Technical Standards and Guidelines for Planning and Design DRAFT VOLUME FLOOD CONTROL

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1 DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY Technical Standards and Guidelines for Planning and Design DRAFT VOLUME FLOOD CONTROL MARCH 2002 Project for the Enhancement of Capabilities in Flood Control and Sabo Engineering of the DPWH

2 CHAPTER 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS 1.1 SCOPE AND APPLICATION This volume of the Technical Guidelines was formulated in order to establish uniformity in planning and designing of flood control projects. It aims to provide the engineers of DPWH involved in flood control planning and design, the essential tools to formulate effective and efficient countermeasures against floods. 1.2 CATEGORIES OF FLOOD CONTROL Flood control is divided into six (6) categories according to purpose: a. To increase the river discharge capacity a.1 To protect the flood prone area from overflow b. To reduce and/or control the peak discharge of flood c. To prevent inland flood d. To prevent bank collapse and harmful degradation of riverbed e. To prevent obstruction against river flow and/or maintain/conserve the good condition of the river in order to keep the flow uninterrupted To Increase the River Flow Capacity by dike/levee by widening of the waterway/river by dredging/excavation combination of the above 1

3 W W 3 W 2 1 Embankment Dredging / Excavation Existing cross section W 1= Existing river width W 2 = Improved river width by widening W = Improved river width by diking 3 Figure 1.1 To increase the river flow capacity Raising of flood prone area Existing ground Figure 1.2 To protect flood prone area from overflow 2

4 1.2.2 To Reduce and/or Control the Peak Discharge of Flood Flood discharge peak discharge without dam / retarding basin peak discharge with dam/retarding basin Figure 1.3 Hydrograph of reduction of peak discharge Time To Prevent Inland Flooding Floods are classified as: Overflow flood flood caused by overtopping of the riverbanks/dikes. Inland flooding flood caused by localized torrential rain which could not be drained by gravity due to the high water stage of the river. Overflow flood could be prevented by: (Refer to countermeasures mentioned in Section 1.2.1) Inland flooding could be prevented by: Lateral improvement (Ex. storm drain, drainage main, open canals, ditches, etc.) Tributary improvement (Ex. branches of main river) Pumping station 3

5 Overflow flood Inland flood Rainfall Figure 1.4 Types of Floods To Prevent Bank Collapse and Harmful Degradation of Riverbed By revetment By spur dike By change of waterway/ cut-off channel By groundsill (to prevent riverbed degradation) Spurdike : 1. To direct the river flow away from the bank 2. To reduce velocity of flow Revetment : To protect the property behind the riverbank Groundsill : To prevent riverbed degradation 4

6 Figure 1.5 Countermeasures against bank collapse and harmful degradation of riverbed To Prevent Obstruction Against River Flow and/or Maintain/Conserve the Good Condition of the River in Order to Keep the Flow Uninterrupted. By sabo works (for sediment control) By regular maintenance (channel excavation/dredging) 1.3 NECESSITY OF FLOOD CONTROL PLAN Whenever the catchment area and/or flood prone area to be considered is big or very important, and when the flood safety level is not balance between upstream and downstream portions of the river, it should have a flood control plan. A Flood Control Plan should be formulated from the basin-wide view point, and requires proper coordination with the other plans such as: - Irrigation development plan, - Road network/bridge plan, - Sabo plan, - Environmental management plan. 5

7 It is necessary to consider the effect/influence of other development plans in the formulation of flood control plan. For example, the height of levee will affect the design height of bridge. Likewise, the design riverbed profile will affect the design of the irrigation intake/canal and other related facilities Design Flood Frequency Basically, all flood control projects must have a flood control plan. It is necessary to make a flood control plan based on the forecasted river phenomena which is likely to occur as a result of the discharges corresponding to the design flood frequencies. Design Flood Frequency is expressed by return period, i.e., the probability (expressed in years) where a flood of a target size/magnitude is likely to occur. The return period should be determined based on the size of catchment area, the degree of importance of the proposed project area and the economic viability of the project. Thus, it is necessary to determine the design flood discharge corresponding to the design flood frequency of the river. It is also necessary to consider the funds needed for the implementation of the proposed improvement works and the expected benefits Classification of Flood Control Plan Flood control plan is classified according to its objective: 1. Master Plan 2. Flood Control Project Implementation Plan 6

8 Master Plan The Master Plan explains the flood control policy, strategy, target flood magnitude and main works, etc. by river system. It is necessary to conduct wide range survey, investigation and analysis to formulate the flood control master plan. Since the implementation of each flood control project may affect other areas of the river basin, a long-term time frame for each of the projects identified in the Master Plan must be formulated to obtain optimum benefits of the projects. There is no need to prepare master plan for small projects as long as the appropriate design discharge for utilization in the Project Implementation Plan (see Section ) is determined. Master Plan shall include the following: 1. Project area: The project area shall describe, among others the natural condition, topography and/or its historical background. 2. Strategy of flood control/main objective: This takes into consideration which appropriate improvement has to be undertaken (i.e., widening the river, excavating the river mouth, embankment, etc). The structures shall decided based on an overall perspective of the desired flood management for the whole river basin. 3. Basin-wide rainfall-runoff model: A simulation model for the estimation of the probable flood discharge at all the control points is necessary to be developed. 4. Diagram of design discharge: It is necessary to make a diagram at the control points to determine the critical areas which are affected by high water stages to plan the necessary improvements. 5. Main works: What are the main works to be undertaken (i.e., dike, dredging, etc.). 7

