P ielaveden kartta-alueen kalliopera

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1 WOMEN GEOLOGINEN KARTTA 1 : GEOLOGICAL MAP OF FINLAND 1 : KALLIOPERAKARTTOJEN SELITYKSET LEHTI 3314 EXPLANATION TO THE MAPS OF PRE- QUATERNARY ROCKS SHEET 3314 Ilmari Salli P ielaveden kartta-alueen kalliopera Summary : Pre-Quaternary rocks of the Pielavesi map-sheet area GEOLOGINEN TUTKIMUSLAITOS GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF FINLAND ESPOO 1983

2 SUOMEN GEOLOGINEN KARTTA 1 : GEOLOGICAL MAP OF FINLAND Kallioperakarttojen selitykset, Lehti 3314 Explanation to the maps of pre-quaternary rocks, Sheet 3314 Ilmari Salli PIELAVEDEN KARTTA-ALUEEN KALLIOPERA Summary: Pre-Quaternary rocks of the Pielavesi map-sheet area Geologinen tutkimuslaitos -Geological Survey of Finland Espoo 1983

3 Salli, Ilmari j Pielavcden kara-aluecn kalliopera. Summary : Pre- Quaernary rock in he area of he Piclavei map-hee area. Suorrren geologinen kara 1 : Kallioperdkarojen elilyke, 3314 Pielavei, 29 page, 4 figure and 2 able. Approximaely half of he Precambrian bedrock of he area conained in he Piclavei map hee, Cenral Finland, i compoed of upracrual rock, he oher half of infracrual rock. The upracrual rock are moly edimenogeneou gncie and chi of varying compoiion : amphibolie, amphibole-bearing gncie, quarzie, arkoie, mica chi, mica gneie and greywacke chi. Mane of hem are cordierie- and garne-bearing and ome are veinou. In rare inance, uralie porphyrie and agglomerae and pillow lava occur indicaing a volcanic origin. The majoriy of he infracrual rock arc quarz diorie, granodiorie and granie. Some are pyroxenc-bearing. Gabbro and diorie occur caered over he area of he map hee and many of he rock conain pyroxene. Radiomeric daing ha yielded an age abou 1880 Ma for a ynorogenic hvperhene granie and diorie. Many differen ulphide-ore depoi occur wihin he area, epecially in aociaion wih he cordierie-hearing gneie. The mo imporan i he copper occurrence a Savia. The ex i in Finnih, wih figure and able capion and ummary in Englih. Key word : areal geology, explanaory ex, Precambrian, Pielavei, Finland ISBN' Helinki Valion painaukeku

4 SISALTO - CONTENTS Tukimuvaihec 5 NIorfologia ja paljauneiuu 5 Kallioperan yleipiiree 6 Suprakruie cli pinakivilaji 7 Savian-Laukkalan-Vaaralahden liukee 8 Granaai-kordieriii-anofylliiigncii 8 pyrokcenigneii ja -amfiboliii 8 Diopidiamfiboliii eli kariamfiboliii ja kalkkikvariii 9 Mluu liukee 9 Koivujarven liukee 10 Lampaanjarven liukee 11 Vuonamon liukee 13 Pinakivilajicn alkupera ja vulkaanien aineken ouu 13 Infrakruic eli yvakivilaji 14 Ulramafic kivilaji 14 Gabro ja dioriii 14 Kvari- ja granodioriii 15 Graniii ja rnigmaiii 15 ]uonikivilaji 16 Rakenne ja raigrafia 17 Radiomeriia ianmaariykia 19 Taloudelliia aiheia 22 Savian malmiaihe 23 Kuu aloudellie aihee 23 Summary : Pre-Quaernary rock of he Pielavei map-hee area 25 Inroducion 25 Supracrual rock 25 Infracrual rock 26 Srucure and raigraphy 27 Economic propec 28 Kivilajien iheykia 28 Kirjalliuua - Lieraure 29

5 TUTKIMUSVAII-IEET Pielaveden (3314) karalehialueen paaoa kuuluu Pielaveden kunaan. Liaki iihen kuuluu oia Keieleen ja Kiuruveden kunnia eka lialmen kaupungia. Kallioperakaroiuken kenayo uorieiin vuoina Niihin oalli- uiva Mauri Anila, Lar Forrom, Pekka Kallio, Kari Kemppainen, Kari Laako, NIari Lummaa ja Pekka Seppala. Kirjoiaja on uorianu alueella aydenny- ukimukia ja arkiukia. Liaki on aau aydenavia havainoja malmioaon ekemia dealjiukimukia, joia ova ehnee Bori Lindmark, Mai Iluukonen ja Jui Willman. Kenalla koou aineio on ukiu Geologiea ukimulaiok- ea paaaiaa vuoina Edella lueelujen ukimuen perueella on kirjoiaja laainu Pielaveden kallioperakaran. Vuonna 1977 ilmeyneen kallioperakaran on piirany puhaaki Ela Jarvimaki. Lea Aho on ehny granaaien aiekerroinmaariykia ja Ao Vorma on maariany rongenografiei niiden hilamia. Piclavcden kara-alueen kallioperakaran elivken valmiuminen on viivaynv uunniclua huomaavai mvohemmaki. Siihen on vaikuanu oalaan kaikirjoi- uken laaincen lil. oh. Ilmari Sallin iiryminen elakkeelle v ja Savian malmi- ukimucn johdoa uorieu kaikirjoiuken aydenaminen ja arkiaminen, jonka ova uorianee Kalevi Korman, Olavi Kouvo ja Kauko Merilainen. Ilmari Salli kuoli v lahe 72 vuoden ikaiena. MORFOLOGIA JA PALJASTUNEISUUS Pinnanmuodoilaan ja korkcuuheilaan Piclaveden kara-alueen maao on varin vaiheleva. Koivujarven iapuolella on ueia korkeia makia, joia korkein on 188 m mpy. Samoin korkeia makia on Laukkalan kylan alueella eka Hirvijarven ja Sulkavanjarvien valilla. 1lirvijarven iapuolella on korkcin paikka 217 m mpy. Lampaanjarvea pohjoicen on 209 m :n korkuinen maki. Vuonamon ja Koivujarven valinen maao on verraain aaia. Alueen kaakkoioa on melkoien kumpuilevaa. Siella on muuarna 200 m korkea maki. Koivujarven lounaipuolella olevan graniiin alueella on hiekkakangaa, joka jakuu luoeceen. Myo Pielaveden kirkonkylan iapuolella on hiekkakankaia. Soia on kara-alueella hyvin paljon. Nc ova kui- enkin paaaiaa pienialaiia. Suurehkoja oia on vain alueen pohjoireunan lahci-

