A Model of High School Student Financial Assistance System in China

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1 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology, pp hp://dx.doi.org/ /ijuness A Model of High School Suden Financial Assisance Sysem in China Hua Ding, Zhongliang Guan and Zhihong Tian Beijing Jiaoong Universiy, China Absrac This paper pus forward an analyical model of ordinary high school suden financial assisance sysem, based on he Dworkin heory and managemen of operaional research. The model is consiued by consrain condiions, acors, model parameers and arge parameers. Specific conens of each par are provided, and deailed analysis is carried ou. Then, a case sudy is conduced o show how o apply he above model o analyze he assisance policy of high school suden financial. The model could bring he work of high school suden financial assisance o he heigh of he managemen science. This paper is of grea significance o promoe he developmen and popularizaion of high school educaion. Keywords: Suden financial assisance, high school educaion, subsidize mode, Ronald Dworkin 1. Inroducion We mus have a clear and correc undersanding abou he issue of educaional equiy, for i is a fundamenal problem of China s educaion. Educaional equiy includes he equiy of educaion righs, educaion opporuniies and educaion resul. Educaion equiy is an exension of social equiy. High school educaion which is special and imporan connecs compulsory educaion and higher educaion. Populariy of high school educaion is an imporan way of human resources invesmen and achievemen of educaional equiy and social jusice. However, relaive o compulsory educaion and higher educaion, he heoreical research, policy developmen and implemenaion of high school suden financial assisance are all insufficien. Therefore, in recen years, he developmen of high school educaion should be ge much more aenion. Naional medium and long-erm plan for educaion reform and developmen ( ) pus forward ha high school educaion is a key period o he sudens o form independen personaliy, and is significan o he improving he populace's culivaion and culivaing innovaive alens. The developmen ask of high school educaion is "popularizing high school educaion, improving ordinary high school sudens' comprehensive qualiy and promoing he diversified developmen of high school ". Since 2010 fall semeser, our counry esablishes a policy sysem of high school suden financial assisance. Theoreical researches abou funding for poor sudens include educaion fairness heory and public goods heory. Chu, e al., (2008) discuss he differen policy implicaions of he hree educaion fair principles equaliy, difference and compensaion. However, he paper does no analyze he pracical circumsances in our counry from he perspecive of philosophy. Feng (2006) demonsraes poor sudens educaion should belong o he caegory of public producs and services from he angle of he funcions of he governmen and he public finances. Li (2007) couns he enrollmen of ordinary universiies, ordinary high schools and ordinary junior high schools from 1990 o 2004 in our counry, and poins ou ha he ordinary high school educaion is he "boleneck" ISSN: IJUNESST Copyrigh c 2015 SERSC