9 6. Typical cross section of the river. 7. Typical structure design (i.e., embankment/revetment, etc.). 8. Location map of main works Project Implementation Plan The Flood Control Project Implementation Plan specifies the works selected from the Master Plan to be implemented considering the funds needed in the project implementation and benefits to be derived from the project. Implementation period of this plan is usually 5 to 10 years. Economic analysis shall be conducted to determine the scope of the Project Implementation Plan (Calculation of Economic Internal Rate of Return (EIRR) is explained in Section 4.3) Flood Control Project Implementation Plan shall include the following: 1. Channel plan (1:1,000 1:10,000) 2. Cross section (Existing/Design) 3. Longitudinal profile (Existing/Design) 4. Structural design drawings 5. Cost estimates 6. Benefit estimation 7. Environment/Social Impact 8. Project Evaluation 8

10 CHAPTER 2 SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION 2.1 NECESSITY OF SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION The primary purpose of survey and investigation is to provide the basic data and information necessary for the subsequent flood control planning and design of river training structures and bank protection works. Data collection, analysis and utilization are basically important in making plan/design more appropriate. It is noted that the appropriateness of a particular plan/design rely much on the veracity and/or authenticity of available basic data and information. 2.2 MASTER PLAN Topographic Information To understand the general profile of a river system, catchment area and flood prone area, the following maps are required: 1. Topographic map with a scale of 1:50,000 or better 2. Land use map 3. Geological map 4. Other available map from the related Local Government Units In the absence of the appropriate maps for planning, aerial photography and topographic surveys should be undertaken. From the maps mentioned above, the following activities shall be conducted: 1. Delineate catchment area. (Refer to Section 3.4.1) 2. Classify the geological/geographical features of each subcatchment area. 3. Classify the existing vegetation by each sub-catchment area. 9

11 4. Identify the flood prone sites roughly. (Exact area should be identified and determined from the field investigation and water level analysis) 5. Identify the cities and municipalities in the flood prone area. 6. Identify the important public facilities such as national road, provincial road, city hall, church and school, etc. within the flood prone area. 7. Classify the land use in flood prone area, such as commercial area, residential area, industrial area, agricultural area, etc. 8. Identify the changes in the river course and longitudinal profile General Information Collect all information regarding land use, population, economic activities, future development plans, etc. within the catchment area and flood prone area. 1. Population by city / municipality 2. Increasing ratios of population by city 3. Statistics of commercial activities per year by region and city 4. Statistics of industrial product per year by region and city 5. Statistics of agricultural products per year by region and city 6. Long term and medium term development plan by region, city and municipality Hydrological Data Collect the following hydrologic data of the river basin: 1. Daily rainfall data of all gauging stations within and around the catchment area throughout the recording period from PAGASA and other related agencies. 2. Hourly rainfall data of all gauging stations within and around the catchment area during the duration of the flood. 3. Hyetographs of past typical floods on all synoptic rainfall gauging stations from PAGASA and other related agencies. 10

12 4. Data on the maximum water levels during peak floods at all water level gauging station from BRS and by interview. (For rainfall and runoff analysis). 5. Discharge measurement record for all water level gauging stations. 6. H-Q (Height-Discharge relationship) rating curve for all water level gauging stations (with location, cross-section and flow velocity during flooding time) Field Survey and Investigation Conduct field survey as follows: 1. River cross sections at typical sites. - Every 500 m to 1,000 m intervals along the stretches of river proposed for improvement (Depends on the size of the river). 2. Longitudinal profile. - Rough profile of the river to be taken from topographic map -Longitudinal profile taken from cross section survey 3. Identification of the riverbed material. -By segment features of the river Conduct field investigation and interviews to get the following information. 1. The information/records of past floods. (Frequency, area, depth, duration of flooding) 2. Conditions of the existing river facilities. 3. History of flood control activities in the basin. 11

13 2.3 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Topographic Survey Considerations: 1. Map with a scale of 1:500 to 1:10,000 (Depends on the size of the river) 2. All the river improvement stretch should be covered. 3. The width of survey area shall be extended at least 50m beyond both banks (The extension is necessary to determine the ground elevation of the main flood prone area.) Cross Section Survey Considerations: 1. Section with a horizontal scale of 1:500 to 1:2,000 (Depends on the size of the river) 2. Section with a vertical scale of 1:100 to 1:500 (Depends on the topographic condition) 3. Interval of cross section survey ranges from 100 m to 1,000 m. 4. The width of survey area shall be extended at least 20m beyond both banks (This shall be widen when it is necessary to know the ground elevation of main flood prone area.) 5. Interval of measurement ranges from 2m to 5m on narrow rivers and 5m to 20m on wide rivers. 12