6 6 yvdea Sulkavanjarven ja Lampaanjarven valiella eudulla. Piene uo ijaieva ueimmien korkeiden maaokohien valia. Sen ijaan alavia korpimaia on eenkin aluecn lanioaa Vuonamonlahdea pohjoieen. Paljaumaihcv on paikoin hyvinkin uuri varinkin Pielaveden jarvialueen cudulla eka iia pohjoieen perukaralehien 06 ja 09 alucilla. Myo Koivujarven euu on hyvin paljaunua. I-luonoi paljauneia ova alue Koivujarvea eclaan Vuonamonlaheen ja iela Savialle, Lampaanjarven alue ja iela laneen Vaaralah- een ulouva alue eka Lampaanjarven eclapuoli. KALLIOPI RAN YLLISPIIRTEET. Pielavcden kara-alucclla on yvakivilajeja ja pinakivilajeja uunnillcen vha paljon Alueen kekioa kaiad Pielaveden jarvialaan cudun, joka koouu paaaiaa uprakruiia eli pinakivilajeia. Infrakruien cli yvakivilajien ouu alla alucella on vahainen. Suurin oa uprakruiia kivilajeia on edimeniynyiia gneicja : kordicriii-aofylliiigneicja, kordieriii-anofylliii-granaaigncieja, bioiii-kordieriiigncieja, karbonaaipioiia diopidigneieja, diopidi-hyper- eenigneieja ja bioiii-hvpereenigncieja, amfiboligncieja eka pyrokeeniamfiboliieja. aluecn kivii ehdv kemiallic analyvi eieaan aulukoa 1. Kivilajicn ihevmaarivkia on ivulla 28. Piclaveijarven ymparioa ijaicva kolmionmuooinen clue, joka ulouu kara-alueen eelarcunaa Saviala Laukkalaan Jouennicmen eudulle ja iela Vaaralah een, on kivilajeilaan criain vaihcleva. Gneiien ohclla iclla avaaan crilaiia yvakivia : ulracmakiia kivia, gabroja, dioriicja, kvari- ja granodiorii- eja eka erilaiia graniieja. Laukkalaa aina kara-alueen pohjoirajalle aakka on yvakivivyohvke, johon kuuluu eka happarnia ea emdkiia vvakivia. Naia yvakivia luonnehii pvrokccnipioiuu. Niinpa Vaaralahden pohjoipuo1e11a oleva porfvvrincn rraniii, jonka hajarakee ova kalimaaalpaa, ialaa hypereenia ja areivalhea yha paljon, mua bioiiia vain niukai. Oligoklaaia on vahcmman kuin kalimaaalpaa ai kvaria. Samanlaia graniiia on aivan alueen pohjoircunaa Sulkavanjarven lanipuolella. Varin ylciia alla alueella ova pienialaie kalkkipioie gncii ja karbonaaikive. Kalkkipioien gnciien valikcrrokina on myo ohuia mualiukekerrokia eenkin kolmionmuooien aluecn kekioaa. Kolnvonmuooien aluecn l inirajalla granodioriieja vaen on amfiboliieja ja amfiboligncieja, joka liencva vuikaania alkuperha. Vulkaaniia relikirakeneia ci ale kuienkaan havaiu. Alucen lanioa, Vuonamonlahdea Koivujarven eudulle ai, on paaaiaa kvari- ja granodioriieja. A-lainiulla alucclla on myo pienialaiia gabropahkuja. Vuonanonlahden alueella on uonigneiialuc, joka jakuu eclaan kara-aluecn ulkopuolellc laajeen eclaan pain. Siihen kuuluu myo arkooignciia, granaai-

7 gneiia, bioiii-granaaigneiia ja amfiboligneiia. Pihipuaaii kara-alueen kvariii-, amfiboliii- ja amfiboligneiivvohvkkee jakuva Pielaveden karaalucen puolelle. Koivujarven eelapuolella on Pihipuaan kara-alucelle ulouva graniii, joka on porfyyria ja hyvin kalipioia. Graniiin ummana ainekena on vahan bioiiia. Koivujarven cuu on hyvin vaihelevaa gnciialuea. Alueella avaaan kordicriii-granaaigneieja, anofylliii-kordieriiigneieja, bioiiigneieja ja kariamiiboliieja. Paikoin on emakia agglomeraailiukea ja yynylaavaa. Ainakin oa amfiboliicia on vulkaania alkuperaa. Vuonamonlahden koillipuolella ijai- eva granodioriii on hyvin uunniunua ja gneiimaia. Granodioriiin ja Vuonamon liukeiden valinen raja on cpaclva. Kara-alueen iaoaa ijaiee Lampaanjarven laaja-alai nen uonignciivyohvke. Vvohykkeeeen kuuluu bioiiigneieja, amfiboligneieja eka vklikerrokina amfiboliiia ja grauvakkamaia kivca. Viimeki mainiun kooumu on caein lahella kvariiia, ja iina on uein karbonaaipioiia valikerrokia. Sulkavanjarven iapuolella ijaiec illimaniiigneiivvohyke. Sen lounaipuolcila - Vaaralahden paikkeilla - on granaaipioinen gneiivvohyke. Kara-alueen kaakkoikulma on yvakivialuea, joa vuoroclcva gabro, dioriii, kvari- ja granodioriii eka graniii kckcnaan. Kara-alueen pohjoioa on ekoniei mielenkiinoinen. i'aapoimuuken akeli on lahella pohjoi-eclauunaa ja akelin kaade on loiva. Sckundaarinen poimuakeli on uunauunu iakaakkoon. Koivujarven alueella ekundaarinen poimuakeli on loivakaacinen, mua painuu depreioon Vaaralahden alucclla. Vaaralahden pohjoipuolella oleva graniiipahku on luodc-kaakkoiuunainen appi, jonka akelin kaade on 60" kaakkoon. Vuonamon liukee kalliuva myo kaakkoon ja akelin kaade on 50. SUPRAKRUSTISET ELI PINTAKIVILAJIT I'ielaveden kara-alueella on uprakruiia kivik runaai vaihelua. i 1ueella on eninnakin alkuperalaan edimeniia gneieja kucn granaaipioiia kordicriii--anofylliiigncieja, bioiii-aofylliiigncieja, kummingoniiigneieja, bioiii -illimaniiigncieja ja bioiiigneieja. Granaai on niia yleiei avaava porfyroblai. Toien rvhman muodoava pyrokeenigneii. Pyrokeenigncieihin kuuluva hvpereenigncii, hypereenipioie bioiii-granaaigneii ja diopidi- arvivalkegneii. Edelli mainiujen liaki alucclla on grauvakkamaiia gneieja, mea-arkoiieja, kvariieja ja arvivalkegneieja. Vulkaaniia kivia on ii unnieu varmimmin Koivujarven liukevyohykkeca_ Sedimcniynyiia kivia on kuienkin alucen kaikia liukeia huomaavai enemman kuin alkuperalaan vulkaaniia. Reakiokarrc, joia on avau monin paikoin, lieneva myo ooiu kiven edimenica alkuperka.

