Flash Eurobarometer 355 SPACE ACTIVITIES REPORT

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1 Flash Eurobarometer SPACE ACTIVITIES REPORT Fieldwork: July 2012 Publication: September 2012 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General Enterprise and Industry and co-ordinated by Directorate-General for Communication. This document does not represent the point of view of the European Commission. The interpretations and opinions contained in it are solely those of the authors. Flash Eurobarometer - TNS Political & Social

2 FLASH EUROBAROMETER XXX Title Flash Eurobarometer Space activities Conducted by TNS Political & Social at the request of the European Commission, Directorate-General Enterprise and Industry Survey co-ordinated by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Communication (DG COMM Research and Speechwriting Unit) 1

3 FLASH EUROBAROMETER TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 3 MAIN FINDINGS AWARENESS AND EXPECTATIONS Awareness of EU space programmes and of satellite collision risks Awareness of Galileo Awareness of GMES Awareness of satellite collision risks Expected contribution of space based services Innovative terrestrial applications Industrial competitiveness, growth and jobs in the EU EU policies such as transport, environment and security NAVIGATION BASED SERVICES Current use of navigation systems Navigation-based services wished for ROLE OF THE EU Priority areas for European space activity Role of the EU in space activities development Space monitoring system for disasters, crisis and climate change Space monitoring system to detect satellites and space debris preventing their collision Space exploration programme with humans or robots Level of EU involvement in space exploration ANNEXES 2

4 FLASH EUROBAROMETER INTRODUCTION The European Commission adopted a Communication Towards a space strategy for the European Union that benefits its citizens 1 on 4th April 2011, reflecting the crucial role of space for the economy and society. It sets out the main objectives for European space policy, including two EU space programmes (Galileo, the European satellite navigation system; and GMES (Global monitoring for Environment and Security), the protection of space infrastructures, and space exploration. The Communication also calls for the development of an industrial space policy in close co-operation with Member States. The Commission identified the following objectives for the EU space strategy: promote technological scientific progress; foster innovation and industrial competitiveness; ensure that European citizens fully benefit from European space applications; and strengthen Europe s role in space at an international level. The priority actions of the space strategy are the flagship EU space programmes Galileo and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES). Galileo will be Europe s own global navigation satellite system, providing a highly accurate, global positioning service under civil control. The launch of the first fully operational Galileo satellites took place on 21 October 2011; the full Galileo system will include 30 satellites. Early Galileo Services will be made available gradually from 2014 onwards. The service used most by the general public (personal navigation), will be free of charge. GMES is a European system for monitoring the state of the Earth providing continuous accurate and reliable data and information in six main fields: marine environment, land, atmosphere, emergency management, security and climate change monitoring. GMES uses satellites to obtain data and images. It can yield a better understanding of changes on our planet and how that might influence our daily lives. It will also provide services to help improving the security of citizens and manage crisis situations. The objective of this survey is to gain insight into Europeans awareness, expectations and wishes regarding space based services and their opinion on the role of the EU in development of space activities and space exploration. The outline of this report is as follows. Awareness of EU programmes Galileo, GMES and of space collision risks Current use of navigation systems and navigation-based services wished for Role of the EU in developing space activities and space exploration 1 Communication from the Commission COM(2011) 152 final, see space/files/policy/comm_pdf_com_2011_0152_f_communication_en.pdf For further information on EU Space policy please see: 3

