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1 A/ DEEP-SEA FISHERIES OF INDIA Vol.2 DR. G. SUDHAKARA RAO M.Sc., Ph.D. Foreword by DR. G.LUTHER M.Sc., Ph.D., FMBAI Former Head of Pelagic Fisheries Division Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute B.R. PUBLISHING CORPORATION DELHI

2 Contents 8. Deep-Sea Lobster Fishery of the Andamans Geographical Distribution Distinctive Characteristics Exploratory Surveys., Commercial Operations 258 ' 8.5 Processing Marketing Operations of Charter Fishing Fleets 261, 9.1 Advantages of Chartering Monitoring of Charter Operations Types of Vessels and Techniques Tuna Longliners Stern Trawlers Pair Trawlers Closure of Charter Scheme Joint Ventures with Foreign Companies Joint Ventures: Benefits to Host Country The Problems and Prospects of Joint Ventures Joint Ventures in Deep-Sea Fishing New India Fisheries Limited Survey by M.T. Murena M/s. Kelbex International Limited, Delhi Peejay Indo-Bulgarian Fisheries Ltd., Delhi Tata Oil Mills Co., Bombay (TOMCO) Golden Hind Shipping (India) Pvt. Ltd Britannia Industries, Bombay Indus Foods Ting Tai India Kali Sea Food Exports Limited Policies of the Government Recent Notifications on Joint Ventures Poaching by Foreign Fishing Vessels in the Indian EEZ Poaching Fleets and their Operations 301

3 vi Deep-Sea Fisheries of India The Operations of Stern Trawlers Bull Trawlers Driftnet Fishing Evidence of Poaching Surveillance by Coast Guard Poaching by Chartered Vessels The High Seas Tuna Longline Fishing by Indian Fishing Fleets Development of Longlining in Indian Ocean Exploratory Longline Fishing by Indian Vessels Southwest Coast Northwest Coast Southeast Coast Andaman and Nicobar Islands Lakshadweep Islands Joint Ventures in Tuna Longlining Fishing Falcons Samura Maritime Bay Liners Limited Oceanic Tuna Production in the Indian EEZ Longlining by Medium Shrimp Trawlers Squid Jigging Explorations Squid Jigging in Neretic Waters Fishing Vessel and Gear Fishing Operations Area and Period of Operation Distribution and Abundance of Neretic Squids Jigging Experiments in Oceanic Waters Squid Jigging Operations Off Gujarat Coast Jigging Operations during General Remarks By-catch and Discards Discarding of By-catch By-catch of Prawn Fisheries By-catch Discards at Visakhapatnam Discards of By-catch by Chennai Trawlers By-catches of West Coast Juveniles in the By-catch By-catch Reduction Devices By-catch Reduction Devices in Other Countries By-catch Reduction Devices in India By-catch in Groundfish Fisheries By-catch in Tuna Fisheries Tuna Purse-seines in Western Indian Ocean 360

4 Contents vii South Pacific Tuna Fishery By-catch of Tuna Longliners in Indian Waters Suggestions to Reduce By-catch The Deep-Sea Fishery Policy Coastal Fishing Policy Marine Fishery Regulatory Acts Deep-Sea Fishing Policy Development of Deep-Sea Fishing Fleet Declaration of Exclusive Economic Zone Charter of Foreign Fishing Vessels The Revised Policy of The New Deep-Sea Fishing Policy of Draft National Fisheries Policy. ' Gopakumar Committee Report Special Import Licences The Flag of Convenience Route New Guidelines Comprehensive Marine Fishing Policy Reactions from Different Sectors National Fisheries Development Board National Marine Fisheries Development Board Union Ministry of Fisheries Training in Fishing Skills General Remarks Conservation and Management of Marine Fishery Resources Management Objectives Physical Assets Development of the Fishery The Production Trends Increase in Fishing Intensity Conflicts between Fishing Fleets Production vis-a-vis Resource Potential Biological Studies Estimation of Potential Resources Estimation of Growth Parameters Tendencies of Overfishing Variations in the Biological Factors Methods of Stock Assessment The Stock Concept Fish Stock Assessment Models Studies on Stock Estimates Reasons for Discrepancies in the Estimates Predictive Models Meaningful Research Planning 430

5 viii Deep-Sea Fisheries of India Interactions with Fishermen Models of Trophic Dynamics Management Strategies Maximum Sustainable Yield Maximum Economic Yield Fishing to Biological Reference Points A Maintaining Spawning Stocks Regulation of Mesh Size Closed Areas Regulation of Fishing Areas Fishery Closed Seasons Size Limits (Minimum Legal Lengths) Control of the Amount of Fishing Over Capacity and Overcapitalization Over Capacity in World Fisheries Over Capacity in Indian Fisheries Technology Creep Management of Shared Fish Stocks By-catch and Discards Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries General Remarks/Conclusions Conclusions and Remarks 465 References 471 Index 515

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