8 8 Savian-Laukkalan-Vaaralahden liukee Tamu alue, joka alkaa Saviala, jakuu Pielavedelle ja ulouu pohjoiea Laukkalaan, muodouu monenlaiia pinakivilajeia. Ne ova niin voimakkaai gnei- ivvnee, ea alkuperaien rakeneiden unniaminen on paikoin vaikeaa. Granaai--kordieriii-anofylliiigneii 1-lyvin kekeinen aema on granaaipioiella kordieriii-anofylliiigneiilla. Laajimmillaan gneii on Saviala luoeecen, mua iu avaaan pienehkoina oueina myo muualla. Kallioperakaraan on anofylliiipioinen paljauma merkiy A- kirjaimella. Anofylliii eiinyy avalliei aloiina rakeina adekivimaiei. Ucin ia on myo kaaumina, jolloin kivi an anofylliiivalaia ja granaa a ja kordicriiia on vain vahan porfyroblaeina. Kordieriii on ucin porfyroblaeina. Pyoreahkojen porfyroblaicn lapimia aaaa olla ucia enimereja. Kordieriiin vari on ucin kauniin ininen. Siu avaaan myo porfyroblaicn valimaaa. Granaaia on eka enimerin uuruiina porfyroblaeina ca gnciin valimaaa. T iekeroimien ja hilamiojen mukaan granaain kooumu on kekimaarin Pyr. 30, Andr. 5 ja Alm.65. On avau myo groulaari-andradiiigranaaia (Gro. 57 ja Andr. 43) eka granaaia, joa on lahe yhu uure maara almandiinia, andradiiia ja groulaaria. Granaaien kooumuken maariykia on ehy uurin oa Pielaveden Paloniemea oeuia nayeia. Porfyroblaien valeja ayava aine on paaaiaa oligoklaaia ja kvaria. Liiki iina on yleiei bioiiia. Valiaine on uhecllien hienorakeia Gnciin rakenne on granoblainen. Pyrokeenigneii ja -amfiboliii Savian-Laukkalan alucella varinkin Laukkalan puolella on pyrokecnipioiia gneieja ja amfiholiieja. Eraia gneieia avaaan ummana mineraalina melkcin ykinomaan rombia pyrokeenia. Ilypereenin liaki kivca on huomaavai kvaria eka vahan oligoklaaia. Kivelle on unnuomaia rapauumipinnan rukea vari. Tavalliei hypereenignciiki kuuu kiwi on kcrrokellinen. Kerroen vahvuude vaiheleva muuamaa millimeria kymmeniin enimereihin. Paikoin on merkkeja jopa kcrralliuudca. I Iypereenigneiia on myo muunnokia, joia on eka rombia ea monokliinia pyrokeenia eka bioiiia (aulukko 1, anal. 5). Alolemma pyrokceni ova ohuhicea variomia, kun an kiven muropinnaa rombinen pyrokeeni on varil- aan rukea ja monokliininen vihrea.

9 9 Ilypereenigneii aaaa olla myo granaaipioinen. Granaaipioinen yvppi vaikuaa olevan avallia emakiempi, koka iina avaaan myo bioiiia ja oligoklaaia on enemman kuin kvaria. llypereenia on nakvvia muuunia erpcniiniki, mika alkaa lohkoraoia. Analvoiu nave on Laukkalaa (aulukko~ 1, anal. 6). Diopidiamfiboliii eli kariamfiboliii ja kalkkikvariii Naia Savian-Laukkalan liukejakon luonecnomaiia kivilajeja avaaan varinkin jakon kckioia. Pika, kapea pohjoi-eelauunaie, karaan kelaiella varilla merkiy liukec ova kalkkipioiia kvariieja, joiden vuorokerrokina on diopidiamfiboliiia. Vyohykkcclle ova luonccnomaiia myo karbonaaipioie ouec. Kalkki on kuienkin iouunu paaaiaa kariuumalla ynyneiiin diopidiamfiboliieihin. Tavalliei kvariii on iivia ja kerrokellia, mua paikoin ava- aan myo homogeeniia muunnokia. Plagioklaai on kvariiin luoneenomainen mineraali. Kalkkipioia kvariiia ja kalkkikivii eka karikivia on myo Savijarven luoeipuolclla. Siella olevan kvariiiliukeen eelapuolclla eka ell paalla on ilikaaipioinen dolomiiikcrro. Kvariiin reunaa on kalkkiilikaaikivea (W. W. \X ilkman 1938). Savijarven luoeipuolella oleva dolomiii on hicnorakcien kvarii- in paalla. Savijarven vyohvkkeea avaaan mvo diopidiamfiboliiia, joa on crpeniniiivynvi oliviinia (W. W. Wilkman 1938). Muu liukee Pielaveden kirkola noin 2 km luoeeecn Pielaveden rannan lahella ijaiee picni naaalpapioinen kvariiialue. Kvariii on paikoin kerrokellinen, ja iihen kuuluu nvo emakiia oucia, joka lieneva hikunnoia kakcillcia kerrokia. Vaaralahden pohjoirannaa alkava ja pohjoiecn laajeneva uonigneiivvohyke koouu erilaiia migmaiiiuuneia kivilajeia. lanakivi on ollu amfiholiiia, pvrokeenigneiia, arkooia ai kiillegneiia. '\ligmaiiiuumiae on kuienkin yleici oacn alhainen. T\Iahdolliei ckoninen hierona ja meamorfooi ova havianee kiven alkuperaa ooiava rakenee. i\iigmaioiva uonio on eka kalimaaalpa- ea plagioklaaipioia. Paikoin avaaan inruiivibrekiala nayavia muunnokia, paikoin kalkkipioiia keharakeneiia konkrcciomaiia muodoumia, joiden lapimia vaihelee 10 :a 20 cm :iin. Migmaiiicn graniiinen aine on joku apliiia joku pegmaiiia. Sen ijaan porfyyrinen graniii nayaa laviavan migma- iiiuunua kivea. Luoneenomaia uonigneiille on pyrokeenipioiuu. Kalivalaie juone eiva ii ole havianee pyrokcenia. Paikoin uonignciia on runaai granaacja ,'

