TSG-RAN Working Group 1 (Radio Layer 1) meeting #3 Nynashamn, Sweden 22 nd 26 th March 1999

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1 TSG-RAN Working Group 1 (Radio Layer 1) meeing #3 Nynashamn, Sweden 22 nd 26 h March 1999 RAN TSGW1#3(99)196 Agenda Iem: 9.1 Source: Tile: Documen for: Moorola Macro-diversiy for he PRACH Discussion/Decision 1 Inroducion Based on experience wih CDMA sysems, here can be problem when a mobile aemps o seup a connecion whils in an area where macro-diversiy would normally be required for dedicaed channel operaion. The problem arises because macro-diversiy is no available on he RACH and FACH channels ha are used during he connecion seup procedure. To address his problem, his paper describes a mechanism whereby a random access message can be direced o more han one basesaion in order o exploi macro-diversiy. 2 Benefis of macro-diversiy on random access According o he exising documenaion, a UE ha wishes make a connecion mus ransmi a connecion reques message via he RACH o a single basesaion. Following he iniial access, he nework will send a DCH allocaion via he FACH. Once he DCH has been esablished he UE can be prepare o ener sof handover. When he UE is in an area of high inercell inerference, where sof handover would normally required for DCH operaion, i can be difficul o make he iniial access o he sysem, hereby causing a failed connecion aemp. The benefi of being able o direcly se up a connecion in sof handover has been recognised by ESTI SMG2 Layer2/3 Expers Group [1] and also by Nokia [2]. The Nokia conribuion conains a proposal ha he connecion se up message should conain measuremens from adjacen cells in order o enable he UE o ener sof handover direcly, alhough he connecion reques message iself does no exploi macro-diversiy. The mechanism described here addresses his problem by direcing he iniial RACH message o wo basesaions. Direcing RACH messages o more han one basesaion, and sof combining hose messages wihin he nework, allows he RACH o exploi all he well recognised benefis of macro-diversiy. This will improve successful deecion probabiliy, reduce he required ransmission power, and herefore reduce he overall inerference inroduced ino he sysem. 3 Descripion of Macro-diversiy PRACH Assume ha a UE near he edge of wo cells needs o access he nework (his could be a conrol message such a connecion reques or i could be o ransfer a small user packe). Based upon measuremens of he downlink PCCPCH signal srengh and oher informaion he UE can selec wo basesaions o which o direc he PRACH message. From he physical layer perspecive, a number of issues mus be considered in order o direc a PRACH ransmission o wo basesaions: The basesaions are asynchronous The power of he PRACH ransmissions may need o be differen for each cell The basesaions have differen PRACH scrambling codes I is very undesirable for a basesaion o need exra preamble searchers or for he mobile o have mulicode ransmission. 1

2 These issues are addressed below, firsly for he preamble porion of he PRACH ransmission, and hen for he message porion. 3.1 Preamble Transmission There are wo opions available for he ransmission of PRACH preambles o wo basesaions. The firs opion is depiced in figure1 and shows he wo preambles ransmied sequenially o he wo basesaions. Figure 1 shows he wo cells wih a wors case iming offse of half a 1.25ms PRACH access slo. The mobile ransmis a preamble o basesaion 1 and hen a preamble o basesaion 2. The preambles are aligned wih he access slo iming of he basesaion o which hey are being direced, bu wih a chip level iming offse ha is discussed furher in secion 3.2. The preamble scrambling code, he iniial ransmission power, and he power ramping sep size can be independen for he wo cells. However, he signaure is he same for boh preambles and he choice of access slo is linked. Each basesaion sends an independen physical layer acknowledgemen, via he AICH, if i deecs a preamble. The UE mus be able o deec boh he physical layer acknowledgemens ha can be ransmied by he wo basesaions, and mus wai for boh acknowledgemens before deciding wheher o ransmi he message porion of he PRACH. For cell 1, he ime gap beween he end of he preamble and he sar of he message is hree 1.25ms access slos plus 0.25ms, giving a oal of 4ms. For cell 2, he gap is wo access slos plus 0.25ms giving 2.75ms. For comparison, when he mobile is only sending he PRACH o a single basesaion he gap is one slo plus 0.25ms giving 1.5ms. The second opion for ransmiing he PRACH preambles o wo basesaions is depiced in figure 2, and shows ha he wo preambles, ha are defined as BPSK sequences, are ransmied in quadraure. This means ha he overlap beween he wo preambles does no require mulicode ransmission from he UE. In his case he gap beween he preamble and he message is 2.75ms for boh cells. For boh opions here are hree differen oucomes depending on which acknowledgemens are received: 1. No acknowledgemen is received from eiher basesaion. The UE should increase he preamble ransmission power by he appropriae power ramping sep size, and reransmi he preambles o boh basesaions. 2. When an acknowledgemen is received from one basesaion only, he UE sends he PRACH message o ha basesaion a he appropriae ransmission power. 3. When acknowledgemens are received from boh basesaions hen he UE sends he message o boh basesaions wih he ransmission power chosen o be he greaer of he wo powers for he individual basesaions. In his case, if boh basesaions successfully deec he message, hen he UE can be assigned a dedicaed channel in boh cells simulaneously, and he UE can ener sof handover immediaely. There is a furher opion o sof combine he AICHs from boh basesaions. In his case, he UE will add he energy received from he wo AICHs and hen make a decision on wheher o send he PRACH message o boh basesaions. 2