14 20 m Overflow Level at Left 20 m (min.) (min.) Overflow Level at Right Deepest Riverbed Cross - section Survey Limit Ordinary Water Level (rainy season) Average Riverbed Figure Cross section Survey (Project Implementation Plan) Other considerations: 1. The overflow level of both banks should be identified and indicated on cross section profile. 2. The water level during the time of the survey (if any), should be indicated in the survey. 3. The ordinary water level during the rainy season should be indicated. (This water level should be identified based on the interview in the absence of installed water elevation staff gauges.) 4. The deepest riverbed should be identified and indicated. 5. The average riverbed should be identified and indicated. 6. The information of land use behind the bank should be noted. 7. All elevations shall be reckoned from an established benchmark Longitudinal Profile Survey The average riverbed profile/gradient shall be utilized in plotting the longitudinal profile, wherein the gradient obtained shall be the one used in Chapter 3: Hydrologic Analysis. The stationing of cross section measurements shall be indicated in the longitudinal profile. In case, that there is an existing structure in the river (e.g.; bridge foundation/pier, groundsill, etc.), it should be indicated/superimposed in the profile. 13

15 STA STA STA STA STA STA STA STA STA STA STA STA Overflow Level at Left Bank Overflow Level at Right Bank Existing Bridge Deepest Riverbed Average Riverbed Bridge Foundation Figure Longitudinal Profile Survey 2.4 STRUCTURE DESIGN Topographic Survey Considerations: 1. Map with a scale of 1:100 to 1:10,000 (Depends on the size of the river) 2. All structure design area should be covered. 3. The width of survey area shall be extended at least 20m beyond both banks (This shall be increased when it is necessary to determine the ground elevation of main flood prone area.) Cross Section Survey Considerations: 1. Section with a horizontal scale of 1:500 to 1:2,000 (Depends on the size of the river). 2. Section with a vertical scale of 1:100 to 1:500 (depends on the topographic conditions). 14

16 3. Interval of cross sections shall be 100 m for straight and uniform river reaches, 50 m at minor river bends and 10 to 20 m at sharp bends. 4. The width of survey area is at least 20m beyond both banks. - Sufficient space should be surveyed for planned structure. (The relationship between the planned structure and the ground level behind the structure should be indicated.) 5. Interval of measurement ranges from 2m to 5m on narrow rivers and 5m to 20m on wide rivers. 6. When the structure is intended to be constructed on one side of the river, cross section survey shall be conducted at only one side. In this case, the deepest riverbed should be included in survey area. If the river width is not so wide, then the survey should be conducted including both banks. Design Water Level Overflow Level on Right Bank Planned Structures Deepest Riverbed Figure Cross section Survey (Structure Design) 15

17 2.4.3 Material Survey The type of materials of riverbank and water area shall be surveyed and indicated in the topographic map and cross section profiles in order to: - Determine the riverbed characteristics (Manning s n ) - Determine the quality of riverbed materials (if suitable for construction use). - Determine the relationship of the diameter of riverbed materials, riverbed gradient, etc. with the velocity of flow. - Classify the river segment based on the river morphology. 16

18 CHAPTER 3 HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS 3.1 PROCEDURE IN THE DETERMINATION OF THE DESIGN DISCHARGE Design discharge is an important input in deciding the appropriate types of countermeasures to be adopted in a river improvement plan and for the structural design of such countermeasures. Figure 3.1a illustrates the procedure in determining the design discharge. Figure 3.1b illustrates an example of diagram of discharges Survey and Investigation (Discussed in CHAPTER 2) Rainfall Analysis Runoff Analysis Calculated Discharges on each Control/Sub-control Points (On several return periods) COMPARE Existing Discharge Capacity of Each Control Point Design Discharge (Discussed in CHAPTER 4) Figure 3.1a Flow diagram in determining Design Discharge 17

19 Main Control Sub-Control Point Point 3 1 <6000> <4500> <3000> (4000) (3000) (1800) 2 Sub - Control Point <Q> = Long-term target discharge Q = Design discharge (Q) = Existing discharge capacity Figure 3.1b Diagram of Discharges (Example) Notes: 1. Calculated discharge is the discharge for a particular return period. 2. Long-term target discharge is determined based on the degree of importance of the river (e.g.; major city is located near the river, or only paddy fields, less important areas, etc.) and defined by its return period. 3. Design discharge is the improved river capacity (target level capacity) 4. It is noted that if the design discharge Q has to be adopted, all the control points has a shortage of capacity, thereby requiring any of the following countermeasures or a combination thereof; Dam Retarding basin Embankment Widening Etc. 18

20 Based on the above parameters, it is necessary to make a rough estimation of cost based on an attainable budget appropriation. If the estimated cost is not economically viable, then the design discharge is reduced in order to meet the project economic viability. 3.2 POINT OF VIEW ON RUNOFF ANALYSIS In planning a river for improvement, it is necessary to set the design discharge (targeted volume of flood flow). Basically, if the design discharge is not determined, it is difficult to determine the required width of the river, height of dike, volume of dredging, depth and length of revetment, etc. Ideally, calculated discharges are obtained based on runoff analysis using available rainfall data. But, in cases where there are sufficient past annual maximum flood data on the project site, it will be more convenient to analyze these flood data compared with rainfall data. For example, there are available annual maximum flood discharge data in a 30-year period, the largest among these data is approximately the flood discharge for a 30-year to 60-year return period. In cases where there are already project studies of the area/site, a review is needed to determine the applicability of data in the study, particularly the design discharge and other relevant data. In actual situation, however, it is almost impossible to determine the flood discharge data at each project site in a considerable number of years, say 30 years, even if there were water level gauging stations because, if the flood discharge is greater than the existing river capacity, flood water will overflow and therefore it is very hard to establish the cross section (wetted perimeter) needed for calculating the flood discharge. In other words, it is very difficult to estimate the flood discharge based from the water level data. 19