10 1 0 Sulkavanjarvea iaan - kara-alueen pohjoirajalla - on vyohyke, jonka paakivilaji on arkooimainen gneii. Sen mineraaleina ova kvari ja oligoklaai eka vahaiea maarin kiilee. Granaaipioiuua eiinyy gneiia valikerromaiei, ja varinkin vyohykkeen iaoaa avaaan illimaniiiporfyroblaeja. Liukejako, joka alkaa Vaaralahden apuolela ja jakuu Pielaveden kirkonkylan lanipuolic eelaan, on merkiy karaan grauvakkamaieki liukeeki. Grauvakkamainen liuke on odcnnakoiei, paikoin ehka kokonaiuudeaankin, vulkaania alkuperaa. Paikoin on kerrokelliuu helpoi nahavia, jolloin on ehy havainoja myd kerralliuudca. Paikoin on avau valikerrokina porfyyriia muunnokia, joiden hajarakce ova plagioklaaia ai arvivalkea. Jakon lanireunan laheivy, dea on arkooimaiia valikerrokia. Ldella kuvaun jakon iapuolella on kvariiiki merkiy jako, joka on nakvvia ainoaaan parilla paljaumalla. Sen kerrokc ova ohuia, uoria ja niiden aeno on pyy. Rapauurnipina on puneravan harmaa. Kvariiia ehdyi ohuhieea nahdaan kaaklaiuua. Kvarirakee ova venyneia ja voimakkaai aaloammuvia. Kiveh on runaai epidooia eka hieman kloriiia ja eraia kerrokia ianiiia. Pielaveden laniranaa euraavan ja Saarelan kylan kaua kulkevan liukejakon eelaoa on amfiboliiia ja amfiboligneiia. Jakon pohjoioaa an avaaan grauvakkarnaia liukea, granaaipioia kiillegneiia ja uonigneiia. Saarelaa eelaan ijaievan amfiboligneiin ulkoau poikkeaa alueen muia amfiboligneieia. Se nayaa paikoin aivan kvari- ai granodioriiila. Gneiia on kuienkin elvai erouvaa kerrokelliuua. Paikoin on havaiu jopa kerralli- uueen viiaavaa rakennca. Pohjoioaa amfiboligneii ulauuu kcrrokellieen gneiiin, miy grauvakkamaien liukeen valikerrokina on kerromyoaiia arvivalkehajarakeia ialavaa amfiboliiia. Grauvakkamainen liuke jakuu kohi pohjoia vyohykkeen lanilaiaa euraen. Siella aalla avaaan emakiia valikerrokia, joia on amfibolikaaumia. Valikerroke ova uraliiiporfyriiimaiia. Vyohykkeen iaoa Saarelaa pohjoieen on granaaipioia bioiiigneiia. Kiven primaarirakenee ova ailynee niin hyvin, ea en kerroumialuan uunnan voi maari- aa. Bioiiigneiia on valikerrokina kariamfiboliieja ja kapeina pajoina hornblendiiia. Koivujarven liukee Alueen luoeikulmaa ijaiee erillinen Koivujarven liukejako, jonka kivilaji muiuava Pielaveden ymparion liukeia. Koivujarvella on kuienkin alkuperal- aan vulkaaniia kivia enemman kuin muualla kara-alueella. Paakivilaji ova bioiii-granaai-kordieriiigneii, anofylliii-kordieriiigranaaigneii ja bioiii granaaigneii. Granaai-anofylliii-kordieriiigneii on kekirakeia ja ummanharmaaa. Gneiia on puneravia granaaeja, joiden

11 lapimia aaaa olla jopa 2 cm. Taiekerroinmaariyen (n' 1 790) ja hilamiojen rnukaan granaain kooumu on kekimaarin Pv r. 35 ja Alm. 65. Anofylliii on alomaia ja makrokooppiei lnhe muaa. Pleokroimi on heikko : y = /I heikoi rukehava ja u = varion. Kordieriii on voimakkaai piniiiyyny, ja na on runaai kvariulkcumia. Sdilvnei rakeia nahdaan kakolamelleja. Liaki kiven on andeiinia ja bioiiia (Talviie 1959). Jakon kekioia on pienialainen muodouma edimenikivia. Siina avaaan valikcrrokina kariamfiboliiia. Sedimeni lience alkuperalaan karbonaaipioia hiekkaa, jonka karbonaaivilikerrok- e ova muuunee kariuumalla diopidiamfiboliiiki. Koivujarven liukejakon kvariieia ja amhboliieia on avau valikerrokina diopidi-remoliiikaria. Karimuodouma ova niin kapeia, ea niia ei voida kuvaa karalla. Talviie (1959) on maininnu niiden mineraalieurueeeen kuuluvan diopidin Liaki remoliii-akinoliiia, plagioklaaia (An ), klinozoiiiia eka karbonaaia. Mvd Mnkelan (1969) mukaan Koivujarven diopidiamfiboliieihin liiyy diopidi-remoliiikaria, joka ova kerromaiei ohuina jakoina amfiboliieia. Koivujarven liukejakon kekioaa on vulkan ieja, kuen uraliiiporfyriiia. Se on oiain vulkaania brekiaa ai emakia agglomeraaia, jonka heielee ova pyoriyneia ja venyneia. 1-Icielee ja valimaa ova lahe yha emakiia, andeiiiia ai baaliia. Vulkaniiijakon pohjoioaa, lahelln Koivujarven, on huonoi erouvaa yynylaavarakennea. Tyyny ova pienikokoiia (M == crn). Niiden mikrokooppinen rakenne on granoblainen ja ne koouva andeiinia ja arvivnlkkeen. Tyynyia on 0,5 mm :n uuruiia andeiinihajarakeia, joka aa- ava olla manelinayeia. Ilajarakee ova kekiynee yynyjen oieen reunaan. Koivujarven liukejako haarauuu eelan kaheen oaan. Graniiia vaen on uonigneiimaia bioiiigneiin, kun an iainen haara on arvivalkeamfibohiia ja arvivalkegneiia. 1 1 Lampaanjarven liukee Kara-alueen iareunaa, Lampaanjarven ymparioa, ijaiee laaja liukejako, johon kuuluu monenlaiia liukeia. Jakon Innireunaa on kerrokellia grauvakkamaia liukea, joa voidaan manrian paikoin kerroumialuan uunakin. Paljaumia on kuienkin niin harvaa, ea pohjanuunahavainojen avulla on epavarmaa eiaa kniya liukejakon rakcncca. Vyohykkecn iareuna on paaaiaa uonigneiia. Iannkivi on vaihelcvaa. Suonigneiialue Lampaanjarven kaakkoipuolclla on jo nun graniiimaia, ea on vaikea rakaia, oliiko e merkinva liukeen vai graniiin varilla. Lampaanjarven aaria ja en iarannalla on kerrokelliia liukeia, joka ova ollee karbonaaipioiia. Rapauumipinnalla kcrroen raja ova hyvin nnkyvin. Pohjoiea Lampaanjarven iarannalla on kiilleliukea, joka koouu paaaiaa bioiiia ja mukoviiia. Pienoipoimuu on rypyany kivea.