5 FLASH EUROBAROMETER This survey was carried out by TNS Political & Social network in the 27 Member States of the European Union between 9th and 12th July Some respondents from different social and demographic groups were interviewed by telephone in their mother tongue on behalf of DG Enterprise and Industry. The methodology used is that of Eurobarometer surveys as carried out by the Directorate-General for Communication ( Research and Speechwriting Unit) 2. A technical note on the manner in which interviews were conducted by the Institutes within the TNS Political & Social network is appended as an annex to this report. Also included are the interview methods and confidence intervals 3. Note: In this report, countries are referred to by their official abbreviation. The abbreviations used in this report correspond to: ABBREVIATIONS BE Belgium LU Luxembourg CZ Czech Republic HU Hungary BG Bulgaria MT Malta DK Denmark NL The Netherlands DE Germany AT Austria EE Estonia PL Poland EL Greece PT Portugal ES Spain RO Romania FR France SI Slovenia IE Ireland SK Slovakia IT Italy FI Finland CY Republic of Cyprus* SE Sweden LT Lithuania UK The United Kingdom LV Latvia EU27 European Union 27 Member States EU15** BE, IT, FR, DE, LU, NL, DK, UK, IE, PT, ES, EL, AT, SE, FI NMS12*** BG, CZ, EE, CY, LT, LV, MT, HU, PL, RO, SL, SK EURO AREA BE, FR, IT, LU, DE, AT, ES, PT, IE, NL, FI, EL, EE, SI, CY, MT, SK * Cyprus as a whole is one of the 27 European Union Member States. However, the acquis communautaire has been suspended in the part of the country which is not controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus. For practical reasons, only the interviews carried out in the part of the country controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus are included in the CY category and in the EU27 average ** EU15 refers to the 15 countries forming the European Union before the enlargements of 2004 and 2007 *** The NMS12 are the 12 new Member States which joined the European Union during the 2004 and 2007 enlargements * * * * * We wish to thank the people throughout the European Union who have given their time to take part in this survey. Without their active participation, this study would not have been possible The results tables are included in the annex. It should be noted that the total of the percentages in the tables of this report may exceed 100% when the respondent has the possibility of giving several answers to the question. 4

6 FLASH EUROBAROMETER MAIN FINDINGS Awareness of EU space programmes and of satellite collision risks Over half of the Europeans heard of Galileo, the European satellite navigation system. (57%) Almost 4 out of 10 Europeans has heard of GMES (38%) Six in ten Europeans are aware of space collision risks (60%) Expectations about space-derived services and technology The large majority of Europeans think these are important for the development of innovative terrestrial applications (81%) Three-quarters say these are important for industrial competiveness, growth and creation of jobs in the EU (76%) Three-quarters of Europeans believe these are important for EU policies such as transport, environment, and security (75%) Use of navigation systems Half of the Europeans use at least one navigation system (50%): A Personal Navigation Device (29%) A Smartphone with navigation software (18%) A built-in navigation system, integrated in the dashboard (13%) Few do not use a navigation system yet but are planning to acquire one (7%) Four in ten of Europeans do not use these navigation systems and are not planning to acquire one either (41%) Navigation-based systems wished for The top three navigation-based services, cited by a absolute majority of Europeans have safety in common: Search and rescue operations of stranded people, e.g. skiers, hikers, fishermen (60%) Help people with disabilities, e.g. help blind and partially sighted people to get around safely (59%) Real-time information about dangerous situations on the road, e.g. traffic congestion, accidents (53%). 5

7 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Sizeable minorities of Europeans wish for navigation-based services that provide practical information: Weather forecasts and news in the area where you are (30%) Information on the timetables of public transport in the area where you are (18%) Small minorities of Europeans cite social networking (10%); real time information about available parking spaces (8%); and information about nearby restaurants, hotels and theatres (5%) Main areas for European space activities to focus on Health improvement (36%) Climate change understanding (33%) Prevention and management of natural and man-made risks (28%) Energy management - oil, gas, electricity (25%) Ecology and food production (22%) Education (20%) Transport and mobility (13%) Role of the EU in space activities development The majority of Europeans wants the EU to play a role in the following areas: A space monitoring system to manage disasters and crisis as well as mitigate the effects of climate change (77%) A space monitoring system to detect the satellites and space debris and prevent their collision (74%) A space exploration programme with humans or robots (63%) This development by the EU should be done together with the Member States says the majority of Europeans (63%, 59% and 51% respectively) Only a minority think each EU country who wishes so should develop it (12%, 11% and 12% respectively) More than three Europeans out of four (77%) wish the EU to develop (together with Member States or not) a space exploration programme with humans or robots. And among them three-quarters believe the EU should do more in the field of Space Exploration. *** 6