21 3.3 ESTABLISHMENT OF CONTROL/SUB-CONTROL POINTS Control points are locations where design discharges are set/fixed and are usually strategically placed at locations where it is easy to collect the data (e.g., observer s house is near, place is easily accessible, etc.) and importance of the adjacent area. Establishment of control points is done to provide sufficient hydraulic data as base points for hydraulic and hydrologic analyses. In cases where the catchment area is larger than 100 km 2, it is advisable to set-up sub-control points in the main stream and its tributaries. When there are no water level gauges present/installed at the control point, a gauge must be placed in order to verify the output of the runoff model to be discussed in Section RAINFALL ANALYSIS Rainfall data will be the basis of determining the return-period of flood, as these are the only readily available data compared with discharge. For catchment areas below 20 km 2, a Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency Curve (see reference A-1) shall be utilized in calculating the discharge using the Rational Formula Method. In cases where there are no available rainfall data, the RIDF Curve may be utilized in calculating the discharge for catchment areas up to 100 km 2 using the Rational Formula. For catchment areas greater than 20 km 2, the following procedure shall be followed: 1. Delineation of catchment area 2. Calculate average rainfall in catchment area 20

22 3. Calculate annual maximum average rainfall (2-day, 3-day, etc.) 4. Calculate average rainfall by selected return periods 5. Collect typical rainfall patterns (hyetographs) of past major floods and establish typical rainfall accumulation mass curve for each duration. 6. Generate hyetograph for each duration and return period. Note : Items 5 and 6 are utilized in the Storage Function Method in determining runoff Delineation of Catchment Area Using the latest edition of topographic map with a scale of 1:50,000 prepared by the National Mapping and Resource Information Administration (NAMRIA), calculate the catchment area by the use of a planimeter or by triangulation method Average Rainfall in Catchment Area There are three (3) methods of determining the average rainfall in catchment area presented in this Volume i.e.: a) Arithmetic-Mean Method, b) Thiessen Method and c) Isohyetal Method. a) Arithmetic-Mean Method This is the simplest method in determining areal average rainfall. It involves averaging the rainfall depths recorded at a number of gages. This method is satisfactory if the precipitation is almost uniformly distributed within the catchment area. 21

23 P1 P2 Station P2 Observed rainfall within the catchment area (mm) 30.0 P P3 P4 P Average Rainfall = / 3 = 40.0 mm Figure 3.4.2a Arithmetic-Mean Method (Example) b) Thiessen Method This method assumes that at any point in the catchment area, the rainfall is the same as that of the nearest rainfall gage so, the value recorded at a given rainfall gage can be applied to a distance halfway to the next station in any direction. The relative weights for each gage are determined from the corresponding areas of application in a Thiessen polygon network, the boundaries of the polygons being formed by the perpendicular bisectors of the lines joining adjacent gages P 2 90 P P 4 0 P 3 Station Observed Rainfall (mm) Weighted Area 2 (km ) Rainfall (mm) P P 2 P P Total Average Rainfall = / 21.0 = 40.0 mm Figure 3.4.2b Thiessen Method (Example) 22

24

25 Subdivision of catchment areas shall be done considering the following: 1. It should be done or reflected on a NAMRIA Map with scale of 1:50, Inland flood area must be separately measured to reflect the flood retarding effect to the downstream for development of flood run-off model. 3. If a dam is planned, delineation of catchment of the proposed site must be done Annual Maximum Average Rainfall (2-day, 3-day, etc.) In order to determine the annual maximum average rainfall (2-day, 3- day, etc.), rainfall data records at PAGASA or other government/nongovernment institutions and private firms where such data is available, shall be collected. Preferably, the data should be for a period of fifteen (15) years or more. Design rainfall duration should be determined based on the observed lag-time between the peak rainfall and peak flood. If the lag-time is within one (1) day, hourly rainfall distribution should be developed based on annual maximum one (1) day rainfall. If lag-time is more than four (4) days, design rainfall duration should be more than four (4) days. Lag-time between peak rainfall and peak flood reflects the basin capacity for floodwater storage. Year Dates of Occurrence Maximum Annual 2-day Rainfall Amount (mm) 1985 September 2 & August 14 & October 4 & September 16& Figure Table of Maximum Annual 2-day Rainfall Amount (Example) 24

26 As shown in the Figure 3.4.3, 510 mm is the maximum annual 2-day rainfall amount recorded during the 15 year period. The 510 mm amount of rainfall for 2 days is therefore for a 15-year return period. For the next higher maximum annual value, it is for a 14-year return period and so on Average Rainfall by Return Period As explained in Section 3.2, return-period of rainfall depends on the available amount of data for a period of years. Rough estimation of hydrological quantities, such as average rainfall by return period may be done using probability paper. First, data of available annual maximum rainfall (2-day, 3-day, etc.) is gathered and arranged from the highest to the lowest value, with the highest value having an order of 1 (n = 1) and 2 (n = 2) for the next highest value, and so on, up to the number of data. The data are then plotted using a probability paper with plotting positions determined/calculated using the Weibull or Hazen plots. But since the amount obtained using the Weibull plot is higher than that of the Hazen plot in the upper range of the distribution, it is deemed better to estimate the design rainfall using the Weibull plot Probability of nonexceedence, (F %) (Rejected data) Probability of nonexceedence, (F%) N = 50 (Weibull Plot) Rainfall depth (mm) 1000 Figure Plot of Average Rainfall (Example) 25

