Walter Gerritsen, Jacob Groenendijk, Christ van Gurp KOAC NPC pavement research & consultancy, The Netherlands

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1 Monitoring of primary road network Walter Gerritsen, Jacob Groenendijk, Christ van Gurp KOAC NPC pavement research & consultancy, The Netherlands

2 The Netherlands Mainport to EU km² area 17 million inhabitants km primary road network Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 2

3 Highway Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 3

4 Dutch primary road network Functional aspects congestion (PA & monitoring at traffic speed) Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 4

5 Porous Asphalt / Dense Asphalt Concrete Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 5

6 Dutch primary road network Functional aspects congestion (PA & monitoring at traffic speed) high level of traffic safety EU-casualties per 10^6 inhabitants MT* NL SE UK* DE IE FI ES FR LU DK AT IT* CZ PT* HU BE* SLO CY* SK* RO* BU* PO EL* Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke (*=2007) EU EU27 E* LV* LT*

7 Dutch primary road network Functional aspects congestion (PA & monitoring at traffic speed) high level of traffic safety noise reducing surface layers Surface type 90% PA (mostly 1, sometimes 2 layers) Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 7

8 2-layer Porous Asphalt Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 8

9 Dutch primary road network Functional aspects congestion (PA & monitoring at traffic speed) high level traffic safety noise reducing surface layers Surface type 90% PA (mostly 1, sometimes 2 layers) representative distresses ravelling lack of wet friction Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 9

10 Changes in contracts Phase Executing Old way New way party Preparation principal bidding party Execution principal contractor Contract period principal contractor Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 10

11 Changes in contracts Phase Executing Old way New way party Preparation principal -design of pavement -design of work process bidding party -calculation of costs of materials / manpower Execution principal -guidance of process -quality check of the delivered product contractor -execution of building process Contract period principal -monitoring of surface characteristics contractor -3 year guarantee for hidden or early failures Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 11

12 Changes in contracts Phase Executing Old way New way party Preparation principal -design of pavement -design of work process -functional specifications -restrictions to work plan bidding party -calculation of costs of materials / manpower -design of pavement and -calculation of costs & risks Execution principal -guidance of process -quality check of the delivered product contractor -execution of building process Contract period principal -monitoring of surface characteristics contractor -3 year guarantee for hidden or early failures Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 12

13 Changes in contracts Phase Executing Old way New way party Preparation principal -design of pavement -design of work process -functional specifications -restrictions to work plan bidding party -calculation of costs of materials / manpower -design of pavement and -calculation of costs & risks Execution principal -guidance of process -quality check of the delivered product -check on & approval of design, execution of QAplan, work plan -check on product properties contractor -execution of building process -execution of design, QAplan, work plan -prove product properties Contract period principal -monitoring of surface characteristics contractor -3 year guarantee for hidden or early failures Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 13

14 Changes in contracts Phase Executing party Old way New way Preparation principal -design of pavement -design of work process -functional specifications -restrictions to work plan bidding party -calculation of costs of materials / manpower -design of pavement and -calculation of costs & risks Execution principal -guidance of process -quality check of the delivered product -check on & approval of design, execution of QAplan, work plan -check on product properties contractor -execution of building process -execution of design, QAplan, work plan -prove product properties Contract period principal -monitoring of surface characteristics -check on monitoring of surface characteristics contractor -3 year guarantee for hidden or early failures -responsible for maintenance for 7 up to 30 years contract -monitoring Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 14

15 Scope of presentation New way of contracting road works transfer of tasks responsibilities risks to contractor Contractor has a lack of knowledge on long term behaviour of his own products how to quantify risks? how to design a monitoring program? Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 15

16 Product properties Monitoring in the past regular task of road authorities in research programs SHRP-NL and IPG (Innovation Program on Noise) CROW Silent Road Surfaces not enough data of contractor's own products Overall knowledge gained by private monitoring companies Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 16

17 Monitoring in QA-plan Goal to prevent pavement condition to transgress contract specifications timely warning for corrective measures Smart and lean measurements based on overall 1.4 knowledge of service life shape of long term behaviour Pavement Evaluation , 0.4 Roanoke Relatieve levensduur