12 1 2 Taulukko 1. Pielaveden kara-aluccn kivien kcnialliia analvycia..-inalyyi on chnvv v R. Saikkonen. 7 able /. C'Gemical ana/)c rock in 1be Pielarei area. Tire analpe mere made in 19,'1 6)y R. Saikkonen. r..... SiO.. 61,03 63,89 61,82 63,11 64,58 66,50 60,41 Ti6 0,94 0,58 0,73 0,68 0,53 0,69 0,70 \1,0 ; 16,59 16,92 17,96 16,26 16,16 14,27 17,96 Fe,O, 1,50 0,72 1,41 1,65 2,52 1,03 1,70 FcO 6,18 3,56 4,05 3,06 2,33 4,77 4,58 MnO 0,11 0,06 0,08 0,09 0,07 0,08 0,11 NIgO 1,44 0,86 1,84 2,44 0,75 2,95 2,47 CaO 3,33 3,13 4,25 4,65 3,78 3,40 5,70 Na,O 3,07 3,46 3,95 3,74 2,86 2,95 3, ,03 5,22 2,06 2,37 4,80 1,57 1,31 CO, 0,50 0,15 II,O 1,05 1,04 1,08 1,24 1,03 1,12 0,88 1 I,O-- 0,07 0,02 0,08 0,16 0,05 0,04 0,04 P,O.,. 0,30 0,15 0,40 0,13 0,14 0,08 0,25 99,64 99,61 99,71 99,58 100,10 99,60 99,90 Q 15,33 13,90 17,87 17,90 21,46 29,14 15,40 or 23,81 30,85 12,17 14,00 28,36 9,28 7,74 25,98 29,28 33,42 31,65 24,20 24,96 32,07 an 14,56 14,55 18,47 20,58 14,68 15,40 26,64 C 1,84 0,25 2,46 0,88 2,08 0,54 ell 3,59 2,1 4,58 5,66 1,87 7,35 6,15 f 8,76 5,1 5,22 3,07 1,45 6,92 6,05 di en 0,42 f 0,23 WO 0,68 lil 2,18 1,06 2,04 2,39 3,65 1,49 2,47 iil I,-I9 1,10 1,39 1,29 1,01 1,31 1,33 ap 0,71 0,36 0,95 0,31 0,33 0,19 0,59 cc 1,14 0,34 fen, 17,02 9,74 14,18 14,06 9,45 17,60 16,59 Qu ,53 18,78 28,15 28,17 28,99 45,97 27,90 Or ,57 41,67 19,18 22,04 38,32 14,64 14,02 ;Ab ,89 39,55 52,67 49,79 32,69 39,39 58, Qu ,23 15,69 21,80 21,28 24,19 36,99 18,82 Or ,89 34,82 14,86 16,65 31,98 11,78 9,46 Ab ,60 33,05 40,79 37,61 27,28 31,69 39,18 An ,27 16,42 22,54 24,46 16,55 19,55 32,55 1. Porfvvrinen graniii - Porpbpre r,ranile, lchi - hee Porf-vrincn hvpercenigraniii - Porpbrrilic /)perl/jene granie, lchi -.hee C. 3. Pcrokcenigranodioriii -- Prro.verre granodiorile, lchi - lee B. 4. Kvaridioriii --- <Jrrar; diori!e, lchi -- hee A. 5. Pvrokccnigncii - Pyroxene gnei, lchi -- lee D. 6. Bioiiri hyperceni-granaaigneii - 13ioie-lr)peribene-garne gnei, lchi lee lmhboligneii irirpbi/o/e gnei, lchi -lee A.

