1 Assessment of hydropower resources Oliver Froend
2 Assessment of hydropower resources Relevance of surveys, data assessment and analyses to the success of the project. Required data and field survey. Key element: hydrological data. Data gathering, analyses, relevance for project.
3 Why? Mitigating project risks through sound assessment and analysis. Key Challenge: (Small) hydro power development involves a number ofrisks which deter developers and investors. Hydrological Risk Construction Risk Risk of Design Flaws Social and Environmental Risks Political Risks Detailed site assessment, appropriate analysis and project preparation leads to a vast mitigation of these risks. Most risks can be identified and their potential impact can be quantified in risk and sensitivity analyses.
4 When? Right timing reduces the risk of needless cost and conflict. Site Surveying and Data Collection should be conducted, if an Initial Technical Project Assessment ( Desk Study ) comes to the conclusion that a site is potentially attractive. should only be conducted, if there is arealistic chance that a potential project can be funded and implemented (Particularly for rural electrification projects: Avoid raising expectations among local population that can not possibly be fulfilled later!) should be conducted during times with potentially lowest stream flows
5 Assessment of hydropower resources Relevance of surveys, data assessment and analyses to the success of the project. Required data and field survey. Key element: hydrological data. Data gathering, analyses, relevance for project.
6 During site investigations data is collected which is very critical for successful technical and financial planning Hydrological Analysis Topographical Mapping flow duration ( project optimisation, design flow) flood flows (technical safety of project components) head available for power generation optimum positions and alignment for structures distances for transmission accessibility Geological Analysis stability of structures (the degree to which these investigations are conducted depends on type and dimension of structures) Social and Environmental Studies identify demand (off-grid electrification) to identify potential risks / conflicts and means for mitigation feasibility to fulfil obligations of legislation, donors and lenders Neglect in any of these assessments leads to flaws in optimisation and design, eventually reflected in the project s feasibility
7 Very critical information during project planning and optimisation are the available flow and head P el = ρ g Q d H n η Design Discharge Q d Very critical value, based on complex hydrological analysis. too high Q d : HPP oversized, expected annual generation not achieved, revenue stream smaller than required, financial viability critical too low Q d : HPP dimensioned too small, more attractive development solution possible wrong Q d : not matching peak efficiency point of installed turbine Net Head H n Very critical value, but relatively easy to determine with topographic survey. wrong H n : leads to mismatch of turbine (strong impact)
8 Very critical information during project planning and optimisation are the available flow and head P el = ρ g η Q d H n = 7 Q d H n Design Discharge Q d Very critical value, based on hydrological analysis. too high Q d : HPP oversized, expected annual generation not achieved, revenue stream smaller than required, financial viability critical too low Q d : HPP dimensioned too small, more attractive development solution possible wrong Q d : not matching peak efficiency point of installed turbine Net Head H n Very critical value, but relatively easy to determine with topographic survey. wrong H n : leads to mismatch of turbine (strong impact)
9 The HPP planning from initial assessment to detailed engineering design should follow a proven approach Project development should be conducted in a stepwise approach: 1. Desk study 2. Initial site assessment / Reconnaissance visit 3. Pre-feasibility study 4. Feasibility study 5. Detailed engineering design & Tender documents 6. Implementation (Tendering, Contracting, Construction, Testing & commissioning, Operation and Maintenance) described in more detail in session Project cycle and planning tools
10 Suitable methods for head measurement and topographic survey Site Reconnaissance Altimeter Hypsometer pre-feasibility & Feasibility Theodolite, total station Stereoscopic aerials, triangulation and control point survey only Micro Hydro Clinometer / hypsometer and compass Detailed design Additional topographic survey of specific areas, if required
11 Assessment of hydropower resources Relevance of surveys, data assessment and analyses to the success of the project. Required data and field survey. Key element: hydrological data. Data gathering, analyses, relevance for project.
13 Catchment hydrology
14 Why is a hydrological assessment indispensable? Thehydrological study is the basis for the design of the project determination of capacity to be installed (design of civil structures & electromechanical equipment) calculation of yearly energy production statement about the profitability of the plant Ultimately the economic and overall viability of the project depend on the hydrological analysis. If predicted flow is not available, less than planned electricity will be generated.
15 How to obtain runoff data? Permanent gauging station Register water level / stage in regular intervals. Options a) data logger (automatic recording) b) staff gauge (manual reading) stage [m] stage data Stage [cm] time It is absolutely required to take discharge measurements to relate water level [cm] to runoff [m³/s ]. discharge [m³/s] calculated discharge data Flow [m 3 /s] time
16 Important aspects for gauging stations easy access during low and high river levels far from confluences (avoid tailback) straight section of the river, no curves or eddies ( parallel streamlines) well-defined cross section / river bed which does not change in time (no sedimentation, no erosion) stage-discharge relation (= rating curve) must be clear and welldefined over the whole measuring range (from low to high runoff!), no lateral overflowing etc.
17 Flow measurements are required to establish the rating curve Any collected water level (stage) data is completely useless if the relationship between flow and stage is not known! The established relationship is used to transform the observed stages into the corresponding discharges.