2 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology resricing he developmen of he whole educaion. A he same ime, he analyses he cos of educaion and living of rural children. Hu, e al., (2001) pu forward ha he popularizaion 12 years educaion should be he new goal of naional educaion developmen and imagine i. They also analyzes he abroad experiences and favorable condiions of he popularizaion of our counry's 12 years educaion. The counry could increase he fiscal ransfer paymen o poor areas, or increase financial aid o hese areas. Differen counries have differen funding policy and ways o ordinary high schools. In Algeria, Jordan, Burundi, all levels of educaion are free, and schools provide free meals o boarding sudens. Ausralia and Brazil ake he way of life grans. Bangladesh akes he way of scholarship sysem. France, Japan, Thailand, India, Luxembourg adops he sysem of loans, and Japan's naional grans depend enirely on naional suden loans. The paerns of oher counries policy and ways have cerain references value and insrucive o our counry. Through a lo of lieraure research, we found ha mos lieraures pu forward suggesions o specific conens of funding sysem. However, he dephs of lieraures are no enough. A he same ime, in he process of he policy sysem esablishmen, all sors of pracical problems will be encounered, for example, he regional differences, he complex relaionship beween educaion and economic or social developmen levels, and sysem operaion and managemen, and so on. Combining he siuaion of educaion in our counry, and he naional educaion developmen planning, his paper pus forward an analyical model based on he Dworkin heory and managemen of operaional research. The model could bring he work of high school suden financial assisance o he heigh of he managemen science. This paper is of grea significance o promoe he developmen and popularizaion of high school educaion. Afer build he model, a case sudy is conduced o show how o apply he above model o analyze he assisance policy of high school suden financial. 2. Basic Theory 2.1. Theory of Dworkin Theory of John Rawls is popular among Chinese scholars in he sudy of educaion equiy. In fac, in addiion o Rawls, Nozick and Dworkin (2002) also pu forward relaed heories. They all belong o he liberalism genre and argue equal righs. However, hey have differen undersandings abou he disribuion of he resources. Rawls (1971, 2001) pursues equal jusice, and he proposes he difference principle, and ries o achieve fairness by he unequal disribuion. Rawls pursues he equaliy principle of resuls, and his heory is no suiable for high school educaion. On he one hand, he high school educaion is no popular or compulsory educaion, i is no necessary disribued equally o all people. On he oher hand, here are selecions and recruimen in high school educaion which is a kind of eliis educaion, and he bes educaion resources should be given o he bes performers. Hence, Rawls's heory is suiable for compulsory educaion. Nozick (1974) pursues "jusice in holdings". He hinks ha only personal deserve is jusice. The sufficien and necessary condiion of jusice in holdings is he boh jusice of acquiremen and ransfer. Nozick's heory is suiable for higher educaion. Higher educaion belongs o he elie educaion in naure, and i insiss ha he more ousanding, he beer educaion receive. Rawls and Nozick are wo exremes of "equaliy" and "freedom" of liberal jusice heory, and Dworkin is on he hird way beween hem. In spie of he high school educaion belongs o basic educaion, i is by no means he exension of compulsory educaion. Because he oher end of i is conneced o he higher educaion. High school educaion should no only consider fair equaliy, bu also pay aenion o he freedom o 174 Copyrigh c 2015 SERSC

3 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology choose. For he special mission and posiion, "resource equaliy" of Dworkin's heory is suiable for high school educaion. The developmen of individual and gain of resources depend on he ambiion and choice of individual. According o Dworkin's heory, we need boh public educaion and free choice and developmen o people Operaional Research Model Operaional research (OR) encompasses a wide range of problem-solving echniques and mehods applied in he pursui of improved decision-making and efficiency, such as simulaion, mahemaical opimizaion, queuing heory and oher sochasic-process models, Markov decision processes, economeric mehods, daa envelopmen analysis, neural neworks, exper sysems, decision analysis, and he analyic hierarchy process. Managemen science is concerned wih developing and applying models and conceps ha may prove useful in helping o illuminae managemen issues and solve managerial problems, as well as designing and developing new and beer models of organizaional excellence. Managemen operaional research is a subjec based on operaional research, and obains opimizaion scheme of economic sysem in view of he real quaniaive daa o provide scienific operaion decision of he sysem o decision makers. There are four sages in applicaion of operaions research. (1) Se goals and clear he problem. Including decompose he whole problem ino sub problems, deermine he validiy, measuremen, conrollable and unconrollable variables, and he scale of he problem, and consans and parameers represening relaionships beween variables. A presen, here are wo indicaors o measure he level of high school educaion popularizaion in our counry he raio of gross enrollmen and he suden number of dropping ou of school. In addiion o he longiudinal comparison inside he region, horizonal comparison wih oher areas should also be done by narrowing he difference of regional developmen. In addiion, more innovaive arge parameers can be inroduced for reference, such as proporion of admission o he universiy. (2) Collec he daa and model, including defining relaionship, experience relaionship, and sandardize relaionship. The imporan relaionship of our model is he influence of consrain condiions on he financial assisance paern. Consrain condiions include naional macroscopic educaion policy and financial suppor, he disric educaion financial suppor, regional economic and social developmen, regional developmen level of high school educaion, and family facors. (3) Solve he model and opimize soluions. To solve he model is a process o design a suden financial assisance model which is suiable for local acual siuaion under he specific consrains. (4) Tes model and opimizaion, including he applicaion of he soluion o solve pracical problems. And find new problems in he process of plan implemenaion. A ypical operaional research planning issues includes hree pars: he decision variables, he objecive funcion and he consrains. In he model of high school suden financial assisance sysem, he decision variables include acors and assisance independen variables subsidize scope, subsidize raio, subsidize sandard, subsidize form and capial share, and so on. The objecive funcions conains several goals parameers-improve he gross enrollmen raio, reduce he number of dropous due o povery and reduce he regional difference of educaion resources. The consrains are including characerisics of high school educaion, poliical insiuional environmen, he economic environmen, he educaion resources environmen, social and culural environmen, and he family environmen. The mahemaical expressions are as follows. There are n goal funcions composing he oal goal, and here are m consrain funcions. X is he decision variable including j branch variables. Copyrigh c 2015 SERSC 175

