A War of Words fought with words and ideas rather than bloodshed and deadly weapons

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1 WHII.13a-b

2 VS.

3

4 A War of Words fought with words and ideas rather than bloodshed and deadly weapons

5 After WWII TWO new superpowers arise the United States and the USSR

6

7 Beginning of the Cold War

8 The Yalta Conference The Soviets were given control of Eastern Europe This means that which kind of government will be in control of this part of the world?

9 Stalin spread communism to satellite nations of the USSR and did not hold the free elections he promised. (satellite nations=those controlled by other nations)

10 President Truman He has a Policy of Containment Containment action of keeping something harmful under control / within limits

11 President Truman He has a Policy of Containment Policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and stopping expansion of communism Included: forming alliances and helping weak countries resist Soviet advances Truman Doctrine: support for countries who rejected communism

12

13

14 Iron Curtain Churchill s term for the division that fell on Europe with Democracy in the west and Soviet control in the east

15 The Iron Curtain became a symbol of Communism and the fear that accompanied it.

16

17 The Cold War escalated and soon divided the world into eastern and western the east dominated by the USSR and the west led by the US.

18 Democracy and Free Enterprise (capitalism) vs. Dictatorship and Communism

19

20

21

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24 The ideological basis of the Cold War was conflict between communism and A monarchy B socialism C democracy D fascism

25 Which leader was most closely associated with stopping the spread of communism? A Jomo Kenyatta B Mohandas Gandhi C Harry Truman D Kaiser Wilhelm II

26

27 During the decades immediately after World War II, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Poland were A democracies with free market economies B dominated by the Soviet Union C provinces of Austria-Hungary D divided into smaller independent states

28 WHII.13a-b

29 North Atlantic Treaty Organization vs. Warsaw Pact East vs. West; Communism vs. Democracy

30

31 Began when the Soviet Union tested the Atomic-bomb It showed others could and would get the bomb The presence of nuclear weapons has influenced patterns of conflict and cooperation since 1945.

32

33 The North was controlled by the Communist government Backed by the Soviets The South was controlled by a dictatorship Backed by the U.S.

34 North Korea invades South Korea US, United Nations, China all become involved At war for 3 years trench warfare mostly Korea splits permanently North: Communist South: Democratic

35 The peace treaty split the country along the 38 th Parallel

36 REMEMBER: North Korea remains Communist!

37

38 Which statement best describes the region indicated on this map? F It housed a British protectorate that was returned to Chinese control. G It was a refuge for nationalists after a civil war in China. H It housed a monastery for a powerful sect of Chinese monks. J It was acquired from Japan after the Chinese-Japanese Wars.

39 Which of the following explains the rise in military spending on the graph? F World War I G World War II H The Korean War J The Persian Gulf War

40 Sputnik was launched by the Soviet Union in 1957 It was the first satellite to be put into Earth s orbit Space Race begins!

41

42

43 Cuba was a Communist country with Fidel Castro as the leader

44 Cuba was a Communist country with Fidel Castro as the leader It was harsh They were backed by the Soviet Union

45 Cuban exiles (trained by the CIA) land in Cuba for a counterrevolution against Fidel Castro (1300 of them).

46 US did not support exiles (as promised). Invasion is crushed exiles are imprisoned and tortured eventually traded to the US

47

48 The Soviet Union decided to put a wall between West Berlin and the rest of East Germany In 1961, they would turn the fence into a giant wall

49

50 The Soviet Union decided to put a wall between West Berlin and the rest of East Germany In 1961, they would turn the fence into a giant wall

51 The Soviet Union decided to put a wall between West Berlin and the rest of East Germany In 1961, they would turn the fence into a giant wall

52 The Soviet Union then decided to put a wall between West berlin and the rest of East Germany

53 The Soviet Union then decided to put a wall between West berlin and the rest of East Germany

54 The Soviet Union then decided to put a wall between West berlin and the rest of East Germany

55 The occupied areas shown in this map became the countries of A Bosnia and Serbia B Albania and Yugoslavia C East Pakistan and West Pakistan D East Germany and West Germany

56 closest the superpowers ever came to a nuclear exchange. Castro allowed Soviets to put medium-range missiles in Cuba could attack almost all the US with little warning.