8 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 1 AWARENESS AND EXPECTATIONS This chapter first examines Europeans awareness of the EU space programmes Galileo and GMES - described in the introduction - and also Europeans awareness of the risks associated with collision of satellites. Next, the chapter discusses Europeans expectations regarding space-based services: innovative terrestrial applications; industrial competitiveness, growth and jobs in the EU; and European policies such as transport, environment and security. 1.1 Awareness of EU space programmes and of satellite collision risks The interviewees were asked whether they had ever heard of risks related to collision between satellites or between satellites and space debris (space debris are pieces of rockets and of satellites); and whether they had ever heard of the two EU programmes Galileo (the European Radio-navigation System by satellite similar to the US GPS) and GMES (abbreviation of Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, the European Earth observation systems by satellite). 4 4 Q1 Have you ever heard of Q1.1 Galileo, the European Radio-navigation System by satellite (similar to the US GPS)? Q1.2 The European Earth observation systems by satellite (called GMES- Global Monitoring for Environment and security)? Q1.3 Risks related to collision between satellites or between satellites and space debris (space debris are pieces of rockets and of satellites)? 7

9 FLASH EUROBAROMETER A majority (57%) of Europeans have heard of Galileo, while almost four in ten (38%) have heard of GMES. Six out of ten Europeans (60%) have heard of risks related to collision between satellites or between satellites and space debris Awareness of Galileo Over half (57%) of the Europeans interviewed have heard of Galileo, the European satellite navigation system, similar to the US GPS. However, over four in ten interviewees (42%) had never heard of it and another 1% was unable to formulate an answer. Country-by-country analysis reveals that the highest percentages of respondents who have heard of Galileo are found in Germany (76%), Austria (72%), the Czech Republic and Poland (both 66%). Member States with the smallest proportions of respondents who have heard of Galileo are Cyprus (32%) and Latvia (38%), followed at some distance by the United Kingdom and Hungary (both 43%). 8

10 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Socio-demographic breakdown shows that gender, age, education and occupation are of influence. More men than women (66% vs. 48%) have heard of Galileo. The older the interviewees, the more likely they have heard of it: 62% of the oldest respondents (55+) compared to 41% of the youngest (15-24). The longer educated, the more likely the respondents have heard of Galileo, with 66% of those who followed education till the age of twenty or beyond, compared to 46% of those who had finished school at the age of fifteen or earlier. Regarding occupation: self-employed respondents stand out as 65% of them have heard of Galileo (compared to the average of 57%). Q1.1 Have you ever heard of? (ROTATE) Galileo, the European Radio-navigation System by satellite (similar to the US GPS) Yes No DK/NA EU27 57% 42% 1% Sex Male 66% 33% 1% Female 48% 51% 1% Age % 59% % 45% 1% % 38% 1% % 37% 1% Education (End of) 15-46% 53% 1% % 46% 1% % 33% 1% Still studying 46% 53% 1% Respondent occupation scale Self-employed 65% 35% - Employee 59% 40% 1% Manual workers 54% 46% - Not working 53% 46% 1% 9

11 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Awareness of GMES Almost four in ten respondents (38%) have heard of the European earth observation systems by satellite, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). However, the majority of Europeans (61%) have never heard of it. Another 1% was unable to answer the question. In 2009 a similar question was asked on Space activities in a survey 5. At that time, less than a quarter of Europeans (22%) indicated that they were aware of the European Earth observation satellites and that they knew what it was. 34% said they were aware of it but without being sure of what it was and 42% did not know this system. Country-by-country analysis shows that Romania and Slovakia stand out with around two-thirds of respondents (69% and 65% respectively) knowing of GMES, followed at some distance by Italy (57%) and Portugal (54%). Member States with smallest proportions of respondents who have heard of GMES include the UK, Sweden (both 16%) and Denmark (17%). Those surveyed in the NMS12 are more likely to know of GMES (51% have heard of it) than those in the EU15 countries (35%). 5 Q3. Have you heard about the European Earth Observation satellites? POSSIBLE ANSWERS: Yes, and I know what they do; Yes, but I don t know what they do; No, Don t know FL272, Space activities in the European Union, 10