4 Subsidize form Subsidize sandard Subsidize raio Subsidize scope Capial share Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology Goal : Z x [ x, x s..... g 2 1 ( x ) 0 F ( f ( x ), 2 g ( x ) 0 1 g ( x ) 0 m,..., x j 1 ] f ( x ),..., 2 f ( x )) n 3. The Model of Ordinary High School Suden Financial Assisance Sysem 3.1. Composiion Analysis of Financial Assisance Sysem A firs, he composiion of financial assisance sysem and inernal relaions should be analyzed. The naure of he high school suden financial assisance sysem is o consider he reasonable allocaion of limied funds, manpower and oher resources, o obain he highes efficiency, and o mach funding principles and objecives. Hence, he core of financial assisance sysem is he resource allocaion. According o he ideas of operaional research, when scienific decisions are designed, objecives and consrains mus be considered. A few quesions should be answered Who provide he financial assisance? The local governmen? Oher social organizaions and individuals? Who should accep he assisance? How o selec sudens? and How o fund hem? By suden jobs or oher ways? The composiion of financial assisance sysem is shown as Figure 1, consiued by he consrain condiions, arge, acors, allocaion, inpu and oupu. The dashed box reflecs he assisance sysem wih he inpu subsidize capial impaced by capial share, subsidize raio and subsidize sandard, and oupu subsidize effec. In order o evaluae wheher he fund allocaion is reasonable and effecive, a feedback loop beween he arge and subsidize effec mus be esablished. If he subsidize effec is consisen wih he arge, he whole sysem is reasonable and effecive. A he same ime, in order o evaluae he efficiency of fund allocaion, an inpu - oupu analysis is conduced. The Figure 2 shows he model of ordinary high school suden financial assisance sysem. Consrains Goals Feedback Acors Resource allocaion Inpu Subsidize capial Oupu Subsidize effec Financial assisance sysem Efficiency evaluaion Figure 1. The Composiion of Financial Assisance Sysem 176 Copyrigh c 2015 SERSC

5 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology Improve he gross enrollmen raio Reduce he number of sudens quiing school due o povery Reduce he regional difference of educaion resources Subsidize scope Subsidize raio Subsidize sandard Subsidize form Consrains analysis Goals parameers Acors Policy-making Characerisics of high School educaion Poliical insiuional environmen The economic environmen Educaion resources environmen Social and culural environmen Family environmen Govermen Schools Sociey Capial share Evaluaion and feedback Figure 2. The Model of Ordinary High School Suden Financial Assisance Sysem 3.2. Goals Parameers Analysis (1) Improve he gross enrollmen raio The gross enrollmen raio which is an imporan index o measure he level of educaion developmen refers o a percenage of sudens in school of school-age populaion in cerain school year and cerain phase. I marks educaion relaive size and educaion opporuniies. Enrollmen is divided ino wo kinds: he gross enrollmen raio and he ne enrollmen raio. The gross enrollmen raio does no mean roughly, bu refers o regardless of he suden s age in he gross enrollmen raio formula. The ne enrollmen raio means ha he formula includes only years old sudens, wihou younger han 15 years old or older han 18 years old sudens. Unable o accuraely know sudens age disribuion in fuure, so only he gross enrollmen raio can be used when governmen designs he developmen goals of he high school. The calculaion mehod of provinces (auonomous regions and municipaliies direcly under he cenral governmen) high school gross enrollmen raio: High school gross enrollmen raio High The school ehnic enrollmen populaion s in one academic (15 o 18 years old) year 100 % Naional medium and long-erm plan for educaion reform and developmen ( ) pus forward he goals of high school: by 2020, high school educaion is popularized, and he gross enrollmen raio reaches 90%. Copyrigh c 2015 SERSC 177