27 Weibull Plot: F(x n ) = n (N+1) where : F(x n ) : probability of non-exceedance N : number of data n : order from the highest value (1, 2, 3. N) x n : rainfall of order n In order to determine the amount of rainfall for a higher return period than the available years of data, it is necessary to plot a particular number of available annual maximum rainfall data which is at least one-half the target return period (e.g., to get the design rainfall for a 100yr. return period, there should be at least available annual maximum rainfall data for 50 years). To approximate the value of the return-period, a line is manually drawn based on the plotted points and extended to the upper range of the distribution, as shown in Figure Thus, a relationship between the probability of non-exceedance/return period and the approximate design rainfall could be established Typical Rainfall Patterns of Past Major Floods Considering the wide variety of rainfall patterns causing flood, rainfall patterns (hyetograph) of past major floods should be extracted for reference in simulating the average rainfall selected in Section

28 July 30 July 31 (1985) Annual Maximum 2 - Day Rainfall amount = 510 mm (Sample from Section 3.4.3) Aug. 3 Aug. 4 (1989) 2 - Day Rainfall amount = 350 mm (RAINFALL PATTERN NO.1) Figure Rainfall Pattern of Past Major Floods (Example) 27

29 3.4.6 Modification of Typical Rainfall Patterns Based on Return Period Modify the typical rainfall patterns selected in Section by proportionally increasing the rainfall amount to that selected in Section About 3 to 5 cases may suffice to arrive at the most critical rainfall pattern to be used as input for the Storage Function Method. For example, Rainfall Pattern No. 1 (2-day rainfall amount of 350 mm) is modified by multiplying each hourly rainfall by the ratio of the average rainfall selected in Section (510 mm) and that of Rainfall Pattern No. 1, i.e., hourly rainfall of Rainfall Pattern No. 1 multiplied by the ratio 510 mm/ 350 mm (see Figure 3-6). Aug. 3 Aug. 4 (1989) Modified Rainfall Pattern No.1= 510 mm Hourly Data No. 1 X 510/350 Figure Modified Rainfall Pattern (Example) 3.5 RUNOFF ANALYSIS Runoff analysis is important in managing rivers effectively thru appropriate planning of flood control facilities/structures and discharge control, particularly the construction of dams and retarding basins. 28

30 This analysis aims to establish the relationship of the amount of rainfall with the discharge in rivers. Presently, there are many methods for runoff analysis already developed/being developed. Methods of runoff analysis introduced in this Volume are the following: 1. Rational Formula 2. Unit Hydrograph Method 3. Storage Function Method Rational Formula The Rational Formula Method is a convenient method for estimating the peak discharge of flood. It is widely utilized in rivers for which there is no need to consider the storage phenomena. This method considers the shape of catchment as rectangle which is symmetrical about the river course and considers that rainwater flows down the slope of the catchment at a constant speed towards the river course. Maximum flood discharge is given by the following rational formula: Q p = cia 3.6 where: Where, Q p = maximum flood discharge (m 3 /s) c = dimensionless runoff coefficient i = rainfall intensity within the time of flood concentration ( mm / h ) A = catchment area (km 2 ) The Rational Formula Method is applicable to a catchment area smaller than 20 km 2. 29

31 CHARACTERISTICS Lawn, gardens meadows and cultivated lands Parks, open spaces including unpaved surfaces and vacant lots Suburban districts with few building Residential districts not densely built Residential districts densely built For watershed having steep gullies and not heavily timbered For watershed having moderate slope, cultivated and heavily timbered For suburban areas For agricultural areas COEFFICIENT OF RUNOFF Source: Design Guidelines Criteria and Standards, Volume I, MPWH, 1987 CHARACTERISTICS Dense urban area General urban area Farm land and field Paddy field Mountainous land COEFFICIENT OF RUNOFF Source: Manual for River Works in Japan, Planning, River Bureau, Ministry of Construction Table Coefficients of Runoff 30

32 3.5.2 Unit Hydrograph Method The Unit Hydrograph Method uses the following assumptions: a. Duration of direct runoff is in direct proportion to the intensity of rainfalls with equal duration is constant, irrespective of the intensity of that rainfall. In other words, the base length is constant. b. Volume of direct runoff is in direct proportion to the intensity of rainfall. c. Volume of runoff is to be determined by adding together the run-off components of each rainfall. Main point of this method is that the discharge curve at a certain point of a river by the unit effective rainfall which had fallen in a unit time has always the same form. The discharge curve obtained at that time is called the Unit Hydrograph Storage Function Method The Storage Function Method represents the relation between storage and runoff in a river basin or river channel through the use of a storage function. This method assumes that there is a unique functional relation between the volume of storage and runoff. The relationship between storage and runoff/discharge based on this method is expressed with the following equation of motion: S = k x Q p where: S = Storage Q = Runoff/Discharge k, p = Constants 31