12 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Socio-demographic breakdown reveals influence only of age. The older the respondents, the more likely they know of GMES: 29% of the youngest respondents aged compared with 47% of the oldest respondents aged Awareness of space collision risks Six in ten Europeans (60%) have heard of risks related to collision between satellites or between satellites and space debris (space debris are pieces of rockets and of satellites), whereas almost one in four (39%) never heard of it. Another 1% was unable to answer this question. Country-by-country analysis reveals that respondents in Germany (79%), Austria (73%) and the Netherlands (72%) are most often aware of these space collision risks. 11

13 FLASH EUROBAROMETER On the other end of the spectrum, Cyprus stands out with only one-third of respondents (33%) being aware of these risks, followed at some distance by the United Kingdom (41%), Greece (42%) and Ireland (43%). Socio-demographic analysis shows differences for gender, age and education. More men (65%) than women (56%) are aware of space collision risks. The higher the age, the more aware of these risks: only 45% of the youngest respondents aged compared to 67% of the oldest respondents aged 55+. Turning to education, the longer the respondents are educated the more aware: 55% of respondents who had left school at the age of fifteen or earlier compared to 66% of respondents who followed education till the age of twenty or beyond. 12

14 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Almost three-quarters (73%) of the interviewees who have heard of Galileo are aware of space collision risks compared to four in ten of interviewees who do not know about Galileo. Accordingly, almost three-quarters (74%) of the respondents who know about the existence of GMES are aware of space collision risks compared to just over half (52%) of those who never heard of GMES. Q1.3 Have you ever heard of? (ROTATE) Risks related to collision between satellites or between satellites and space debris (space debris are pieces of rockets and of satellites) Yes No DK/NA EU27 60% 39% 1% Sex Male 65% 35% - Female 56% 43% 1% Age % 55% % 45% % 34% 1% % 32% 1% Education (End of) 15-55% 44% 1% % 41% % 33% 1% Still studying 51% 49% - Heard of Galileo Système Yes 73% 26% 1% No 43% 56% 1% Heard of GMES Yes 74% 25% 1% No 52% 48% - 13

15 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 1.2 Expected contribution of space based services - At least three-quarters of Europeans expect space-based services to be important for innovative terrestrial applications; industrial competitiveness, growth and jobs in the EU; and EU policies such as transport, environment and security - In the previous section we investigated Europeans awareness of the EU space programmes. This section focuses on Europeans expectations regarding space activities. Respondents were asked how important they think space derived services and space technologies are for the following three fields. 6 industrial competiveness, growth and creation of jobs in the EU the development of innovative terrestrial applications, such as remote medical assistance EU policies such as transport, environment and security At least three-quarters of the Europeans surveyed expect space derived services and space technology to be very or fairly important for the development of innovative terrestrial applications (81%), industrial competiveness, growth and creation of jobs in the EU (76%), and EU policies such as transport, environment, and security (75%). 6 Q2 How important do you think space derived services and space technologies are for the following: Q2.1 Industrial competiveness, growth and creation of jobs in the EU Q2.2 The development of innovative terrestrial applications (for example, remote medical assistance) Q2.3 EU policies (e.g. transport, environment, security ) 14