6 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology (2) Reduce he number of dropous Dropou means ha a person who sops going o a school, college, ec., before finishing his sipulaed academic. According o a survey, unequal educaion opporuniy and he disadvanages of he insiuionalized educaion are he roo cause of dropous Consrains Analysis (1) The economic environmen Since 1997, he regional economic growh paern in China appears new characerisics. The easern coasal areas developmen advanages are more obvious. The easern areas accelerae he process of connecion wih inernaional sandards, for he original relaively reasonable indusrial srucure, lower proporion of sae-owned enerprises, and smooh indusrial srucure adjusmen process. Meanwhile, he speed of adjusmen of he indusrial srucure in Midwes areas is slow, due o he srong consrain "pah dependence" of ownership srucure and indusrial srucure. Under he condiion of boh he lack of exernal impeus and domesic demand, Midwes areas heavily depend on he sae economy developmen, which is low efficiency, and hindering he economic poenial. In Midwes areas, consumpion growh is affeced by he lack of income growh, and income growh is affeced by he employmen pressure. In our counry, economy in easern is more developed han ha in wesern region, coasal region is more developed han ha in cenral pars, and ciy is more developed han ha in counryside. Due o he unbalanced regional economic developmen, regional educaion resource configuraion is also differen. In paricular, he governmen does no adop effecive measures o resolve he misallocaion of high school educaion resource. Poor high school sudens in China are mainly disribued in economically underdeveloped, wes areas, and he governmen should ake addiional compensaion mechanism in less developed areas and poor areas. (2) Educaion resources environmen Afer he founding of new China, he ciy-counryside dual srucure and highly cenralized resource allocaion model are conribued o achieve he grand goal of modernizaion of he counry. The main funcion of rural is accumulaion of capial for urban. The ciy-counryside dual srucure is he main facor of expanding he regional educaion gap beween urban and rural. There are obvious gaps beween urban and rural high school educaion in resource configuraion. Since China's reform and opening up, in order o le some people become prosperous firs, special economic zone has been esablished in he coasal in China. Governmen has given preferenial policies o he special economic zone, such as invesmen, generaion, axes, ec., Wih he rapid economic developmen, educaion is also developing. Poor sudens in high school are ou of sigh, and parens and sudens are jus more sruggle for famous universiies. However, in middle and wesern pars of China, due o he limiaions of he geographical posiion and naural resources, economic developmen is backward. Compared wih special economic zone and easern region, he difference of high school educaion and economy are no comparable. (3) Family environmen High school poor sudens' family are very poor, whose parens are ofen farmers, urban laid-off workers and Unemployed. Some ones need o pay medical expenses for a long ime for serious illness of family members. Some ones suffer a sudden acciden so ha hey canno afford he suden s high school educaion and living expenses. In addiion, he single paren family or orphan is a major cause of poor sudens. Underdeveloped produciviy and backward ideas of some poor areas make family have oo many children and oo heavy burden. All in all, he income and economic condiion of 178 Copyrigh c 2015 SERSC