33 Runoff calculations are performed using the above equation in combination with the following equation of continuity: ds1 = 1 x f x r ave x A - Q l (t) dt 3.6 where: f = inflow coefficient r ave = average rainfall in basin (mm/hr) A = area of basin (km 2 ) Q l (t) = Q(t + T l ) = volume of runoff considering lag time (T l ) and excluding baseflow (m 3 /s) S = apparent volume of storage in basin (m 3 /s) T l = lag time (hr) 3.6 EXISTING DISCHARGE CAPACITY There are two methods in calculating the existing discharge capacity according to the types of flow and river condition. a. Uniform Flow Calculation b. Non-uniform Flow Calculation Uniform Flow Calculation Uniform flow calculation is applicable for rivers with the following conditions: a. When there are no points of abrupt change of riverbed gradients. b. When there are no structures/obstruction that impede the flow discharge. c. When the cross sectional area of the river is almost the same longitudinally. d. When there is relatively long straight river reach. 32

34 There are many velocity formulae, but generally, Manning s Equation, as the average velocity formula, is the most appropriate because it suites the characteristics of rivers (velocity, roughness coefficient, hydraulic mean depth) which is easy to use and convenient as a calculation formula. Manning s Equation V = 1 x R 2/3 x S ½ (m/s) n or Q c = 1 x A x R 2/3 x S ½ (m 3 /s) n where: where: Q c = Existing discharge capacity (m 3 /s) V = Average river velocity (m/s) A = Average river cross-sectional area (m 2 ) R = Hydraulic radius (m) = Average river cross-sectional area (m 2 ) wetted perimeter (m) S = Riverbed gradient n = Manning s coefficient of roughness Manning s coefficient of roughness (n) shall be determined with emphasis on the analysis of experienced floods: Provided that, when the data of experienced floods are few or when the data are not so accurate. Table shows the recommended values of n. General waterway: Rapid river of wide and shallow river: Temporary waterway excavated without timbering: Three-sided lined channel: River tunnel: Table Manning s Coefficient of Roughness Non-uniform Flow Calculation When analyzing the current with the discharge changing with time, the unsteady flow calculations are used, but other currents are mostly considered to be non-uniform flow. 33

35 For making non-uniform flow calculations, it is required to investigate the characteristics of river sections. In addition, it is required to check the location of water level controlling facilities such as weirs and groundsills and also to know whether a control section may occur at points where the riverbed gradient or section changes suddenly. The boundary condition for non-uniform flow calculations is the water level at the downstream end (sea level at river mouth, water level from the rating curve, water level of control section, etc.) for subcritical flow and the water level at upstream section for supercritical flow. For numerically calculating the water level of sub critical flow by nonuniform flow calculations, the following formulae of standard successive calculations should be used for single cross sections: Energy equation: he = { H 2 + 1/2g (Q 2 /A 2 ) 2 }- { H 1 + 1/2g (Q 1 /A 1 ) 2 } Energy loss: he = 1 ( n 2 1 Q 2 1 /(A 2 1 R 4/3 1 ) + 2 n 2 2 Q 2 2 /(A 2 2 R 2 4/3 )) x where, the subscript 1 is for the known hydraulic quantity of downstream sections, subscript 2 is for the unknown hydraulic quantity at upstream section, and Q 2 and n 2 are known. Various methods of numerical solutions are available for non-uniform flow, but the standard successive calculating method can be the most easily used when the sections change as in the case of rivers. The above formulae can also be applied when the discharge varies between sections. Today numerical calculations of non-uniform flow can be performed using computer softwares. 34

36 CHAPTER 4 FLOOD CONTROL PLANNING 4.1 DETERMINATION OF DESIGN DISCHARGE Ideal Determination Procedure The ideal procedure in determining the design discharge is as follows: 1. Determine the safety level (Flood frequency). 2. Calculate the discharges corresponding to the flood frequency level. The output of this calculation is the target flood discharge of flood control. This target hydrograph is called Design Hydrograph and the peak of Design Hydrograph is called Design Discharge. This is defined as the Long Term Target Discharge in this sub-section. 3. Calculate the existing river flow capacities. 4. Discuss the alternative plans of discharge allotment The Long Term Target Discharge = (Increased river flow capacity) + (Peak cut off by dam and/or retarding basin). If the river flow capacity can be increased, the number of dam and/or its storage capacity can be reduced. 5. Estimate the rough cost of each alternative plan. 6. Determine the most appropriate plan Actual Determination Procedure The procedure mentioned in is for the formulation of a longterm flood control plan. It is very difficult and time consuming to construct so many dams for flood control purposes. So it should be considered to increase the river flow capacity as much as possible at first and what frequency of its capacity can be secured should be understood. If the improved river s capacity is still inadequate, it 35

37 means that the possibility of over flow is high, so, structures have to be designed based on over flow frequencies in that case. The target discharge of river flow capacity of improved river is defined as the Design Discharge. Ideal situation requires that the design discharge have to be planned and the amount of shortage from the Long Term Target Discharge have to be allocated to the peak cut of dams/retarding basin/flood diversion channel. Although the discharges corresponding to several frequency levels can be calculated and the Long Term Target Discharge is determined, it is unnecessary to plan the actual peak cut plan. Initially, the design discharge should be assessed considering the existing discharge capacity of each river, since the frequency levels of target flood for each river are different. The procedure of determination of design discharge is as follows: 1. Calculate the discharges corresponding to several flood frequency levels. 2. Calculate the existing river flow capacities on several control points, as explained in Section 3.6, Existing River Flow Capacity. 3. Investigate the flood damages caused by past major floods and develop the relationship between flood discharge and flood damage. 4. Discuss the possibilities of river improvement. 5. Determine the preliminary river improvement plan. 6. Evaluate the cost to be incurred in the preliminary river improvement plan. If the preliminary river improvement planning is not realistic, back again to Determine the most appropriate plan. 36

