Skjal 2. The Faroe Plateau Ecosystem. ICES 2016

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1 Skjal 2. The Faroe Plateau Ecosystem. ICES 2016

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3 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Faroes Ecoregion Published 10 June Cod (Gadus morhua) in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau) ICES stock advice ICES advises that when the MSY approach is applied, fishing mortality in 2017 should be no more than ICES is not in a position to advise on the corresponding level of fishing effort. Stock development over time The spawning-stock biomass (SSB) has remained around Blim since Fishing mortality (F) decreased from 2010 to 2013, but increased in and is now above Fpa. The year classes are estimated to be below average size. Figure Cod in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau). Summary of stock assessment (weights in thousand tonnes). Stock and exploitation status Table Maximum sustainable yield Precautionary approach Management plan Cod in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau). State of the stock and fishery relative to reference points. Fishing pressure Stock size F MSY Above F MSY MSY B trigger Below trigger F pa, F lim Increased risk B pa, B lim Increased risk F MGT Not applicable SSB MGT Not applicable ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 1

4 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Catch options Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau). The basis for the catch options. Variable Value Source Notes F ages 3 7 (2016) 0.46 ICES (2016a) F 2015 SSB (2017) 20 kt ICES (2016a) R age2 (2017) 4.3 millions ICES (2016a) Average of the recruitment in R age2 (2018) 4.3 millions ICES (2016a) Average of the recruitment in Total catch (2016) 7.5 kt ICES (2016a) Resulting from the assumption of F 2016 = F Landings (2016) 7.5 kt ICES (2016a) Discarding is considered negligible. Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau). The catch options. Rationale F Catch SSB Basis (2017) (2017) (2018) %SSB change * MSY approach F MSY SSB 2017/MSY B trigger Zero catch 0 0 F = F sq = F F sq Other options F pa (= F sq 0.75) F MSY F sq F sq Weights in thousand tonnes. * SSB 2018 relative to SSB Basis of the advice Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau). The basis of the advice. Advice basis MSY approach. Management plan There is no management plan for this stock. A preliminary management plan, including a recovery plan, was formulated in 2011, but has not been implemented. Quality of the assessment The landings data are considered accurate. There are no strong incentives to discard fish under the effort management system. The sampling of the landings is believed to be adequate. Figure Cod in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau). Historical assessment results (final-year recruitment estimates included). 2 ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

5 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Published 10 June 2016 Issues relevant for the advice An effort management system has been used since The Faroese Parliament decides the number of allocated fishing days for each new fishing season. The number of fishing days used by the main fleet targeting cod (longliners) only amounts to around half of the allocated days. With surplus allocated fishing days, current effort control is not limiting fishing pressure. ICES has not quantified the relationship between effort and F for this stock, since there is no apparent relationship between effort and F in the available data. Faroe Plateau cod and Faroe haddock are caught in a mixed fishery. In the current state of both stocks (around Blim), and with effort control not limiting fishing pressure, further development of management measures that includes the mixed-fishery issue would be useful. The advice is given by calendar year, though the fishing year runs from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. Reference points Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau). Reference points, values, and their technical basis. Framework Reference point Value Technical basis Source MSY MSY B trigger t B pa. ICES (2011) approach F MSY 0.32 Provisional maximum sustainable yield, FLR stochastic simulations. ICES (2011) B lim t Lowest observed SSB (1998 assessment). ICES (1998) t B lim e B, assuming σ = 0.40 to account for the relatively large pa Precautionary uncertainties in the assessment. ICES (1998) approach 0.68 F F pa e 1.645σ, assuming σ = 0.40 to account for the relatively large lim uncertainties in the assessment. ICES (1998) F pa 0.35 Close to F max (0.34) and F med (0.38) (1998 assessment). ICES (1998) Management plan SSB MGT Not applicable Not applicable F MGT Basis of the assessment Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau). The basis of the assessment. ICES stock data category 1 (ICES, 2016b) Assessment type XSA with catch-at-age data and age-disaggregated indices, using catches in the model and in the forecast. Input data Commercial catches, ages, and length frequencies from catch sampling; survey indices (FO-GFS-Q1 and FO- GFS-Q3); annual maturity data from FO-GFS-Q1; natural mortalities set at 0.2. Discards and bycatch Discarding is considered negligible. Indicators None Other information The stock assessment was last benchmarked by NWWG in A benchmark is planned for Working group North-Western Working Group (NWWG) Information from stakeholders There is no available information. ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 3

