Chapter 4 Crisis in the Colonies. Chapter 4 Crisis in the Colonies. Chapter 5 Crisis in the Colonies

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1 Slide 1 Chapter 4 Crisis in the Colonies In France & England disagreed with who owned the Ohio Valley France hurried and put up forts in the west Washington was a major & 22 years old (He joined the army at age 15) He was ordered to get the French out The big European countries were competing for a world Empire A country that controls another country Spain, England, France, Netherlands Native Americans took sides Most sided with the French Iroquois sided with the English Slide 2 Chapter 4 Crisis in the Colonies Three times between France & England fought for power in Europe & America 1754 War broke out for the 4 th time Called the French & Indian War In Europe it was called the Seven Years War Book Last of the Mohicans is about this war Spain entered the war & sided with France France was coming down from Canada and quickly putting forts up west of the 13 colonies Competition between England & France to get the most land England & the 13 Colonies had the Appalachian Mountains in the way Slide 3 George Washington was told to build a fort on the mouth of the Ohio River French had already built Fort Duquesne there Washington attacked French scouts Then he hurried & built Fort Necessity French & Indians attacked & captured Washington French later released Washington Slide 4 Chapter 5 Crisis in the Colonies The 13 colonies knew that they needed a way to defend themselves Sent delegates to the capital -Philadelphia Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union Created one general government = Federal Government Shot down by each colonial assembly = State Gov t Didn t want to give up power 1755 British send General Edward Braddock Bad commander with little experience Went to attack Fort Duquesne Ambushed by the French & Indians Bright red uniforms were easy targets Braddock had 5 horses shot from underneath him before he was killed

2 Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 8 General Braddock being shot off his horse Tide of Battle Turns 1757 William Pitt new head of British Government He sent his best generals to win & end war In 1758, they captured Louisbourg Most important fort in French Canada French burn Fort Duquesne Rebuild fort & name it Fort Pitt Became Pittsburgh Quebec was the last stronghold of New France It supplied all of New France It was well defended City sat on the edge of the Plains of Abraham & on top of a high cliff British came up with a great plan Fall of New France The cliff was not well guarded Wolfe & 4,500 British soldiers climbed the cliff at night Fought Montcalm s men on the Plains of Abraham Wolfe & Montcalm were both killed British won the battle & this led to the eventual end of the war 1763 Britain & France signed the Treaty of Paris bringing the war to an end (Treaty of Paris will be used again) Terms of Peace England was given all of the land east of the Mississippi River Which included New France -Canada France was allowed to keep a few islands Spain had to give up Florida and all last east of the Mississippi River Wolfe killed with the fall of Quebec

3 Slide 9 Slide 10 Slide 11 Slide 12 Clash with the Native Americans British settlers moved into Native American lands in the Ohio Valley Caused clashes with the Native Americans 1762 British sent Lord Jeffrey Amherst to keep the peace He & the British treated the Indians bad as compared to the French Chief Pontiac attacked Fort Detroit These battles became known as Pontiac s War British signed the Proclamation of 1763 Made settlers move out of Native American land 10,000 British troops were sent to help keep the peace Cost a lot of money so British increased the taxes This made the settlers mad Chief Pontiac -Ottawa Angry over taxes Daniel Boone defied the taxes Joined the French in fighting the British during the French & Indian War He tried to keep the British off the Ottawa land near Michigan The Province of Ottawa is named after his people The Pontiac car is named after him Famous for exploring west of the Appalachians British imposed new taxes Sugar Act (Act = Law) Tax on Molasses Stamp Act Tax on legal documents & official papers i.e. Marriage license, diplomas, wills, newspapers, playing cards, dice, and almanacs Colonists were MAD No Taxation Without Representation Colonist had no voice in the government felt it was unfair Angry over taxes Colonists boycotted British products Means refused to buy the products British had to repeal (to cancel) the taxes Charles Townshend (in charge of treasury) Townshend Acts Taxed glass, paper, lead, paint, tea, etc. Gave tax collectors more rights Colonists Protested Demonstrations, boycotts, signed petitions, etc. Boston set up the Sons of Liberty also the Daughters of Liberty Samuel Adams became a good organizer of the Sons of Liberty Other good leaders in Massachusetts were John Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, & Patrick Henry

4 Slide 13 Slide 14 Boston Massacre In Boston colonists demonstrated against the Quartering Act in front of Boston customs house Colonists had to provide soldiers beds, food, drink, etc. Colonists shouted insults, threw snowballs, & got a little violent British soldiers panicked and shot into the crowd 5 people were killed & became known as the Boston Massacre Paul Revere (a silversmith) made an etching of it Soldiers were tried in court Defended by John Adams This event really stirred everyone up Major boycotts hurt British economy Dispute Over Tea Repealed Quartering Act, & most taxes except Tea Tea Act tax on tea King George III wanted to send the colonists a message of who was in charge British love their tea! Colonists boycotted the tea Hurt the British East India Company Boston Tea Party Sons of Liberty dressed as Indians dumped 3 ships of tea in the harbor Parliament decides to punish the colonists Passed laws against the colonists 4 of them which colonists call them Intolerable Acts Slide 15 Intolerable Acts 1 st -Shut down Boston Harbor until they paid for the lost tea 2 nd -Massachusetts could not hold town meetings without governor s permission 3 rd Any British official charged with a crime will be tried in Britain or Canada 4 th Passed new Quartering Act, soldiers stayed in colonists houses The colonies set up the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia They wanted every colony to set up their own militia (an army) Volunteers became known as minutemen Ready to fight on a minute s notice Slide 16 The Shot Heard Around the World Massachusetts the militia built up weapons and stored them in Concord 18 miles from Boston The British built up over 4,000 soldiers in Boston Everyone knew that they were up to something British got word of the weapons & on April 18 th 1775, 700 soldiers went out by night to get them Church one if by land, two if by sea Paul Revere went riding through town shouting The redcoats are coming

5 Slide 17 The Shot Heard Around the World Daybreak of April 19 th, 70 minutemen waited at Lexington to stop the British British commanded them to go home Someone shot The Shot Heard Around the World 8 colonists were killed Minutemen did guerrilla warfare on the British all the way to Concord 73 redcoats killed & 200 wounded Six long years of fighting 10,000 to 15,000 colony soldiers rushed to Boston May 10, 1775, 2 nd Continental Congress meet Send Olive Branch Petition Appointed George Washington as General

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