18 A large number of different flows must be measured to establish a reliable rating curve water level discharge water level discharge erosion sedimentation lateral overflow water level water level discharge original riverbed 0.20 after erosion 0.10 after sedimentation discharge
19 The most common methods to measure stream flow are the use of a current meter and the salt dilution method Current meter (velocity-area-method) Salt dilution method (tracer method) Can be applied from small to large rivers Accurate, if measured with appropriate care Small to medium streams Using a tracer (commonly salt) to calculate the stream flow as function of the dilution over time
20 Stage measurements in combination with measuring weirs are a good option, particularly fro small streams Very accurate flow calculation as (empiric) formulas are available for common weir shapes. Only a very limited number of flow measurements are required for check results. Recommended mainly for small streams (<0.5 m3/s). Possible also in medium size streams but installation difficult.
21 Further methods to measure stream flow might be applied if their limitations are considered float method During initial site assessments only due to very limited accuracy! Measurements can be corrected with factors for different types of river beds. bucket method Accurate, but suitable for very small streams only (<20l/s).
22 Recap: Procedure to establish a flow duration curve (FDC) Continuous water level registration Rating curve Measure stage [m] time + water level [m] discharge [m³/s] Hydrograph Flow Duration Curve (FDC) calculated discharge data duration curve Results discharge [m³/s] discharge [m³/s] time time of exceedance
23 A number of methods with different pros and cons are possible Method Accuracy Time ~ Price Mobility Limitation RECOMMENDED: Current meter good 1-3 hrs > $ good * only steady streams with smooth bed Salt dilution good ½ hr > 400 $ very good good for rough mountain streams Measuring weir good dpd. site cond. OTHER METHODS: - > 0.5 m 3 /s difficult, suitable location Bucket / Drum good 1 hr 5 $ +/- only small streams Float low ** 1 hr - ++ steady streams with smooth bed * For wading set-up. Suspended measurements require additional installation and specific equipment. ** Medium, if correction of results with appropriate factors for morphology.
24 Results should be verified by correlation of flows in similar catchment areas This method provides a good option to relate to long term (decades long) flow data from gauged streams with similar catchment areas. Important! This method is not suitable as stand alone method to determine the FDC for a site!
25 Flow data available from other sources: FDCs based on monthly averages tend to provide higher flows than available for power generation
26 Specific hydrological problems in W-Africa in a Nutshell Small rivers with high gradients tend to have very low to zero flow during the dry season Large rivers with reliable flow (and possibly existing flow data) have usually very low gradients and hence low hydropower potential
27 Example: FDC for an on-grid HPP, considering residual flow Flow available for power generation for a maximum turbine capacity of ( =)1.65 m³/s (104 kw) Residual flow for aquatic life = 0.60 m 3 /s
28 Results of the hydrological analysis Average flow duration curve Residual flow Flow duration curve of the driest year Flood events and water depths for optimum design discharge for yearly energy production Economic sensitivity analysis Design of civil structures (e.g. intake, power house)
29 Thank you for your attention! Oliver Froend entec AG /
31 Technical characteristics of promising projects A hydro power site is more likely to be technically attractive the more of the following criteria are fulfilled: 1. Overall slope of the water conveyance system is 8% or more 2. Pressure head of more than 40m 3. Technical risks and degree of difficulty is low. 4. Distance from powerhouse to load centre / grid connection point is less than 1 km per 100 kw installed capacity. 5. (off-grid) Flow: firm capacity is more than demand estimate 6. (off-grid)consumer density is greater than 30 connections per 1km of transmission and distribution lines.
32 General Characteristics of Promising Projects Note: Technically attractive projects are not necessarily promising projects! Economic, financial, social, political and institutional aspects are equally important as purely technical aspects! Broad perspective required to identify promising projects
34 _backup hydrology
35 Matching Power Supply and Demand Load Predictions
36 Stand-alone Electricity Generation The objective of stand-alone schemes is to meet the peak demand of the load centre all year round. Using the flow duration curve established in the previous chapter a design flow can be determined which should be available on 365 days per year. Note: The design flow should be below the minimum flow on the flow duration curve for the following reasons: Residual flow should be maintained for ecological reasons Minimum flow might be overestimated
37 If the minimum stream flow is not sufficient to cover the demand: Storage ponds or basins can be designed to store water during periods of low power demand Non-hydropower energy sources can be used as a back-up to the hydro during the dry season such as diesel generating sets (hybrid systems) Load management can be envisaged, whereby base loads such as refrigerators, boilers or water pumps are cut out during the (evening) peak hours to make the necessary power available for other appliances such lighting, radios and TV sets
39 Main methods to calculate residual flows ( ecological flow remaining in the river during operation) 1. Methods based on hydrological or statistics values Referring to the average flow rate (MQ) (e.g. 10% of MQ) Referring to the minimum mean flow (MNQ) (e.g. 33% of MNQ) Referring to prefixed values on the Flow Duration Curve (FDC) (e.g. in Switzerland the residual flow depends on Q347) 2. Methods based on physiographic principles Catchment area with catchment-specific coefficients Constant specific residual flow (e.g. depending on geological conditions) Formulas based on velocity and water depth 3. Methods based on multi-objective planning taking into consideration ecological parameters An overview of common methods can be downloaded on the web site of ESHA: ons/reserved_flow_-methods_of_calculation.pdf
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