6 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort History of the advice, catch, and management Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau). History of ICES advice, the agreed TAC, and ICES estimates of landings. Fishing Predicted catch Agreed ICES ICES advice Year corresp. to advice TAC*** landings 1987 No increase in F < No increase in F (Revised estimate) < 29 (23) No increase in F < No increase in F < TAC < No increase in F < No fishing No fishing 0 8.5/12.5*, ** No fishing * F at lowest possible level - 20** % of F(95) < % reduction in effort from 1996/ F less than proposed F pa (0.35) < F less than proposed F pa (0.35) < F less than proposed F pa (0.35) < % of F(2000) < % of F(2001) < % reduction in effort Rebuilding plan involving large reduction Rebuilding plan involving large reduction Rebuilding plan involving large reduction in effort No fishing. Development of a rebuilding plan No fishing. Development of a rebuilding plan No fishing. Development of a rebuilding plan Reduce F to below F pa < MSY framework, reduce F by 30% < MSY approach, F< 0.20 < MSY approach, reduce F by 69 % < MSY approach, reduce F by 23 % < Lowest possible level (LPL) and develop a mixedfishery management plan LPL 2017 MSY approach (F 0.16) 2.8 Weights in thousand tonnes. * In the quota year 1 September 31 August the following year. ** The TAC was increased during the quota year. *** Not applicable since History of catch and landings Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau). Catch distribution by fleet in 2015 as estimated by ICES. Total catch (2015) Landings Discards kt 62% longlines 29% trawlers 9% jigging 0.1% other gear types kt Negligible 4 ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

7 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Published 10 June 2016 Table Year Cod in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau). History of commercial catch and landings; both the official and ICES estimated values are presented by area for each country participating in the fishery. Faroe UK UK United Denmark France Germany Iceland Norway Greenland Portugal Total Islands (E/W/NI) (Scotland) Kingdom ** *** *** *** *** *** *** * *** * *** 9-531* *** *** *** ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 5

8 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Year Year Denmark Faroe Islands France Germany Iceland Norway Greenland Portugal UK (E/W/NI) UK (Scotland) United Kingdom * * Preliminary ** Included in 5.b.2 *** Reported as 5.b Table Officially reported Cod in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau). ICES estimated catch (tonnes) used in the assessment. In 5.b.1 Faroese catches Catches reported as 5.b.2 Foreign catches Corrections in 5.b.1 On Faroe- Iceland ridge in 2.a within Faroe area jurisdiction UK (E/W/NI) UK (Scotland) UK French** Greenland** Russia** UK** Total Used in the assessment *** * ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

9 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Published 10 June 2016 Year Officially reported In 5.b.1 Faroese catches Catches reported as 5.b.2 Foreign catches Corrections in 5.b.1 On Faroe- Iceland ridge in 2.a within Faroe area jurisdiction UK (E/W/NI) UK (Scotland) UK French** Greenland** Russia** UK** Used in the assessment * * Preliminary ** Reported to Faroese Coastal Guard. *** Expected misreporting/discard. ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 7

10 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Summary of the assessment Table Year Cod in Subdivision 5.b.1 (Faroe Plateau). Assessment summary (weights in tonnes). Recruitment Stock size: SSB Catches Age 2 tonnes tonnes thousands Fishing pressure: F Ages 3 7 Year ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

11 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Published 10 June 2016 Year Recruitment Age 2 thousands Stock size: SSB tonnes Catches tonnes Fishing pressure: F Ages 3 7 Year Average Sources and references ICES Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 28 April 06 May, 1998, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 1998/ACFM: pp. ICES Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 26 April 03 May, 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2011/ACOM: pp. ICES. 2016a. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 27 April 4 May, 2016, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2016/ACOM:08. ICES. 2016b. General context of ICES advice. In Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, ICES Advice 2016, Book 1, Section 1.2. ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 9