38 Existing River Improvement Case Capacity (By Widening) Dam Cut Long Term Target (m 3 /s) (m 3 /s) (m 3 /s) Discharge (m 3 /s) I 2, ,000 5,000 II 2,000 1,500 1,500 5,000 III 2,000 2,000 1,000 5,000 IV 2,000 3, ,000 Figure 4.1.2a Long Term Target Discharge (Example) 2, , , ,000 4 Legend : 1 = 2,000 2 = 3,500 3 = 4,000 4 = 5,000 3 m / s 3 m / s 3 m / s m 3/ s Figure 4.1.2b Improved River Capacity by Widening (Example) 37

39 COST I II III IV Figure 4.1.2c Comparative Cost Analysis of Improvement Legend: Improvement by Dam Improvement by Widening Case I = Improvement by Widening only Cases II & III = Improvement thru a combination of Widening and Dam Case IV = Improvement by Dam only Compare which case is efficient, effective and economically viable. Adopt an alternative that satisfies the 3E s Determination of Design Hydrograph In case of calculation of discharge by Storage Function Method, the target typical rainfall pattern should be selected Section 3.4.5, Typical Rainfall Patterns of Past Major Floods. The several cases of discharge shall be calculated for above typical rainfall patterns. Even if the input of rainfall on calculation is same, but the rainfall pattern is different, the peak discharge will also differ. If the flood control plan should be discussed on most safety level, the biggest output of calculation should be automatically the design discharge. The design hydrograph should be carefully selected from the above-calculated 38

40 discharges since the maximum output may be sometimes extraordinary Calculated Discharges by Design Flood Frequencies In the design hydrograph is determined. As a preparation in determining the design discharge, several discharges must be calculated for comparison with the existing discharge capacity. The discharge shall be calculated at each control point and tributaries based on several return periods. (Refer to Section Typical Rainfall Patterns of Past Major Flood) Upon the determination of the run off model in Section 3.5 Runoff Analysis, the calculation shall be automatically done by inputting several rainfalls on each return period. Control Return Period Points 1/1 1/5 1/10 1/20 1/30 1/50 1/70 C.P.-1 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,300 5,500 5,800 6,000 C.P-2 3,600 4,100 4,600 4,900 5,100 5,400 5,600 Tributary-A C.P-3 3,300 3,750 4,200 4,500 4,600 4,900 5,050 Tributary-B ,100 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,500 C.P.-4 2,800 3,100 3,400 3,600 3,700 3,900 4,000 Figure Calculated Discharges (Example) Discharge of Tributaries The results of the discharge calculations for tributaries differ for each rainfall patterns. It should be noted that rainfall is sometimes unevenly distributed. It is therefore necessary to consider the most reasonable design discharge based on the output of calculation. 39

41 However, in the absence of gauging stations, i.e., one station only is available, the same output may be used for calculating the design discharge. On the other hand, if the flood prone area affected by the tributary is very important, an individual tributary calculation should be made. The safety level of tributary is usually smaller than the main river because the catchment area of the tributary is smaller than that of the main river. The design discharge of tributary is determined in comparison to several outputs of all basin wide run off analysis and the individual calculation of tributary run off analysis Relation Between the Discharges of Main Rivers and Tributaries Peak discharge of the main river and its tributary usually do not occur at the same time. In other words, the peak discharge of tributary and the main river occur at different times. 4,000 Discharge Time 3, ,000 3,500 Figure Relation Between the Discharges of Main River and Tributaries (Example) 40

42 4.1.7 Preliminary River Improvement Plan Identify the most important flood prone area, then, verify/confirm the existing flow capacity (discharge). The preliminary flood frequency level shall be determined and the river improvement plan should be discussed based on Chapter 5 River Improvement Planning. Therefore, the most important thing is to consider whether it is possible to realize the project, (e.g., land acquisition for new river width). Important points to be considered in the plan are the following: 1. Purpose of river improvement. 2. Degree of importance of the area to be protected. 3. Location of the area to be protected. So the real flood frequency and past flood damage have to be investigated. The preliminary river alignment shall be determined, which is the alignment of new banks (dikes) and preliminary design flood level shall also be determined. Basically, flood frequency of improved river should be the same level in all river system, but the flood prone area is sometimes divided and it is sometimes unnecessary to improve small flood prone areas. In special cases, only the flood frequency level on the important flood prone area should be fixed at higher (safer) frequency level Evaluation of the Preliminary River Improvement Plan For the preliminary river improvement plan, the cost-benefit analysis shall be conducted. At this time, the cost of project is estimated very roughly using the unit price of land acquisition, embankment and revetment, etc. If the subject river is very long and wide, the plan may be divided to several phases. (The method of cost-benefit analysis is mentioned in Section 4.3, Economic Analysis ). 41