16 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Innovative terrestrial applications We saw that a large majority (81%) of Europeans think space derived services and space technologies are important for the development of innovative terrestrial applications (for example, remote medical assistance): 43% even think it is very important and 38% think it is fairly important. Conversely, a small minority (14%) think it is not important for innovative terrestrial applications: 10% say not very important and 4% think not at all important. Another 5% say they don t know. In 2009, a similar question was asked on Space activities in a survey 7. 74% of respondents agreed that technologies derived from space activities contributes to developing innovative terrestrial applications (24% strongly agreed and 50% to some extent). Country-by-country analysis shows that in every single Member State, an absolute majority of respondents believe space derived services and space technologies are important for the development of innovative terrestrial applications, such as remote medical assistance. The largest proportions of interviewees who think it is important are observed in Greece (88%), Romania (87%), Belgium, Hungary (both 86%), Italy, Luxembourg, Slovakia, and Bulgaria (each 84%). Conversely, the smallest proportions are in Denmark (58%), followed at some distance by Austria (69%) and Estonia (70%). Socio-demographic breakdown shows that age and education have a slight influence; within all groups the majority view is that space derived services and space technologies are important for the development of innovative terrestrial applications. 7 Q2 Please tell me how much do you agree or disagree with the following statements: -A Space activities contribute to industrial competiveness, growth, and creation of jobs in the European Union -B Technologies derived from space activities contribute to developing innovative terrestrial applications ANSWERS POSSIBLE: Strongly agree, Agree, Disagree, Disagree strongly, Don t know FL272, Space activities in the European Union, 15

17 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The oldest respondents aged 55+ are the least likely (77%) and the youngest respondents aged are most likely (83%) to say it is important. The longer the interviewees are educated, the more likely they think it is important: 74% of the respondents who had left school at the age of 15 or earlier compared to 84% of respondents who were educated until the age of 20 or beyond. 16

18 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Q2.2 How important do you think space derived services and space technologies are for the following: (ROTATE) The development of innovative terrestrial applications (for example, remote medical assistance) Very important Fairly important Not very important Not at all important DK/NA EU27 43% 38% 10% 4% 5% Sex Male 45% 37% 10% 4% 4% Female 40% 38% 11% 4% 7% Age % 41% 12% 2% 3% % 41% 10% 4% 4% % 38% 10% 4% 5% % 33% 10% 5% 8% Education (End of) 15-41% 33% 10% 7% 9% % 37% 11% 5% 5% % 38% 10% 3% 5% Still studying 45% 39% 11% 2% 3% 17

19 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Industrial competitiveness, growth and jobs in the EU Over three-quarters (76%) of Europeans think that space derived services and space technologies are important for industrial competitiveness, growth and creation of jobs in the EU: 38% say very important and another 38% say fairly important. However, almost one-fifth (19%) of Europeans believe it is not important: 14% say not very important and 5% say not at all important. Another 5% have no opinion on this matter. In 2009 a similar question was asked on Space activities in a survey 8. 64% of respondents agreed that space activities contribute to industrial competiveness, growth and creation of jobs in the European Union (16% strongly agreed, 48% agreed). Country-by-country analysis shows that in every single Member State, over half of respondents think space derived services and space technologies are important for industrial competiveness, growth and creation of jobs in the EU. Largest proportions of interviewees having this view are observed in Italy and Romania (both 85%), Hungary (82%), Bulgaria (81%), Portugal (80%), Malta and Belgium (both 79%). By contrast, smallest proportions are in Denmark (54%), Estonia (55%) and the Czech Republic (57%). 8 Q2 Please tell me how much do you agree or disagree with the following statements: -A Space activities contribute to industrial competiveness, growth, and creation of jobs in the European Union -B Technologies derived from space activities contribute to developing innovative terrestrial applications ANSWERS POSSIBLE: Strongly agree, Agree, Disagree, Disagree strongly, Don t know FL272, Space activities in the European Union, 18

20 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Socio-demographic analysis does not yield significant differences between groups EU policies such as transport, environment and security Three-quarters (75%) of Europeans think space derived services and space technologies are important for EU policies such as transport, environment, and security: 34% say very important and 41% say fairly important. Conversely, one in five (20%) Europeans believe it is not important: 14% say not very important and 6% say not at all important. A further 5% are unable to form an opinion. Country-by-country analysis shows that in every single Member State, an absolute majority of respondents think space derived services and space technologies are important for EU policies such as transport, environment, and security, with the exception of the Netherlands. 19