12 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Faroes Ecoregion Published 10 June Cod (Gadus morhua) in Subdivision 5.b.2 (Faroe Bank) ICES stock advice ICES advises that when the precautionary approach is applied, there should be zero catch in each of the years 2017, 2018, and Stock development over time Survey indices indicate that the stock is severely depleted. Exploitation ratios (proxies for fishing mortality) have remained at very low levels in recent years, and are considered to be below possible reference points. Figure Cod in Subdivision 5.b.2 (Faroe Bank). Top left: ICES catches Since 1992 catches on the Faroe Bank are considered to be taken only by Faroese and Norwegian vessels. Top right: Allocated fishing days for longline gear types on the Faroe Bank. Bottom left: exploitation ratio (ratio of landings to survey cpue interpreted as an index of exploitation rate). Bottom right: Catch per unit of effort in the spring groundfish survey ( ; blue line) and summer survey ( ; orange line). Dashed lines show one standard error in the estimation of indexes. Stock and exploitation status Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.2 (Faroe Bank). State of the stock and fishery relative to reference points. Fishing pressure Stock size Maximum MSY F MSY Undefined sustainable yield B trigger Undefined Precautionary B pa, F pa, F lim Undefined approach B lim Undefined Management plan F MGT Not applicable SSB MG Not applicable Qualitative evaluation Below possible reference points T Below possible reference points ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 1

13 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Catch options New data on landings and indices from the annual Faroese surveys do not change the perception of the stock. ICES advises that because of the very low stock size, there should be zero catch from the stock. Given the current severely depleted status of the stock, it is likely to take several years for any possible recovery. Therefore, the advice is given for the next three years ( ). Reopening the fishery should not be considered until both survey indices indicate a biomass at or above the average of the period Basis of the advice Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.2 (Faroe Bank). The basis of the advice. Advice basis Precautionary approach. Management plan There is no management plan for this stock. Quality of the assessment The assessment is based on catch rates in two research surveys, and on exploitation ratios derived from landings data and survey indices. The uncertainty in the spring survey indices is large, while the summer survey has lower uncertainty. The recent depletion of the stock is confirmed by both surveys. The landings estimates for this stock are uncertain as the vessels since 1996 have been allowed to fish both on the Faroe Plateau and on the Faroe Bank during the same trip. Issues relevant for the advice If the fishery management agency intends to manage the fisheries of the two stocks (Faroe Plateau cod and Faroe Bank cod) to protect the productive capacity of each individual stock, then it is necessary to identify the catch removed from each stock from all components of the fleet. Reference points No reference points are defined for this stock. Basis of the assessment Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.2 (Faroe Bank). The basis of the assessment. ICES stock data category 3 (ICES, 2016) Assessment type Qualitative based on survey trends. Input data Landings and Faroese groundfish bottom trawl surveys (spring and summer) Discards and bycatch Considered negligible. Indicators None Other information None Working group North-Western Working Group (NWWG) Information from stakeholders There is no information available. 2 ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

14 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Published 10 June 2016 History of the advice, catch, and management Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.2 (Faroe Bank). History of ICES advice, the agreed TAC, and landings. Year ICES advice Predicted catch corresponding to advice Agreed TAC** Landings* 1987 No assessment No assessment Addition to Faroe Plateau TAC ~ Access limitation may be required Access limitation may be required No fishing TAC TAC Precautionary TAC Precautionary TAC Effort at present levels Effort at present levels Effort not to exceed that exerted in Effort not to exceed that of Effort not to exceed that of Effort not to exceed that of Effort not to exceed that of Effort not to exceed that of Effort not to exceed that of Effort not to exceed that of Effort not to exceed that of No fishing No fishing Same advice as last year Same advice as last year Same advice as last year Same advice as last year Same advice as last year Same advice as last year Same advice as last year Precautionary approach Precautionary approach Precautionary approach 0 Weights in thousand tonnes. * Prior to 1992 official landings are presented, thereafter ICES estimates (catches on the Faroe Bank are considered to be taken only by Faroese and Norwegian vessels). ** Not applicable since History of catch and landings Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.2 (Faroe Bank). Catch distribution by fleet in 2015 as estimated by ICES. Total catch (2015) Landings 100% Jigging Discards 17 t 17 t Negligible ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 3