3 Frame boundary BCCH BS 1 BS 1 BCCH slo iming Tslo Preamble 1 Preamble 2 Message Downlink Rx ACK ch 1 ACK 1 ACK ch 2 ACK 2 Frame boundary BCCH BS 2 BS 2 BCCH slo iming Figure 1: Preamble simualaneous ransmission o wo basesaions - opion 1. Frame boundary BCCH BS 1 BS 1 BCCH slo iming I Q Preamble 1 Preamble 2 Message Downlink Rx ACK ch1 ACK 1 ACK ch2 ACK 2 Frame boundary BCCH BS 2 BS 2 BCCH slo iming Figure 2: Simulaneous preamble ransmission o wo basesaions - opion Message Transmission If he UE receives acknowledgemens from boh basesaions hen i mus ransmi he PRACH message so ha boh basesaions are able o deec i. To achieve his i is proposed ha he ransmission does no use a cell specific scrambling code bu uses a common scrambling code ha is reserved for his purpose. So ha he basesaion receiver knows ha he UE will be using he common scrambling code, one or more of he preamble signaures should be se aside o indicae ha he common scrambling code is o be used. 3

4 The maximum iming offse beween he messages direced o he wo basesaions is half of a 1.25ms PRACH access slo. This corresponds o 10 symbols a a spreading facor of 256. The UE should sar ransmiing in he earlies of he wo ransmission slos bu i should ransmi dummy symbols unil he laer of he wo slos. A he laer slo boundary, he UE sends a sequence of known symbols (UW-1 o UW-N in he figure 3) o indicae he sar of he message, and hen ransmis he message porion of he PRACH as defined in he curren documenaion. This is shown in figure 3. A shor scrambling code should be used o scramble he boh dummy symbols and he known sequence. I is suggesed ha he firs 256 chips of he message scrambling code could be used for as his shor code. The inserion of dummy symbols can only adjus he iming offse o he neares symbol. There will sill be a residual offse ha can be up o half of a symbol (i.e. 128 chips). This residual will appear as an exra propagaion delay in he PRACH message sen o one of he basesaion receivers. So ha he apparen propagaion delay is he same for boh he preamble and message pars, he UE mus also inser his exra delay ino is preamble ransmission (his assumes ha he basesaion receiver uses he chip iming informaion obained from he preamble porion when i receives he message porion). The window of he searcher in he PRACH deecor should be wide enough o accommodae his exra delay. The inserion of dummy symbols and he known sequence adds an overhead ono he 10ms PRACH message. The maximum overhead is 17 symbols (assuming a 7 symbol known sequence) which gives an overhead of 10%, wih a mean overhead of 5% assuming ha he basesaion iming is random. Also, his overhead is only necessary when acknowledgemens have been received from boh basesaions ms access slo boundary cell 1 Tdch_slo = ms Tsymbol Timing in cell 1 iming I Q Dummy Dummy Dummy Dummy Dummy UW_1 UW_N Daa Pilo/RI Timing in cell ms access slo boundary cell 2 Figure 3: Transmission of a PRACH message o wo asynchronous basesaions 4 Conclusions 4

5 The paper has proposed a mechanism ha allows he PRACH o exploi macro-diversiy. The principal feaures of he scheme are: The macro-diversiy PRACH faciliaes he seing up of a connecion in a sof handover area. The macro-diversiy PRACH wih sof combining in he nework should improve deecion probabiliy, reduce he required ransmission power, and reduced he inerference inroduced ino he sysem. The scale of hese benefis needs o be verified by simulaion. The basesaion does no require exra preamble searchers. The UE does need o suppor mulicode ransmission. The mean increase in overhead of a macro-diversiy PRACH compared o a single basesaion PRACH is 5%. The delay beween he preamble and he message porion of he PRACH is increased by one 1.25ms PRACH access slo. The poenial impac of his mechanism is: In he window of he preamble searcher in he basesaion should be able o handle delay spreads of up o one half of a symbol a a spreading facor of 256 i.e. 128chips. The mobile should be able o deec AICH channels from wo basesaions simulaneously, and poenially sof combine hose channels. The macro-diversiy RACH described in his paper can aid seing up a connecion in sof handover. However, he procedure sill needs o use he FACH, which doesn suppor macro-diversiy, in order o send he DCH allocaion message. I is suggesed ha macro-diversiy for hese FACH messages could be considered furher. 5 Proposal TSG RAN WG1 should consider he proposed mechanism for a macro-diversiy RACH for inclusion in he 3GPP documenaion. I is recognised ha he performance benefis of he proposed scheme have no ye been quanified by simulaion and his needs o be addressed as soon as possible. I is also recognised ha here are a number of layer 2/3 aspecs ha will need o be considered by RAN TSG WG2 and possibly RAN TSG WG3. 6 References [1] SMG2 L1 Expers Group 602/98, Liaison from L2/3 Expers Group [2] Nokia, TSGR2#2(99)121, Conens of he RRC Connecion Reques, Connecion Seup and Connecion Rejec Messages 5

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