13 Lampaanjarven liukealueen eelapuolella, yvakivialueella, avaaan pienialaiina erilaien gnciien rclikeja. Relikcihin kuuluu amfiboligneieja ja arkooimaiia gneieja. Karalla rcliki on merkiy yvakiven ulkeumiki. Ne ova verraain hyvin ailyneia. Analvvi 7 aulukoa 1 on odennakoiei amfiboligneiiulkcumaa. 1 3 Vuonamon liukee Yhenainen liukejako, joka on unneu jo Pihipuaan kara-alucella (Salli 1971), jakuu Vuonamonlahden unumaa vinoi Pielavedcn kara-alueen lounaioan poikki. Liukcjakoon kuuluu amfiboliicja, arkooikvariiia ja varinkin jakon eelaoaa pyrokeeni- ja amfiboliraiaia kvariiia. Pihipuaan lchden rajalla on avau myo kvariiipaljaumia. Ruoeia ark ooikvariiia on Vuonamoa ja kara-aluciden rajalla. Amfiboliiia on Toavanlahdella. Amfiboliii on kcrrokcllia ja diopidipioia. Paikoin eiinyy myo kerralliuua. Vuonamonlahden aaria amliboliii on gabromaia ja homogeenia. Sc on lane uunniumaona ja ialaa runaai arvivalkea. Vuonamon liukevvohvkkecn iapuolclla Vuorikylan- -imaomaen alucella on kolmionmuooinen gneiivvohvke, joka jakuu eclaan kara-alueen ulkopuolelle. Vyohyke muodouu paaaiaa raiaiea, karkearakcica arvivalkepioiea gneiia. Paikoin avaaan kcrrokcllia ja joku kerralliakin arkooikvariia. Pinakivilajien alkupera ja vulkaanien aineken ouu Vaikka veden kerroama rapauumiedimeni ovakin enemmiona Pielaveden kara-alueen pinakivilajeia, ci vulkaanien aineken ouua voida vahckya. Koivujarven vvnvlaava- cka arvivalke- ja plagioklaaihajarakeia ialava amfiboliii ova vulkaania alkuperaa. Siia nahdaan varmoja merkkeja gneii- ja amfiboliiijakoa, joka Pielavedcn lanilaiaa curaen ulouu kara-alueen lapi. Varinkin vyohvkkecn lanircunaa, Saarelaa pohjoieen, on grauvakkarnaien liukepajojen vheydea uraliiiporfyriiikerrokia. Toin kerroke ova voimakkaai deformoiunee, mua arvivalkchajarakcc ova unnieavia. AIvo amfiboliii, joka ijoiuu Savian ja Saarclan valillc, liiyy laheiei vulkaanieen vvohykkeecen. Amfiboliiia crouu haamumaici kerrokclliuu, minka liaki nahdaan arvivalkchajarakeia. Vulkaaniia valikerrokia on odennakoiei moo iina grauvakkamaiea liukeea, joka ijaiee Vaaralahden iapuolella.

14 1 4 INFRAKRUSTISET ELI SYVAKIVILA,JIT Pielaveden kara-alueella on yvakivilajeja ulra ma fiia graniieihin. Suurin oa yvakivia on kvari- ja granodioriieja. Ulramafie kivilaji Alueella on pienialaiia ulramafiieja ueaa paikaa. Iaaaiaa ne ijaieva kuienkin kara-alueen keki- ja polijoioaa. Alkupcralaan ne aaava olla vha hvvin uprakruiia kuin inruiiviiakin. Sen vuoki ulramafiia kivia on jo kuvau uprakruien kivicn yhevdea. Inruiivie ulramafiii liivva gabroihin. Niia avaaan Pielaveden jarvialaan valiomaa laheivydea paaaiaa Laukkalan ja Koivujarvcn valilla. Ulramafiiien mineraalicurue on arvivalke, diopidi, ja hvpereeni. Labradoriiia aaaa olla vahaiia maaria. Eraa navee ova oliviinipioiia. Pyrokeeni on muuunu niia oiain erpeniiniki. Alueela on lovdey rnvo kivia, joka ialava vain arvivalkea. Gabro ja dioriii Gabroa ja dioriiia ei niiden vahaien eron vuoki o1e karalla rajau oiiaan. Sulkavanjarven eelapuolella on inruiivibrekioia. Gabromaiia murokappaleia vmparoi brekiaa dioriiinen kivi. Ucimma gabro ova pyrokeen ipioiia. Sarnaakin gabrornuodoumaa aaeaan kuienkin avaa eka arvivalkegabroa ea noriiia. Laukkalan ja Vaaralahden valilla ijaieva gabro ova paaaiaa noriieja, kun ag Vuonamon alueella ova luoneenomaiia arvivalkegabro. Tyypekinlammen gabro Savialla on pyrokeenipioia. Sia luonnehiva grafiiipioie liukeulkeuma. Piclaveden luoeirannalla ijaiee uheellien laaja gabroalue, Saarelan gabro. Samna gabroa avaaan myo laheiia Pielaveden aaria. Kiven luoneenomainen piirre on epahomogeeniuu. Kooumu vaihelec ummaa pyrokeenigabroa uheellien vaaleaan anoroiiigabroon. Pyrokeeni on joko hvpereenia ai diopidia. -,%Iolemma pvrokccni eiinvva myo yhdea. Varinkin diopidi on uein voimakkaai muuunu erpeniiniki. Sarvivalkepioiimmia muunnokia diopidia ymparoi uein arvivalke. Plagioklaai on homogccnia ja kakounua labradoriiia (An 55-70). Eraia nayeia on voimakkaai erpeniiniyynya oliviinia. Varinkin Pielaveden aaria on avau anoroiiigabroa. Anoroiiigabroa hvpereenia ja diopidia on n ~,. Suurin oa kivea on cmakia plagioklaaia (An 70). Ueiden gabrojcn vhevdea avaaan dioriiiia oucia. Gabro vaiheuu joko vahiain ai brekian kaua dioriiiki. Varinkin Pielaveden alaan pohjoioaa ja