15 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.2 (Faroe Bank). Nominal catches (tonnes) by country as officially reported to ICES. From 1992 catches by the Faroe Islands and Norway are used in the assessment Faroe Islands Norway UK (E/W/NI) ** 1** 74** 186** 56** 43** 126*** 61*** 27*** - UK (Scotland)*** Total Used in assessment * Faroe Islands Norway Greenland UK (E/W/NI)*** UK (Scotland) 245*** 288*** 218*** 254*** 244*** 1129*** 278*** Total Correction of Faroese catches in Subdivision 5.b.2 Used in assessment * Preliminary. ** Included in Subdivision 5.b.1. *** Reported as Division 5.b. 4 ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

16 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Published 10 June 2016 Summary of the assessment Table Year Cod in Subdivision 5.b.2 (Faroe Bank). Catch per unit of effort in the spring groundfish survey and summer survey and exploitation ratios (ratios of landings to survey cpue, interpreted as an index of exploitation rate). When no survey index value was available, cells are left blank. Spring survey (kg h 1 ) low ( 1 SE) high (+1 SE) Exploitation ratio (Landings/ Spring survey) Summer survey (kg h 1 ) low ( 1 SE) high (+1 SE) Exploitation ratio (Landings/ Summer survey) ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 5

17 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Table Cod in Subdivision 5.b.2 (Faroe Bank). Allocated fishing days for longline gear types on the Faroe Bank. Large longliners Small longliners Season ( 100 GRT) (< 100 GRT) 1997/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / Sources and references ICES. 2016a. General context of ICES advice. In Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, ICES Advice 2016, Book 1, Section 1.2. ICES. 2016b. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 27 April 4 May, 2016, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2016/ACOM:08. 6 ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

18 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Faroes Ecoregion Published 10 June Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds) ICES stock advice ICES advises that when the MSY approach is applied, fishing mortality in 2017 should be no more than ICES is not in a position to advise on the corresponding level of fishing effort. Stock development over time The spawning-stock biomass (SSB) has decreased since 2003 and is estimated to have been below Blim since The fishing mortality (F) has decreased in recent years and is now slightly above FMSY. Recruitment (age 2) from 2005 onwards has been well below the long-term average. However, the 2015 year class is estimated to be above average. Figure Haddock in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). Summary of the stock assessment (weights in thousand tonnes). Stock and exploitation status Table Maximum sustainable yield Precautionary approach Management plan Haddock in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). State of the stock and fishery relative to reference points. Fishing pressure Stock size F MSY Above MSY B trigger Below trigger F pa, F lim Increased risk B pa, B lim Reduced reproductive capacity F MGT Not applicable SSB MGT Not applicable ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 1

19 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Catch options Table Haddock in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). The basis for the catch options. Variable Value Source Notes F ages 3 7 (2016) 0.27 ICES (2016a) Unscaled averages for SSB (2017) 23.8 kt ICES (2016a) R age2 (2017) 41.9 mill. ICES (2016a) Derived from age 1 estimate in the 2016 assessment. R age2 (2018) 5.9 mill. ICES (2016a) Geometric mean since Total catch (2016) 4.3 kt ICES (2016a) Table Haddock in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). The catch options. Rationale F (2017) Catch (2017) Basis SSB (2018) %SSB change * MSY approach F MSY SSB 2017/B trigger F MSY and F pa F MSY (F sq 0.93) Zero catch 0 0 F = F sq Other options F sq F sq Weights in thousand tonnes. * SSB 2018 relative to SSB Basis of the advice Table Haddock in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). The basis of the advice. Advice basis MSY approach. Management plan There is no management plan for this stock. A preliminary management plan, including a recovery plan, was formulated in 2011, but has not been implemented. Quality of the assessment The landings data are considered accurate. There are no strong incentives to discard fish under the effort management system. The sampling of the landings is believed to be adequate. No major problems have been observed with the tuning indices (the two surveys). The growth in SSB forecasted for 2018 assumes a strong recruitment-at-age 2 in 2017 (42 mil.), based on the number of 1- year-olds from this year s spring survey. When new data becomes available next year the strength of this year class can be verified. Figure Haddock in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). Historical assessment results (final-year recruitment estimates included). 2 ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