21 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The highest percentages of respondents with this view are found in Bulgaria (87%), Hungary (84%), Belgium, Romania (both 83%), Italy (82%), Ireland, France and Malta (each 81%). Conversely, Denmark (48%) stands out with the lowest percentage, followed at a distance by Sweden and Estonia (both 65%). Respondents in the NMS12 countries are somewhat more inclined than those in the EU15 countries to think space derived services and space technologies are important for EU policies such as transport, environment, and security (79% vs. 74%). Socio-demographic analysis reveals influence only of education: the older the respondents, the more likely they are: 70% of the respondents who had finished school at the age of fifteen compared to 77% of respondents who were educated until the age of twenty or beyond. *** 20

22 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 2 NAVIGATION BASED SERVICES Half of the Europeans are using navigation systems; more than half of Europeans wish for navigation-based services aimed at safety Having seen Europeans awareness of EU space programmes and their expectations regarding space-derived services and technology, we now turn to Europeans actual use of navigation systems and their wishes in the field of navigation-based services. 2.1 Current use of navigation systems The interviewees were asked whether they are using navigation systems in their car or for any other purpose, such as hiking or biking: a Personal Navigation Device; a Smartphone with navigation software; and a built-in navigation system integrated in the dashboard. 9 Almost three in ten Europeans (29%) are using a Personal Navigation Device. Almost one-fifth (18%) are using a Smartphone with navigation software. Over one in ten (13%) are using a built-in navigation system, integrated in the dashboard. A small minority (7%) do not use these navigation systems yet, but they do plan to acquire one. However, a considerable proportion (41%) of Europeans are not using one of these navigation systems and do not plan to acquire one either. A further 2% say they don t know. To summarize, 50% of Europeans use at least one of the three navigation systems, 48% are not using any of them, and 2% say they don t know. 9 Q5 Are you using a navigation system in your car or for any other purpose, such as hiking or biking? (ROTATE MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE) 21

23 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Country-by-country analysis shows that a Personal Navigation Device is used most often by interviewees in five north-western countries: the Netherlands (45%), Denmark (43%), Belgium (42%), Germany (40%) and Luxembourg (35%). It is used least often by respondents in Malta (9%), Bulgaria, Greece (both 12%) and Cyprus (15%). A Smartphone with navigation software is used most frequently in Denmark (34%), Sweden (30%) and Finland (29%); by contrast, this is used least frequently in Romania (8%) and Malta, Cyprus, and Portugal (each 9%). A built-in navigation system, integrated in the dashboard, is used far most often by interviewees in Luxembourg (43%), at distance followed by those in Belgium (23%); conversely, dashboard integrated navigation systems are used least by respondents in Malta (4%), Romania and Hungary (both 5%). Non-users of navigation systems who are planning to acquire one are most numerous in Bulgaria (22%), Romania (18%) and Cyprus (17%), whereas they are least numerous in the Netherlands (3%) and Germany (4%). No (I do not use a navigation system) and I do not plan to acquire one is the option cited most often in 22 of the 27 Member States; exceptions are five north-western countries: Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands; Belgium, and Germany. The highest percentages of non-users of navigation systems who do not plan to acquire one are found in Malta (67%), Greece, Portugal (both 56%) and Cyprus (53%); conversely lowest percentages of these non-users are observed in Denmark (42%), Luxembourg (23%), the Netherlands (26%), Belgium (30%) and Germany (33%). In summary, Member States with the largest proportions of interviewees using at least one of the navigation systems include Denmark (72%), Luxembourg (71%), the Netherlands (70%), Germany (63%) and Belgium (61%); smallest proportions are found in Malta (21%), Bulgaria (26%), Romania (27%), Cyprus and Greece (both 28%). Respondents in the EU15 countries are more likely than those in the NMS12 countries to use at least one navigation system (53% vs. 40%); a personal Navigation Device (31% vs. 22%); or a dashboard integrated navigation system (14% vs. 9%). However, interviewees in the NMS12 countries are more likely (13%) to plan to acquire one than those in the EU15 countries (6%). 22