18 Specification Pyramid Level in Characteristic Monitoring characteristics Specification Check at Removing Periodical Check at end Pyramid time of warning check within of contract completion signs contract period period 1 Road availability 2 Surface wet skid resistance x x x Characteristic dry braking deceleration x s dry skid resistance x longitudinal evenness x x x transversal evenness x x texture (x) (x) (x) ravelling x x cracking x x cross fall (x) (x) (x) noise reduction (x) (x) (x) 3 Pavement bearing capacity x x structure layer thickness x compaction x 4 Asphalt mix fatigue x stiffness x resistance to deformation x water sensitivity x 5 Material polished stone value (PSV) x Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 18

19 Properties to be monitored Level in Characteristic Monitoring characteristics Specification Pyramid Check at time of completion Removing warning signs Periodical check within contract period Check at end of contract period 1 Road availability 2 Surface wet skid resistance x x x Characteristic dry braking deceleration x s dry skid resistance x longitudinal evenness x x x transversal evenness x x texture (x) (x) (x) ravelling x x cracking x x cross fall (x) (x) (x) noise reduction (x) (x) (x) Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 19

20 Long term behaviour of Wet friction 0,66 Influence of grading and type of aggregate Stroefheid RAW % slip wet friction 0,59 0,52 0,45 0,38 Influence of posttreatment PA DAC SMA 0,31 Influence of type of aggregate Time Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 20

21 First weeks of wet friction Silent Thin Surfacings 2/5 Intervention level is 0.38 (50 km/h) Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 21

22 Downwards period Skid resistance (86% slip, 50 km/h, 0.5 mm water) Greywacke betw wp Greywacke nswp Porphyry betw wp 0.6 Porphyry nswp jan-90 jan-91 jan-92 jan-93 jan-94 jan-95 jan-96 jan-97 jan-98 jan-99 jan-00 Time Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 22

23 Monitoring Wet friction in first 6 weeks after 1 year then every 2 or 3 years depending on the friction level 86% Stroefheid slip wet RAW friction 150 0,66 0,59 0,52 0,45 0,38 DAC PA SMA every year when friction is lower then warning level 0,31 Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 23

24 Dry friction First months of PA and Silent Thin Surfacings 2/5 Minimum accepted level 5.2 m/s² and < 6.5 m/s² warning signs 'New road surface, longer braking distance' Warning signs removed when level 6.5 m/s² (3-6 months) dry friction trailer (100% slip, 70 km/h) Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 24

25 Longitudinal evenness Yearly increase of IRI (m/km/year) Asphalt thickness 200 mm > 200 mm 0 < 100 MPa MPa >150 MPa Dynamic subgrade modulus Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 25

26 Longitudinal evenness IRI (m/km) Maintenance threshold Asphalt < 200 mm, Subgrade < 100 MPa all other conditions lower limit of technical feasibility Age (years) Measurements at traffic speed using laser/sdp-systems Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 26

27 Transversal evenness Rut depth (mm) Age (years) Measurements at traffic speed using laser technology Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 27

28 Ravelling PA Slight Moderate Severe Influenced by wrenching tires low temperatures Moderate + Severe Ravelling (% area) Age vs Ravelling (2PA with 4/8 top layer) Breda 1993 Eindhoven 1999 Eindhoven 1993 Capelle a/d IJssel Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 28 Age (years)

29 Monitoring Ravelling PA Ravelling hard to qualify & quantify in VCS Development of automated detection using 2D-texture lasers (CROW, 1999) LCMS (RWS, 2009) Using automated detection using (2D-) texture lasers simultaneously with friction measurements LCMS (3D) every 2 years Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 29

30 Cracking Cracking is not representative for the Dutch highway system Development of automated crack detection lower priority VCS at end of contract period is adequate (up till now) Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 30

31 Noise reduction CPX-measurements (Close Proximity) at 80 km/h combined with SPB-measurements (Statistical Pass By) Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 31

32 Conclusions It is possible for contractors to compose a monitoring program This smart and lean Monitoring program is based on long term pavement behaviour service life shape of behaviour during service life Measurements executed at traffic speed safe efficient no disturbance of the traffic flow Pavement Evaluation 2010, Roanoke 32

33 Questions?? Thank you for your kind attention!!

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