 ) u is he profi ha he cheaer gained from 1 1 This is because in he ransacion, when one side choose chea, and is oal profi is: (1 )(1 )u 1 B (1 ) u 1 ). Bu afer expelled by hird pary cerificaion body, and ener ino oher hird pary cerificaion body as he k probabiliy, he oal profi of he cheaer is So, if and only if, 1 2 (1 )(1 ) u p ( S ) 2 k 1 (1 ) u B p ( S ) (1 ) u k (1 ) u 1 1, he cheaer will choose o pay o be cheaed pary compensaion B. 266 Copyrigh c 215 SERSC

9 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology Forh, When B Q Q ( h ), If he cheaer refuses o pay compensaion o he cheaed pary, he hird pary cerificaion body will pay compensaion o he cheaed. ( Q for he hird pary cerificaion body before he phase has always been hones exchange can obain he expeced oal discouned revenue; and Q said when a fraudulen ransacion ( h ) phase, hird pary cerificaion body o ensure he fuure of oher members of he inegriy of ransacions of he oal discouned revenue.) N S,so Q Q ( h ). When one side choose o chea, Third pary cerificaion body o he cheaed paymen compensaion, oal income of hird pary cerificaion dae for: E (1 ) u B Q ; 1 When he cheaer and hird pary cerificaion auhoriy is no o pay compensaion, he ransacion is deemed fraudulen ransacions, oal income of hird pary cerificaion dae for: E (1 ) u Q 2 ( h ). So, if and only if E E, B Q Q 1 2 ( h ), Third pary cerificaion body will pay compensaion o he cheaed side. Fifh, in he cloud service model based on rus hird pary cerificaion body, when mee he following inequaliy condiions (hones, hones) sraegy is he Nash equilibrium soluion of he model of he game. m ax { A, (1 ) u } B m a x { p ( S ) 1 1 (1 ) u k (1 ) u, Q Q } ( h ) According o he firs and second conclusion above, we can easily ge B m ax { A, (1 ) u }. And from he hird conclusion, In he even of chea, cheaer will pay compensaion B, he forh conclusion guaranee afer he chea happen, If he cheaer does no pay, i will be paid by hird pary cerificaion body, hereby ensuring ransacion inegriy, so, we can ge B ( h ) 1 1 m a x { p ( S ) (1 ) u k (1 ) u, Q Q } The inequaliy of condiions, boh paries o he ransacion afer repeaed game, can reach (hones, hones) Nash equilibrium. In his model, he rus in he ineracion, were evaluaed by he hird pary, reflecs he ineracion of fairness and jusice, he cloud users and cloud service providers in equal saus, is conducive o he developmen of cloud compuing. Afer he ineracion, he cloud provider of hird pary users rus value evaluaion, reduced by hird pary and user collusion fraud may, also pus forward requiremens for he qualiy assessmen of he hird pary; cloud users submi evaluaion of cloud service providers, bu also preven he hird pary and he cloud service provider collusion may, and he cloud service providers service qualiy requiremens are pu forward. In his way, he hree pary o paricipae in he aciviies of he benign ineracion o he inerdependen and muual consrains. 5. Conclusion Firsly, based on he game heory and he cloud service ransacion characerisics, respecively o esablish he presence or rus he cloud service game model has no hird pary cerificaion body, hrough he analysis of he game model, draw he conclusion: he inroducion of hird pary cerificaion is necessary o solve he problem of rus measures cloud. Through a series of proposiions, build rus cloud service managemen mechanism based on rused hird pary. Finally, comparaive sudy. This paper esablishes he rus managemen mechanism and model, Copyrigh c 215 SERSC 267

10 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology Model in many ways effecively consrain he paries o he ransacion cloud services fraud, which play he role of supervision and resrain, rus cloud services have significan risk conrol. References [1] Q. Zhang, L. Cheng and R. Bouaba, Cloud compuing: sae-of-he-ar and research challenges, Inerne Services Appl., vol. 1, no. 1, (21), pp [2] M. Randles, D. Lamb, E. Oda and A. Taleb-Bendiab, Disribued redundancy and robusness in complex sysems, J. Compu. Sysem Sci., vol. 77, no. 2, (211), pp [3] D. Kusic, J. Kephar, J. Hanson, N. Kandasamy and G. Jiang, Power and performance managemen of virualized compuing environmens via lookahead conrol, Cluser Compuing, vol. 12, no. 1, (29), pp [4] M. Cardosa, M. Korupolu and A. Singh, Shares and uiliies based power consolidaion in virualized server environmens, in: Proceedings of IFIP/IEEE Inegraed Nework Managemen (IM 9), (29), pp [5] L. Gri, D. Irwin, A. Yumerefendi and J. Chase, Virual machine hosing for neworked clusers: Building he foundaions for auonomic orchesraion, in: Proceedings of he 2nd Inernaional Workshop on Virualizaion Technology in Disribued Compuing, (26), p. 7. [6] A. Menezes and N. P. Smar, Securiy of signaure schemes in a muli-user seing, Des. Codes Crypogr., vol. 33, no. 3, (24), pp [7] W. Ogaa, K. Kurosawa and S.-H. Heng, The securiy of he FDH varian of Chaum s undeniable signaure scheme, in: S. Vaudenay (Ed.), Public Key Crypography, in: Lecure Noes in Compu. Sci., Springer, vol. 3386, (25), pp [8] S. Saeednia, S. Kremer and O. Markowich, An efficien srong designaed verifier signaure scheme, in: J.I. Lim, D.H. Lee (Eds.), ICISC, in: Lecure Noes in Compu. Sci., Springer, vol. 2971, (23), pp [9] W. Susilo, F. Zhang and Y. Mu, Ideniy-based srong designaed verifier signaure schemes, in: H. Wang, J. Pieprzyk, V. Varadharajan (Eds.), ACISP, in: Lecure Noes in Compu. Sci., Springer, vol. 318, (24), pp [1] C. H. Tan, Signcrypion scheme in muli-user seing wihou random oracles, in: K. Masuura, E. Fujisaki (Eds.), IWSEC, in: Lecure Noes in Compu. Sci., Springer, vol. 5312, (28), pp Auhor Haiyong Xu Shandong Wei Fang Auhor s profile: PhD suden of Tianjin universiy collage of managemen and economic deparmen 268 Copyrigh c 215 SERSC

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