24 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Q5 Are you using a navigation system in your car or for any other purpose, such as hiking or biking? Yes, I am using a Personal Navigation Device Yes, I am using a Smartphone with navigation software Yes, I am using my builtin navigation system, integrated in the dashboard No, but I plan to acquire one No, and I do not plan to acquire one Don't know EU27 29% 18% 13% 7% 41% 2% BE 42% 11% 23% 8% 30% 1% BG 12% 10% 5% 22% 50% 2% CZ 23% 20% 9% 9% 46% 1% DK 43% 34% 16% 5% 22% 1% DE 40% 17% 19% 4% 33% 0% EE 24% 21% 12% 10% 39% 4% IE 23% 18% 8% 11% 46% 1% EL 12% 11% 9% 14% 56% 2% ES 19% 22% 14% 5% 49% 2% FR 30% 16% 17% 7% 40% 1% IT 26% 12% 11% 7% 43% 4% CY 15% 9% 7% 17% 53% 1% LV 20% 21% 11% 14% 39% 1% LT 25% 20% 7% 13% 39% 4% LU 35% 17% 43% 6% 23% 1% HU 22% 15% 7% 11% 49% 2% MT 9% 9% 4% 9% 67% 3% NL 45% 24% 19% 3% 26% 1% AT 31% 19% 15% 8% 38% 1% PL 28% 17% 12% 10% 39% 2% PT 20% 9% 9% 9% 56% 3% RO 16% 8% 5% 18% 51% 4% SI 29% 14% 9% 9% 44% 1% SK 23% 15% 8% 13% 44% 2% FI 32% 29% 15% 9% 34% 1% SE 25% 30% 8% 6% 42% 1% UK 32% 27% 9% 5% 40% 2% Highest percentage per country Highest percentage per item Lowest percentage per country Lowest percentage per item 23

25 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Socio-demographic analysis reveals the influence of gender, age, education and occupation, and slight influence of subjective urbanisation. Personal Navigation Devices are more likely to be used by men (33%), respondents from the two mid-age groups and (33% and 35% respectively), self-employed interviewees and employees (both 37%); conversely, Personal Navigation Devices are less likely to be used by women (25%), the oldest respondents aged 55+ (23%) and the youngest respondents aged (26%), and respondents who had left school at the age of 15 or younger (19%). Smartphones with navigation software are used more by men (23%), respondents from the younger groups aged and (33% and 29% respectively), self-employed interviewees (22%), employees (25%), and inhabitants of large towns (22%); by contrast, such smartphones are used less by women (13%), the oldest respondents aged 55+ (6%), unemployed respondents (13%), and rural villagers (14%). A built-in navigation system, integrated in the dashboard, is somewhat more likely to be used by men (16%), interviewees aged (17%) and much more by self-employed respondents (23%); conversely, built-it is less likely to be used by women (11%), respondents aged (10%), and respondents who had finished school at the age of 15 or younger (8%). Q5 Are you using a navigation system in your car or for any other purpose, such as hiking or biking? (ROTATE MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE) Yes, I am using a Personal Navigation Device Yes, I am using a Smartphone with navigation software Yes, I am using my built-in navigation system, integrated in the dashboard No, but I plan to acquire one No, and I do not plan to acquire one DK/NA EU27 29% 18% 13% 7% 41% 2% Sex Male 33% 23% 16% 8% 32% 1% Female 25% 13% 11% 7% 49% 2% Age % 33% 10% 12% 30% 2% % 29% 14% 8% 29% 1% % 15% 17% 7% 37% 1% % 6% 11% 6% 57% 2% Education (End of) 15-19% 5% 8% 5% 63% 4% % 15% 12% 7% 44% 1% % 21% 16% 8% 33% 1% Still studying 24% 31% 11% 11% 32% 2% Respondent occupation scale Self-employed 37% 22% 23% 7% 27% 1% Employee 37% 25% 17% 7% 30% 1% Manual workers 31% 15% 12% 9% 38% 2% Not working 21% 13% 9% 8% 52% 2% 24