7 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology poor family are very low, and hey are members of social vulnerable groups The Analysis of Independen Variables (1) Subsidize scope When financial assisance sysem for poor high school sudens is esablished, rural and urban poor sudens should be all included in he scope. A presen, funding for ordinary high school sudens is mainly in ciies ha are economically developed. However, in rural areas where more poor sudens are in, subsidize scope and he amoun of funding are boh limied, due o he pressure of funds. Our counry is an agriculural counry, and rural populaion accouns for 80% of he oal populaion. There is big gap beween urban and rural economic developmen. In he case of limied naional energy, he governmen should ensure ha poor ordinary high school sudens in Midwes backward rural areas don' drop ou of school due o povery. (2) Capial share Due o he ambiguiy of policy, funding has been no carried ou effecively across he counry. A presen, he provincial governmen subsidizes poor high school sudens in he form of grans. The specific allocaion proporion is decided on heir own by provinces and ciies. Due o lack of financial suppor of he cenral governmen, economically backward provinces are unable o solve he problem of funding for all poor sudens. One of he basic characerisics of funding work is ha here is a large conras of economic condiions and funding ask in differen areas. The beer economic condiions of a place, he less he number of poor sudens, he more money; he poorer economic condiion of a place, he more he number of poor sudens, he less money. To solve his conradicion, financial resources should be regulaed and conrolled by he cenral and provincial governmen. For example, according o he curren financial managemen sysem of Guangxi, and considering financial siuaion, he auonomous region and municipal governmen share he capial and counies do no underake any money. Hainan provincial high schools are burdened by he provincial fiscal. Haikou, Sanya, Yangpu economic developmen zone burden he money on is own. In oher ciies and counies, he province and ciies share in accordance wih he raio 7:3. (3) Subsidize form Subsidize form can be roughly divided ino wo kinds: one is he awarding gran, which focuses on supporing hose excellen sudens; he oher one is subsidized gran, which mainly helps sudens wih poor families. The curren suden subsidize form are: scholarships, grans, work-sudy programs, mos needy aid, uiion waiver, suden loans and oher several forms. Grans, mos needy aid and uiion waiver are suiable for ordinary high school sudens. A he same ime he governmen can ry o provide educaion loan o sudens. (4) Subsidize raio Due o unbalanced economic developmen, he numbers of poor sudens in ordinary high schools are differen. In general, he number of poor sudens in rural is higher han ha in urban, and he number of poor sudens in developed regions is higher han ha in backward area. According o he comprehensive measure, he proporion of ordinary poor high school sudens is from 15% o 20%. Among hem, he proporion of paricularly poor sudens is around 10%. The curren pracice subsidize raio is generally 8% of all sudens. Subsidize raio of ordinary high school in our counry is relaively narrow. Many families basically have no economy source, and can no provide any fees for schools. Pressure on he economy has affeced poor sudens sudy and living, and even some sudens qui school due o family economic pressure. The proporion of poor sudens in Copyrigh c 2015 SERSC 179

8 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology each region can be measured according o he specific local sandard. 4. Case Sudy 4.1. Background In his secion, a case sudy is conduced o show how o apply he above model o analyze he assisance policy of high school suden financial. The case is he N couny of he M province in China. Due o is wesern locaion in China, he economy and raffic of M province are no developed. M province includes abou eighy counies (ciies) and a populaion of abou weny million. In 2012, he number of ordinary high school sudens is , including povery sudens. The average enrollmen rae is abou 70%, which is relaively low in China. There are a variey of reasons: Firs, a large number of junior middle school graduaes canno accep he ordinary high school educaion due o uiion fees; Second, many ordinary high school freshman dropou due o uiion fees, and so on. The policies of M province are as follows: (1) Subsidize scope and raio: The subsidize scope of he poores pars is 100%, and ha of oher pars is 30%. (2) Capial share: The cenral governmen and he local governmen share in accordance wih he raio 8: Subsidize Efficiency Research In order o analyze he subsidize efficiency of N couny, enrollmen rae is adoped as he objecive indicaor, and he producion funcion model is Y f ( K, L ). In he equaion, Y reflecs enrollmen rae and K reflecs subsidize capial, and L reflecs oher educaion inpu. Ignore L, he regression model is as follows: Y K (1) Daa of he case is he subsidize capial and enrollmen raes of N Couny from 2003 o 2012, as Table 1. Table 1. Subsidize Capial and Enrollmen Raes of N Couny from 2003 o 2012 (1) Uni roo es ADF Year Subsidize Enrollmen rae capial Uni roo ess of all series are conduced by Eviews. zz reflecs subsidize capial; rx reflecs enrollmen rae. The es resuls show ha zz and rx are all saionary, as Table Copyrigh c 2015 SERSC