20 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Published 10 June 2016 Issues relevant for the advice An effort management system has been used since The Faroese Parliament decides the number of allocated fishing days for each new fishing season. The number of fishing days used by the main fleet targeting haddock (longliners) only amounts to around half of the allocated days. With surplus allocated fishing days, current effort control is not limiting fishing pressure. ICES has not quantified the relationship between effort and F for this stock, since there is no apparent relationship between effort and F in the available data. Faroe Plateau cod and Faroe haddock are caught in a mixed fishery. In the current state of both stocks (around Blim), and with effort control not limiting fishing pressure, further development of management measures that includes the mixed-fishery issue would be useful. The advice is given by calendar year, though the fishing year runs from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. Since the stock is predicted to be above Blim in 2017, the advice this year is based on the MSY approach and F in 2017 should be no more than 0.17 (FMSY B2017 / MSY Btrigger). Reference points Table Haddock in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). Reference points, values, and their technical basis. Framework Reference point Value Technical basis Source MSY approach MSY B trigger t B pa ICES (2011) F MSY 0.25 Stochastic simulations. ICES (2011) B lim t Lowest observed SSB. ICES (1998) Precautionary B pa t B lim e 1.645σ, with σ = 0.3. ICES (1998) approach F lim 0.40 F pa e 1.645σ, with σ = 0.3. ICES (1998) F pa 0.25 F med (1998) = ICES (1998) Management plan SSB MGT Not defined Not defined F MGT Basis of the assessment Table Haddock in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). The basis of the assessment. ICES stock data category 1 (ICES, 2016b) Assessment type XSA with catch-at-age data and age-disaggregated indices, using catches in the model and in the forecast. Input data Commercial catches (mainly Faroese catches, ages and length frequencies from catch sampling); survey indices (FO-GFS-Q1&3); annual maturity data from FO-GFS-Q1; natural mortalities set at 0.2. Discards and bycatch Discarding is assumed to be negligible. Indicators None Other information A benchmark for this stock is planned for Working group report North-Western Working Group (NWWG) Information from stakeholders There is no information available. ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 3

21 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort History of the advice, catch, and management Table Haddock in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). History of ICES advice, the agreed TAC, and ICES estimates of landings. Year ICES advice Predicted catch corresp. to advice Agreed TAC* ICES catch 1987 No increase in F No increase in F No increase in F No increase in F TAC TAC Reduction in F No fishing No fishing TAC F = F(95) F = F(96) F< proposed F pa (0.25) F < proposed F pa (0.25) F< proposed F pa (0.25) No fishing F< proposed F pa (0.25) F< proposed F pa (0.25) F< proposed F pa (0.25) F< proposed F pa (0.25) F< F pa No fishing and recovery plan No fishing and recovery plan No direct fishing; minimize bycatch, implement recovery plan No direct fishing; minimize bycatch, implement recovery plan No direct fishing; minimize bycatch, implement recovery plan No direct fishing; minimize bycatch, implement recovery plan No direct fishing; minimize bycatch, implement recovery plan No direct fishing; minimize bycatch, implement recovery plan MSY approach (F 0.17) 3.5 Weights in thousand tonnes. * Not applicable since History of catch and landings Table Haddock in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). Catch distribution by fleet in 2015 as estimated by ICES. Total catch (2015) Landings Discards kt 81% longliners 19% trawlers kt Negligible 4 ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

22 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Published 10 June 2016 Table Haddock in Division 5b. History of commercial catch and landings; both the official and ICES estimated values are presented by area for each country participating in the fishery. Year Belgium Denmark England Faroe Islands France Germany Iceland Netherlands Norway Portugal Scotland Spain Poland Russia Greenland Total ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 5

23 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Year Belgium Denmark England Faroe Islands France Germany Iceland Netherlands Norway Portugal Scotland Spain Poland Russia Greenland Total ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