57

58 US spy planes see missiles being built Kennedy (JFK) blockades Cuba by surrounding it with Navy ships

59 US spy planes see missiles being built Kennedy (JFK) blockades Cuba by surrounding it with Navy ships

60 Kennedy goes on national TV & demands Soviets remove missiles. He threatens to stop any Russian ship going to Cuba

61

62

63 Kennedy goes on national TV & demands Soviets remove missiles. He threatens to stop any Russian ship going to Cuba Standoff lasts 13 days

64 Kruschev (leader of the USSR after Stalin) backs down and agrees to remove missiles if US promises not to invade Cuba

65

66 Kruschev (leader of the USSR after Stalin) backs down and agrees to remove missiles if US promises not to invade Cuba US keeps base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; still there today

67 The United States threatened to use nuclear weapons during the F Iraqi invasion of Kuwait G Chinese Civil War H Soviet invasion of Afghanistan J Cuban Missile Crisis

68 North Vietnam was Communist (supported by the Chinese, also Communist) South Vietnam was a democracy supported by the United States

69 Ho Chi Mihn - Leader of North Vietnam

70 On August 2, 1964, the U.S. destroyer USS Maddox engaged three North Vietnamese Navy torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin near north Vietnam. On August 7, 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, authorizing President Johnson to take any measures he believed were necessary to retaliate and to promote international peace and security in southeast Asia.

71

72 On August 2, 1964, the U.S. destroyer USS Maddox engaged three North Vietnamese Navy torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin near north Vietnam. On August 7, 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, authorizing President Johnson to take any measures necessary to retaliate and to promote international peace and security in southeast Asia.

73 The U.S. sends troops to Vietnam and fight with the South Vietnamese

74 The U.S. sends troops to Vietnam and fight with the South Vietnamese Vietcong Communist Vietnam army of the North

75 The U.S. sends troops to Vietnam and fight with the South Vietnamese US fights Vietcong in jungles guerrilla warfare (ambush, mines, traps unlike any war before in the United States)

76 The U.S. sends troops to Vietnam and fight with the South Vietnamese Guerrilla Warfare US fights Vietcong in jungles guerrilla warfare (ambush, mines, traps unlike any war before in the United States) irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants use non-traditional military tactics

77 The U.S. sends troops to Vietnam and fight with the South Vietnamese US fights Vietcong in jungles guerrilla warfare (ambush, mines, traps unlike any war before in the United States)

78 Richard Nixon is elected in 1968 Begins Vietnamization

79 Richard Nixon is elected in 1968 Begins Vietnamization Vietnamization Train South Vietnamese forces better to take over fighting and Americans can come home

80 North Vietnam invades South, Takes Saigon Wins

81

82 Becomes Soviet Premier Glasnost openness for government Peristroika restructuring of Soviet economy Has many talks with Ronald Reagan about government and economics.

83

84 Communism failed as an economic system in the Soviet Union and elsewhere due to the following things.

85 Eastern Europe (Poland first) abandons communism Berlin Wall is torn down Nationalism grows in Warsaw Pact countries Soviet Union economy collapses Soviet Union breaks up NATO expands

86

87 East and West Germany reunite

88 USSR breaks into 15 separate countries: Russia Latvia Kazakhstan Georgia Estonia Turkmenistan Ukraine Moldova Uzbekistan Armenia Lithuania Azerbaijan Belarus Tajikistan Kyrgyzstan

89 WHII.13c

90

91 After WWI Nationalists overthrow the Qing Dynasty in China They started a new republic Japan invaded and occupied part of China during WWII while China was involved in a civil war (Nationalist v. Communist) Rape of Nanking

92 Communists were led by Mao Zedong and aided by the Soviet Union (Lenin) Nationalists were led by Chiang Kai-shek (later known as Jiang Jieshi) and wanted a democracy

93 Peasants and lower class supported the Communist promise of land Middle and upper class bankers, business owners, etc. supported democracy and Nationalists Civil War between the two lasted until WWII when the Japanese invaded

94 After WWII when the Japanese left China, the war resumed Communists and Mao are in the north Nationalists and Jiang are in the south

95 Northern China Mainland China Supported by the Soviet Union Wanted National liberation Strong public support Experienced in guerilla military strategies

96 Southern China Island of Taiwan Supported by the United States Wanted to defeat the Communists Little public support because of inflation and a failing economy Ineffective military with corrupt leadership and poor morale

97 1949 Mao Zedong gains control of the country (People s Republic of China) Nationalists and Jiang flee to Taiwan and set up separate government (which the Chinese still claim is theirs)

98 Different from Soviet Communism Mao forcibly seizes farmland and redistributes to larger percent of population in collective farms (called Communes) Business was gradually brought under government control with 5 year plans

99 Great Leap Forward communes become larger and everything is state owned and run. People lived in communal dorms, had communal dining room, communal nurseries, etc. No incentive for workers and the Great Leap became a failure ended in 1961 after great famine

100

101 Goal of the Red Guards was to make all peasants and workers equal in all ways Art, Literature, etc. glorified the life of the common peasant who worked with his hands Colleges were shut down, schools were closed, media outlets were stopped, they wanted to purify the upper classes/educated

102 Thousands were killed or imprisoned Factories and farms had to shut down Mao ends the revolution because of the threat of civil war the Red Guards were put down

103

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