15 Sulkavanjarven eelapuolella on dioriieja. Dioriii ova pyrokeenipioiia, ja niiden vari on uheellien vaalea. Tummien mineraalien maara on vleena alle 25 Diopidin ja hypereenin liaki avaaan bioiiia. Vaaleana ainekena on ande- iini. Kvaria avaaan ainoaaan aunnaiei. 1 5 Kvari- ja granodioriii Karalla ei ole voiu rajaa granodioriiia ja kvaridioriiia oiiaan. Siki granodioriiia kuvaavalle varille onkin mcrkiy q iihen paikkaan, miy kvaridioriiia on kallioa avau. Granodioriiin ja kvaridioriiin vaiheurninen oi- ikeen on vahiaia. Kvaridioriiia on kaha yyppia, pyrokecnipioia ja arv alkcpioia. Pvrokeenipioia kvaridioriiia avaaan varinkin kara-aluccn kekioia jouenniemen ja Laukkalan alueilla. Plagioklaai, jonka maara vaihclee valilla , on joko oligoklaaia ai andeiinia. Kvaria on hvvin vahan. Tummiea mincraaleina on hypercenia, diopidia ja bioiiia. Pienia maaria arvivalkea ava- aan aunnaiei. Sarvivalke aaaa olla pyrokeenin muuurniuloa, koka e vmparoi diopidirakeia. Kiven rakenne on hypidiomorfincn. Tunnuomaia pyrok- eenipioielle kvaridioriiillc on rapauumipinnan ruoeenrukea vari. Sarvivalkepioien kvaridioriiin paamincraali ova oligoklaai, bioiii ja arvivalkc. Kvaria on niukai. Akeoreina on apaiiia, epidooia, ianiiia ja zirkonia. Laukkalan-Jouenniemen alueella ova myo granodioriii uein pyrokeenipioiia. Tummien mineraalien maara on alhainen. Vaaleina ainekina on paaaiaa oligoklaaia ja kvaria, kun an kalimaaalvan maara on alhainen. Pyrokeenipioi- ia granodioriieia avaaan kalimaaalpahajarakeia ainoaaan harvoin. Sen ijaan bioiii-arvivalkegranodioriieille kalimaaalpahajarakec ova luoneenomaiia. Granodioriicia on runaai erilaiia murkaleia. Varinkin pyrokeenigranodioriii muodoava inruiivibrekioia kuen Vaaralahden ja Sulkavanjarven alueilla. Sulkeumina on granaaigneiia ja pyrokeeniamfiboliiia eka muia alueen uprakruiia rivia. Granodioriii (aulukko 1, anal. 3) on uein myo aimiloinu ivukivea. Analvyi 4 aulukoa 1 on Savian eudun kvaridioriiia. Kara-alueen lanioan kvari- ja granodioriii ova kaligraniiin migmaiormia ja ova muuunee paikoin uonigneieiki. Graniii ja migmaiii Vaaralahden alueella on uean neliokilomeri laajuinen pyoreahko porfyyrigraniiialue. Sen luonccnomainen mineraali on hypereeni. Tummina mincraaleina avaaan en liaki bioiiia ja opaakkia. Niia on niukai ja amoin koko mmien mineraalien maara on vahainen. Suurimmaki oaki kivi koouu kvaria, kahmaaalvaa ja plagioklaaia. Porfvyriina hajarakcina on kalimaaalpaa ( 1 2

16 1 6 cm). :Akeoreina avaaan apaiiia ja monaiiia. Porfvvrigraniiin lohkaree ova helpoi rapauuvia. iynalyvi 2 aulukoa 1 on ehy Vaaralahden porfyyrigranii- ia. :yiojarvella, kara-aluecn pohjoioaa, on arvivalkepioia porfvyrig raniiia, jonka mincraalikooumu muuen on amanlainen kuin Vaaralahden porfverigrniiin. Jouennicmea on avau peni pvrokeenipioinen porfvvrigraniiialuc.,alueen luoeikulmaa on puneravaa porfyvrigraniiia (Salli 1971), joa on rajau aeromagneeien karojcn avulla. llajarakeina graniiia on mikrokliinia ja ummana nineraalina bioiiia (aulukko 1, analyvi 1). Kara-alueen kaakkoikulmaa ijaieva laaja graniiialue on epahomogceninen. Pielaveden kirkonkvlan ymparion graniiia on runaai kalimaaalpaa, kun an ummia ainckia on niukai. Bioiiin liaki graniiia on kloriiia. Luoneenomaia koko graniiille ova ulkcuma, joiden alkuperaa ci olc aina Ficlppo unniaa. Sulkeumina on erilaiia liukeia, granodioriieja ja emakiia vvakivia. Fdella eloeun graniiin luoeipuolclla ijaiee pikanomainen graniiialue. Graniii on voimakkaai ekonioiunu punainen bioiiigraniii, joa on hvvin crouva venyrna. Kun kara-aluecn kekioia venyma uunauuu iaan, n n ekonioiuncea graniiia venyma uunauuu lancen, oin jvrkanlaiei. Koko kara-alueella on granodioriiien yhevdea pienia graniiijuonia, joka ova arvivalkepioiia. Graniiijuonia on kuienkin enemman kalimaaalpaa kuin oligoklaaia. Rakenne on muurilaaimainen, ja oligoklaaia erouu heikko primaarinen vvohykkeellivy. Ilmciei graniiijuone liiyva granodioriiien inrudoiumicen ja eduava en mydhaiimpia vaiheia. ylueen lounaikulmaa on graniieja, joiden luonne on granodioriiinen. Nlineraalicurueeeen kuuluu nimiain aina arvivalke. Kalimaaalpaa on kuienkin rniin paljon, ea kiven kooumu on graniiinen. Graniieia on myo kalimaaalpahajarakeia, joka civa vaikua kuuluvan kiven alkuperaicen kooumukeen. Ylciei oaen alueen migmaiiie graniii ova arvivalkepioiia. Voirnakkaimmin migmaiiiuunu aluc on valilla Vuonamo-Koivujarvi..-yluc on merkiy karaan granodioriiiki, mua en kalliopera on graniii- ja apliiijuonen piroma. \Iainiun migmaiiialueen kallioperan kooumukecn on ollu huomaava vaikuu pinakivilajien ulkeumilla, joka ova iiniloiunee unenaomiki. Kokonai- uuena alueen luonne on kuienkin vvakivimainen. JUONIKIVIL \JIT Piclaveden aaria avaaarn olivinipioiia ofiiiia kivilajeja, joka aaava olla diabaaijuonia ai gabron muunnokia, mi3 paljaumicn picnen koon vuoki ci olc voiu kuienkaan varmiaa. Kara-aluecn vleiimma juonikivilaji ova kalimaaalpaa runaai iala a apliii- ja pcgmaiiijuonia. Juonc kiviava alucen kaikkia mua kivilajeja.

17 1 7 R<\KEN ~~E JA STRATIGRAFIA l'ielaveden kara-alue on ekoniikalaan rauhaon. Se ulee nikvviin kaikia geologiia karoia. Kalliopera.karalla nakyvia, vakivalaiei ynyneila vaiku- avia rakennepiireia voidaan curaa acrogeovikaaliila ja murrolinjakaroila. Liukee ciinvva kapcina pohjoi-eelauunaiina vyohykkcina. Paapoimuuvaiheeeen liiyy pohjoi-cclauunainen poimuakeli. :Akeli painuu kohden ec1aa depreioon. Sereonrahea projekioa nakvy varin hyvin vallievana cclaan kalliuva poimuakeli (kuva 1). Toinen poimuakeli kalliuu 60 kaakkoon. Tami v p m W E 0 C S / / huva l. PicIavcdcn kara aluecn poinucakeiihavainnor eirevna ercograiea projekioaa (clapallo).. I - i. I I old 1c.~r ob errujion ne lie Prrhrze r urea, repreiieca/ed In lr,e'~~ia)i proleclrou (appe- Sphere) ::~uzui 2 1