9 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology Table 2. Uni Roo Tes ADF of All Series Variable Saisic ADF 1% level 5% level 10% level Resul zz Non-saionary 2nd Saionary difference of zz rx Saionary (2) Co-inegraion es In order o analyze wheher here is co-inegraion relaionship beween subsidize capial (zz) and enrollmen raes (rx), regression of he wo series is conduced firs, and hen he sabiliy of regression residuals is esed. The regression model is as follows: rx zz (2) Then, he sabiliy of regression residuals is esed wihou consan and ime rend. The resul is as Table 3. Table 3. Uni Roo Tes ADF of Residual Saisic ADF 1% level 5% level 10% level Resul Saionary Under he significance of 5% level, saisic- is , which is bigger han corresponding criical value, hence hypohesis H 0 should be rejeced. The resul shows ha regression residual is saionary, which implies ha here is co-inegraion relaionship beween subsidize capial and enrollmen raes. (3) Error correcion model The co-inegraion relaionship reflecs ha here is a long-erm equilibrium relaionship beween subsidize capial and enrollmen raes. However, in he shor erm, here may be unbalanced. In order o enhance he precision of he model, error erm could be seemed as equilibrium error, and an error correcion model is esablished from regression equaion (2) as following. rx zz 1 Make differences of zz and rx and ge new series dzz and drx. dzz zz zz zz drx rx rx rx 1 drx is he independen variable and dzz and are he dependen variables, and he 1 regression resuls of error correcion model is as Table 4. Table 4. Regression Resuls of Error Correcion Model α β γ Durbin-Wason sa E ( ) ( ) ( ) The es shows ha, shor-erm dynamic relaionship beween subsidize capial and enrollmen raes is posiive, bu no obvious. 1 û (3) Copyrigh c 2015 SERSC 181

10 Inernaional Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology 5. Conclusion The case sudy shows ha here is a sable equilibrium relaionship beween subsidize capial and enrollmen raes, and he coefficien is In long-erm, here is a dynamic posiive relaionship beween subsidize capial and enrollmen raes, bu no obvious. The oupu efficiency of subsidize capial is low. According o model in Figure 1 and 2, some suggesions are provided. (1) Adjus he arge group. Besides enrollmen, more oher goals could be considered. (2) Adjus allocaion ways. For example, expand social funding channels, and so on. (3) Complee feedback channels. Esablish perfec informaion collecion and release sysem o provide accurae daa o suppor evaluaion and policy making. Combining he siuaion of educaion in our counry, and he naional educaion developmen planning, his paper pus forward an analyical model based on he Dworkin heory and managemen of operaional research. The model could bring he work of high school suden financial assisance o he heigh of he managemen science. This paper is of grea significance o promoe he developmen and popularizaion of high school educaion. In fuure, afer building he model, we should also furher analyze he operaion process of he model, which is he policy making process and he basis for assisance sysem. Reference [1] C. Hongqi and Y. Haiyan, The principle of fairness of educaion and is policy implicaions, Educaional research, vol. 336, (2008), pp [2] F. Li and Y. Yinfeng, Finance should become he leading role of naional suden loan, China's financial informaion, vol. 35, (2006), pp [3] F. Jianjun, Three Differen Viewpoins of Educaional Equiy Comparison on educaional equiy viewpoins of J. RawIs, R. Nozick and R. Dworkiin, Comparaive Educaion Review, vol. 28, no. 10, (2007), pp [4] H. G. Unger, Encyclopedia of American Educaion, Facs on File, Inc. New York, vol. 2, (1996). [5] H. Angang and X. Yizhi, Esablish new educaion developing goals: popularizaion of 12 years educaion, Educaion research, (2001). [6] L. Yaoqing, Analysis of he Supply and Need of he Senior Middle School Educaion in he Rural Areas, Journal of Inner Mongolia normal universiy (educaional science), vol. 20, no. 10, (2007). [7] J. Rawls, A Theory of Jusice, London: Oxford Universiy Press, (1971). [8] J. Rawls, Jusice as Fairness: A Resaemen, Harvard Universiy Press, (2001). [9] R. Nozick, Anarchy, Sae, and Uopia, New York: Basic Books, (1974). [10] R. Dworkin, Sovereign Virue: The Theory and Pracice of Equaliy, Harvard Universiy Press, (2002). [11] E. P. Beinger, B. T. Long, P. Oreopoulos and L. Sanbonmasu, The Role of Applicaion Assisance and Informaion in College Decisions: Resuls from he H&R Block Fafsa Experimen*, The Quarerly Journal of Economics, vol. 127, no. 3, (2012), pp Copyrigh c 2015 SERSC

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