24 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Published 10 June 2016 Year Belgium Denmark England Faroe Islands France Germany Iceland Netherlands Norway Portugal Scotland Spain Poland Russia Greenland Total ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 7

25 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Year Belgium Denmark England Faroe Islands France Germany Iceland Netherlands Norway Portugal Scotland Spain Poland Russia Greenland Total ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

26 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Published 10 June 2016 Summary of the assessment Table Haddock in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). Assessment summary. Year Recruitment Fishing pressure: F Stock size: SSB Catches Age 2 Ages 3 7 tonnes tonnes thousands Year ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 9

27 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Sources and references Recruitment Fishing pressure: F Stock size: SSB Catches Year Age 2 Ages 3 7 tonnes tonnes thousands Year Average ICES Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 28 April 06 May, 1998, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 1998/ACFM: pp. ICES Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 26 April 03 May, 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2011/ACOM: pp. ICES. 2016a. Report of the North-Western Working Group (NWWG), 27 April 4 May, 2016, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2016/ACOM:08. ICES. 2016b. General context of ICES advice. In Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, ICES Advice 2016, Book 1, Section ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

28 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Faroes Ecoregion Published 10 June Saithe (Pollachius virens) in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds) ICES stock advice ICES advises that when the MSY approach is applied, fishing mortality in 2017 should be no more than ICES is not in a position to advise on the corresponding level of fishing effort. Stock development over time The spawning-stock biomass (SSB) has been above MSY Btrigger, apart from in 2012 and Estimated recruitment in 2015 was well above the long-term average. Fishing mortality (F) has been mostly above FMSY from 1981 but has dropped below FMSY in Figure Saithe in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). Summary of the stock assessment (weights in thousand tonnes). Assumed recruitment values are unshaded. Stock and exploitation status Table Maximum sustainable yield Precautionary approach Management plan Saithe in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). State of the stock and fishery relative to reference points. Fishing pressure Stock size F MSY Appropriate MSY B trigger Above trigger F lim, F pa F MGT Harvested sustainably Not applicable B lim, B pa Full reproductive capacity SSB MGT Not applicable ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 1

29 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Catch options Table Saithe in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). The basis for the catch options. Variable Value Source Notes F ages 4 8 (2016) 0.25 ICES (2016a) Average of last three years, scaled to the last year (F status quo). SSB (2017) t ICES (2016a) R age3 (2017) 30 mill. ICES (2016a) Geometric mean of R age3 (2018) 30 mill. ICES (2016a) Geometric mean of Total catch (2016) t ICES (2016a) Based on F status quo. Table Saithe in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). The catch options. Rationale F (2017) Catch (2017) Basis SSB (2018) % SSB change * MSY approach F MSY (= F sq 1.2) % Zero catch 0 0 F = % F sq % F sq % Other options F sq % F sq % F sq % Weights in thousand tonnes. * SSB 2018 relative to SSB Basis of the advice Table Saithe in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). The basis of the advice. Advice basis MSY approach. Management plan There is no management plan for this stock. A preliminary management plan was formulated in 2011, but has not been implemented. Quality of the assessment The landings data are considered accurate. There are no strong incentives to discard fish under the current effort management system. The sampling of the landings is considered to be adequate. Figure Saithe in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). Historical assessment results (final-year recruitment estimates included). Left panel: horizontal line shows MSY B trigger = B pa = t. Middle panel: horizontal line represents F MSY = F PA = ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