18 % A, 6-8% 4-6 / 2-4 % Kuva 2. Pielaveden karma-alucen venvmahavainno eivna ercograiea projekioa (elapaho). 2. Linenion obervaion in he Pielnvei area, repreened in ereorrnphic projecion (upper phere). akeliuuna ulee nakvviin ennen kaikkea alucen keki-, luoei- ja lounaioaa. Venvmauunna eiva kuienkaan lahekaan yhdy edella mainiujen poinuakelien uuniin. Toin ereografiea projekioa ulee koroeui nakvviin myo luode kaakkoinen venvmauuna (kuva 2). Kara-alueella liukeiuu mvoailee kerrokelliuua. Tranveriliukeiuu on harvinaia. Kerroen aenno ova yleena pyy ai jyrkb ; vain alucen luocioaa on avau loiva-aenoiiakin. Luoeioan pohjoi-eelauunainen ja loivaaenoinen gneiivvohyke nayad olevan ea iapuolelle ijoiuvan yvbkiven alla.

19 Lampaanjarven alue on ekonici uheellien rauhallia. Sekd pohjoi-eela- uunainen ed luode kaakkoiuunainen poimuakeli painuu :n kulmaa depreioon, kohden eelaa. Poikkeama edellh mainiuia uunnia on vain paikalliia hairioia. Lampaanjarven liukee muodoava ii anikliinin, jonka akeli painuu kohden eelaa. Syvna voimakkaaeen luode kaakkoiuunaicen venymaan, ioa avaaan var- inkin linjalla Koivujarvi Vaaralahi, navaa olleen idaa pain uunauunu vono. Se on vaikuanu paaaiaa vain ieyilld alucilla, illd muun muaa Lampaanjarven alueella ci aa yonnoa olc ehy havainoja. Sen ijaan Vuonamon alueella idaa uunauunu v_ ono ulee nakvviin voimakkaana venym.n ja poimuakelin uunana. Kallioperaa pirovia ruhjevyohykkcidcn uunnia on ylciin luode--kaakkoinen, mua pohjoikoilli-eelalounainen ulec moo hyvin nakvviin. Niidcn uunnaa ova uea Pielaveden aariryhm., nieme ja lahde. 1lurrovvohykkeiden ja kivilajirajojen valilla ei ole havaiu olevan vheya. Pohjoi eelauunaieen akeliin liiyva poimuu vaikuaa vanhemmala kuin luode-kaakkoiuunaieen akeliin liiy_ va. Pielaveden kara-alueen kivilajien raigrafia on hyv i ulkinnanvarainen. Pinakivilaji ova alueen vanhimpia kivia, mua niiden kekin.ien raigrafian m.ariaminen on epavarmaa. Paikoin nayaa karbonaaipioinen kvariii ijoi- uvan kordieriii-granaaigneiien paalle. Suprakruien kivien kerroumialua on unemaon. 1 9 RrADIOMETRISIA 1ANMAA,,ARITYKSIA U -Pb mcneclmalla on maaricy Vaaralahden porfvyrien hvperecnigramiin ( :A49) zirkonin ja monaiiin eka Koajarven dioriiin (A311) zirokonin radiomerinen ika. Navcidcn oopaika, analvviuloke mincraalifrakioille eka io- ooppiuhciiin peruuva ikaarvo on eicy aulukoa 2. Vaaralahden bioiiin Rb-Sr ika ja K- :Ar ika on julkaiu aikaiemmin (Wehcrill v.m. 1962). A49--Vaaralahi. Tama hvpereenigraniii ci muodoa migmaiieja vaan inruiivibrekioia. AIigmaiicja muodoaa bioiiipioinen kaligraniii, joka uoniaa eka pyrokeenigranodioriicja ed bioiii- ja arvivalkepioiia vvakivia. Navecn Vaaraaliden hvpereenigraniiia on oanu O. Kouvo v Vaaralahden ilakikvlaa, noin 60 m maaniea iaan olcvila paljaumila. Kivi ialaa runaai zirkonia ja monaiiia. Zirkoni on pikaprimaia ja omamuooia. Koroeakoon, ea kivi kuuluu ii hivcnmincraalcilaan niihin, joia valli- avana on zirkonin ohella monaiii cika ianiii. Ohciea kuvaa 3 on merkiy ioooppiuhee konkordiadiagrammalle. Kuuden zirkonifrakion muodoaman iokronin ja konkordiakayran ylaleikkau anaa radiomericki iaki `Ia (2 igma). Monaiiin anama ikaarja on virherajoia konkordani 1874 Ma. Jo

20 2 0 I I I r ,355 D 00 N Q 0 0 N 0, Pb / 235 U Kuva 3. Konkordiadiagramma ja U-Pb ioooppiuhee zirkonifrakioille Koajarven (iioriiiaa. Kirjainmerki viiaava aulukkoon. 3. C onco diadingii m and (-Ph volopic raio /or ircon /raclion /kooi /e Koa/iirci dio"ie. L',h %rucion ha a leer correpondinn o i/ie %rucion Iiied in I (able 2. Poin D omied. monaiiillc ja zirkonifrakioille lakcaan vheinen iokroni, anaa vlalcikkau v aaavai Ma ian, mua illoin a'alcikkau on negaiivinen. Zirkonifrakioidcn muodoaman iokronin ja konkordiakavran alalcikkau on ekin alhoalla (106 Ma) Ma ika on vvpillinen radiomerinen ikaarvo vnorogeeniille vvdkiville vckokarjalaiclla alucclla. Merkiavad on e, ed Vaaralahden inruuioa on monaiii zirkonin kana lane amanikainen eikd huomaavai nuorcmpi kuen Viiaaaren pallodioriiia ai Pihipuaan granioideia (Aho 1979). \311---koajarvi. Ndvcc ianmaariva varcn oi :Ao Laiakari vuonna 1969 karalchialueen pohjoilaidalla olevaa dioriii-inruuioa. kivea on pvrokeenin ja arvivdlkkeen ohclla jonkin vcrran bioiiia. 0huhieed nahdaan mvo kvaria. Pikdprimaicn rukchavan zirkonin lidki on kivca runaai apaiiia. \(uodouneen iokroonin ja konkordiakavran 5laleikkauken mdariamd ikaarvo

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