43 4.1.9 Design Discharge The design discharges shall be decided based on the results of evaluation of the preliminary improvement plan. If the width of river and/or the height of dike should be changed, all the plans for the river system should be reconsidered based on the effect on both upstream and downstream reaches. Finally, the design discharges on several control points, river alignment (bank alignment), longitudinal plan (design water level), cross-sectional plan, main structure shall be determined. 4.2 ASSESSMENT OF DESIGN DISCHARGE BY SPECIFIC DISCHARGE CHART The Specific Discharge Chart explains the relationship between the flood peak discharge per unit catchment area (m 3 /s/km 2 ), otherwise called as the unit discharge (ordinate), and size of catchment (abscissa). Based on this chart, the reliability of the determined design discharge can be easily assessed by comparing it with other design discharges. Using this Chart, design discharge is roughly determined without any runoff analysis. This chart is used to assess the peak discharge in a relatively same size of catchment area. For example, the existing flow capacity was calculated, when it is intended to know the degree of capacity, this chart provides the range of unit discharge of other rivers and make it easy to know the level relatively. This method is based on the concept that the flood peak discharge per unit catchment area for small rivers is comparatively larger than that of the bigger rivers. 42

44 The reason for such concept is that the effective rainfall per unit catchment area on a small river is larger compared to a large river where the rainfall intensity is not uniformly distributed and/or occurs simultaneously throughout the entire river basin. Also, the critical rainfall duration of target flood is different corresponding to the river size (catchment area). Generally the critical rainfall duration for small rivers is shorter compared with the one for large rivers. It means that the rainfall per unit time that generates flood for small rivers is larger than the one of large rivers. In using this method, the existing flow capacity (determined thru the uniform or non-uniform flow analysis) per unit catchment area is plotted on the Specific Discharge Chart to compare with the plotted specific discharge on the same catchment area in order to determine the needed improvements on the subject river (Note: If flood control dam or retarding basin is existing in the upstream, the Unit Discharge of design discharge is indicated smaller. In this case, it is inappropriate to compare it with other rivers). In addition to the above explanation, the percentage of urbanized area within the catchment area is also an important factor in assessing the flood peak discharge per unit catchment area. In case there are two (2) catchment areas with the same size, the one with the higher percentage of urbanized area will most likely have a higher flood peak discharge than the other. 43

45 4.3 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS The projects under the DPWH area of responsibility shall be subjected to economic evaluation to determine their viability and justify their implementation and inclusion under the DPWH Infrastructure Program. The proposed projects shall pass the following criteria to be judged if it is economically feasible: a) The Net Present Value NPV should be at least nil; b) The Benefit-Cost Ratio B/C should be at least one; c) The Internal Rate of Return IRR should be at least 15% The NPV, B/C, IRR are economic indicators estimated by comparing the present value of benefits against the present value of project economic cost discounted at 15% discount factor within the economic life span of the project. NPV = (Present Value of Benefits)-(Present Value of Cost) B/C = (Present Value of Benefits)/(Present Value of Cost) IRR = Discount Rate that will make the Present Value of Benefits equal to Present Value of Cost Evaluation of Flood Control Projects Flood control projects for wide range area with increasing target flood frequency level are evaluated by estimating the reduction in damages brought about by the project as benefits and comparing it against the economic cost including maintenance cost of the project considering the implementation period and economic life of the project. 44

46 Small-scale flood control projects, especially projects for preventing bank collapse (erosion and scouring) and harmful degradation of riverbed are fundamental flood protection works. In this case, Economic Analysis is not necessary. a. Project Benefits Project benefits are estimated as the reduction of damages that will result with the construction of flood control facilities. There are two classifications of damages that can be considered for flood control projects: 1. Flooding Damages Flooding damages consist of direct and indirect damages. - Direct damages within the flood prone area are estimated from damageable value of properties multiplied by damage ratio depending on the flooding condition. Damageable value of properties can be estimated as the unit assed value of properties by land classification (i.e. residential, commercial, agricultural) multiplied by the corresponding area, damage to infrastructure can be assumed as 50% of the damage to residential or commercial area. - Indirect damages including income loss and emergency costs due to flooding can be estimated as 5 to 50% of the total direct cost, which depends on the condition of flood prone area. 45

47 AFD = ( (RA x AVRA + CIA x AVCIA) x AA x AVAA) x 1.05 Where: AFD : Annual Flood Damages RA : Residential Area CIA : Commercial/Industrial Area AA : Agricultural Area AVRA : Assessed Value of damageable property within RA AVCIA : Assessed Value of damageable property within CIA AVAA : Assessed Value of damageable property within AA Reduction on flooding damages is estimated as a certain percentage of annual flooding damages depending on the design period of facilities. Benefit = AFD x (% of reduction of flooding due to the project) Among the facilities that can be considered under this category are flood control dam, dike/levee/embankment, retarding basin, cut-off/diversion channel, deepening/widening/dredging works. 2. Bank Erosion Damages There are two types of bank erosion damages: a) due to continuous bank erosion and b) due to river course change. - Continuous bank erosion damages are assumed to be the assessed value of damageable area based on the bank erosion rate. - Damages to river course change are assumed to be the assessed value of properties within the areas enclosed by the existing and possible river course. 46

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