30 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Published 10 June 2016 Issues relevant for the advice An effort management system has been used since The Faroese Parliament decides the number of allocated fishing days for each new fishing season. In the 2014/2015 fishing year 29% of the allocated days for the main fleet catching saithe (pair-trawl) were not used. With surplus allocated fishing days, current effort control is not limiting fishing pressure. ICES has not quantified the relationship between effort and F for this stock, since there is no apparent relationship between effort and F in the available data. The advice is given by calendar year, though the fishing year runs from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. Reference points Table Framework MSY approach Precautionary approach Management plan Saithe in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). Reference points, values, and their technical basis. Reference point Value Technical basis Source MSY B trigger t Breakpoint in segmented regression. ICES (2011) F MSY 0.30 Stochastic simulations (ICES, 2014b). Consistent with 2014 estimate of F med = ICES (2014a, 2014b) B lim Not defined. B pa t B loss in ICES (1998) F lim Not defined. F pa 0.30 Consistent with 2013 estimate of F med. ICES (2014c) SSB MGT Not defined. Not defined. F MGT Basis of the assessment Table Saithe in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). The basis of the assessment. ICES stock data category 1 (ICES, 2016b) Assessment type XSA, using catches in the model and in the forecast. Input data Commercial catches (mainly Faroese catches, ages and length frequencies from catch sampling); commercial indices: pair-trawler fleet; annual maturity data from FO-GFS-Q1; survey distribution from FO-GFS-Q1 and FO-GFS-Q3; natural mortalities set at M = 0.2. Discards and bycatch Discarding is considered negligible. Bycatch included. Indicators None Other information A benchmark assessment was performed in A benchmark for this stock is planned for Working group North-Western Working Group (NWWG) Information from stakeholders There is no information available. History of the advice, catch, and management Table Saithe in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). History of ICES advice, the agreed TAC, and ICES estimates of landings. Year ICES advice Predicted catch Agreed corresp. to advice TAC* ICES landings 1987 No increase in F < No increase in F < Reduction in F < Reduction in F < TAC < Reduction in F < ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 3

31 Published 10 June 2016 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Year ICES advice Predicted catch Agreed corresp. to advice TAC* ICES landings 1993 Reduction in F < TAC < 26 42** TAC < 22 39** TAC < % reduction in F from 1995 level < % reduction in effort from 1996/97 level F below F pa (0.28) < F below than F pa (0.28) < Reduce fishing effort to generate F well below F pa (0.28) < Reduce fishing effort to generate F below F pa (0.28) < Reduce fishing effort to generate F below F pa (0.28) < Reduce fishing effort to generate F below F pa (0.28) < Reduce fishing effort to generate F below F pa (0.28) < Reduce fishing effort to generate F below F pa (0.28) < Average catch considerations Do not increase effort Reduce fishing effort by around 20% Reduce fishing effort by around 20% Reduce fishing effort to generate F below F pa (0.28) < Reduce fishing effort to generate F below F MSY (0.28) < F< 0.28 < Reduce fishing effort to generate F below F MSY (0.30) < Reduce fishing effort to generate F below F MSY (0.30) < Reduce fishing effort to generate F below F MSY (0.30) < MSY approach (F 0.30) 46 Weights in thousand tonnes. * Not applicable since ** In the quota year 1 September 31 August the following year. History of catch and landings Table Saithe in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). Catch distribution by fleet in 2015 as estimated by ICES. Total catch (2015) Landings Discards 25 kt 93% pair trawler 2% single trawler 5% jiggers and others 25 kt Negligible 4 ICES Advice 2016, Book 4

32 ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Published 10 June 2016 Table Saithe in Division 5.b (Faroes grounds). History of commercial catch and landings; both the official and ICES estimated values are presented for each country participating in the fishery. Country Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands ^^^ France 313 *** *** *** Germany German Dem. Rep German Fed. Rep Greenland Ireland Netherlands Norway Portugal UK (Eng. & W.) UK (Scotland) USSR/Russian Fed. ** Total ICES estimate ^,^^ Country * Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands >> France Germany Greenland Ireland Iceland Netherlands Norway Portugal Russian Federation UK (E/W/NI) UK (Scotland) United Kingdom Total ICES estimate ^,^^,> * Preliminary. ** As from *** Quantity unknown ^ Includes catches from Subdivision 5.b.2 and Division 2.a in Faroese waters. ^^ Includes French, Greenlandic, and Russian catches from Division 5.b, as reported to the Faroese coast guard. ^^^ No official catches reported. > Includes Faroese, French, and Greenlandic catches from Division 5.b, as reported to the Faroese coast guard. >> The catches from Faroe Islands, as stated from the Faroese coast guard, have been corrected to be consistent with procedures used in previous years. ICES Advice 2016, Book 4 5

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