26 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 2.2 Navigation-based services wished for All respondents were asked which navigation-based services accessible via handheld devices they find or would find most useful. The interviewees were presented with eight different services and were asked to choose at most three. 10 The top three navigation-based services, cited by absolute majorities of Europeans are search and rescue operations of stranded people - skiers, hikers, fishermen (60%); help people with disabilities, e.g. help blind and partially sighted people to get around safely (59%); and real-time information about dangerous situations on the road, e.g. traffic congestion, accidents (53%). The top three services have safety as a common goal. Smaller but sizeable proportions of Europeans (would) find it useful to have weather forecasts and news in the area where they are (30%) and information on the timetables of public transport in the area where they are (18%). Small minorities cite social networking (10%), real time information about available parking spaces (8%), and information about nearby restaurants, hotels and theatres (5%). 10 Q4 Which navigation-based services accessible via handheld devices do you or would you find most useful? (ROTATE - MAX. 3 ANSWERS) 25

27 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Country-by-country analysis reveals the following differences between countries. Search and rescue operations of stranded people are mentioned most often in Estonia (74%), Germany (71%), the Czech Republic (70%), and Finland (68%). Conversely, this item is mentioned least often in Ireland (44%), Lithuania (46%), Cyprus and the UK (both 47%). Help people with disabilities is cited most often in southern countries: Spain (79%), Portugal, Greece (both 76%) and France (71%). By contrast, this item is cited least often in the Nordic and Baltic countries Estonia (36%), Latvia, Finland (both 38%), Lithuania (40%) and Sweden (42%); further also in Slovenia (40%) and Ireland (41%). Real-time information about dangerous situations on the road is found useful most often in Spain (65%), Luxembourg (62%), the Czech Republic and Denmark (both 61%); conversely this is least so in Cyprus (35%) and Romania (41%). Weather forecasts and news in the area where you are, is most likely to be cited in Latvia (43%), Ireland (40%), Sweden, Slovenia, and Hungary (38%); by contrast, it is least likely so in Luxembourg (21%), Italy (22%), Cyprus (23%) and Spain (24%). Information on the timetables of public transport in the area where you are, is found useful most often by interviewees in Latvia (27%), Sweden, Belgium, and Malta (each 25%); least often so in Bulgaria (11%). Interviewees in the EU15 countries are more likely than those in the NMS12 countries to mention helping people with disabilities (61% vs. 50%) and somewhat less likely to mention weather forecasts and news in the area (29% vs. 34%). 26

28 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Q4 Which navigation-based services accessible via handheld devices do you or would you find most useful? Search and rescue operations of stranded people (skiers, hikers, fishermen) Help people with disabilities (e.g. help blind and partially sighted people to get around safely) Real-time information about dangerous situations on the road (e.g. traffic congestion, accidents) Weather forecasts and news in the area where you are Information on the timetables of public transport in the area where you are Social networking Real time information about available parking spaces Information about nearby restaurants, hotels and theatres None of them (DO NOT READ OUT) Don't know EU27 60% 59% 53% 30% 18% 10% 8% 5% 1% 1% BE 55% 61% 56% 27% 25% 15% 14% 9% 0% 1% BG 51% 50% 51% 28% 11% 15% 7% 3% 0% 3% CZ 70% 56% 61% 32% 19% 10% 5% 6% 1% 1% DK 64% 52% 61% 27% 19% 10% 10% 4% 0% 3% DE 71% 51% 54% 36% 15% 10% 6% 4% 0% 2% EE 74% 36% 51% 34% 21% 9% 6% 5% 1% 6% IE 44% 41% 44% 40% 23% 14% 7% 8% 1% 1% EL 56% 76% 51% 25% 15% 13% 9% 4% 1% 1% ES 66% 79% 65% 24% 15% 10% 6% 3% 0% 0% FR 61% 71% 57% 25% 15% 9% 7% 4% 1% 1% IT 57% 64% 46% 22% 18% 8% 8% 3% 1% 2% CY 47% 52% 35% 23% 21% 13% 8% 8% 1% 6% LV 55% 38% 47% 43% 27% 18% 8% 6% 0% 1% LT 46% 40% 46% 36% 20% 15% 11% 5% 1% 3% LU 56% 64% 62% 21% 22% 10% 11% 9% 1% 1% HU 67% 63% 50% 38% 18% 7% 8% 5% 0% 1% MT 58% 56% 52% 26% 25% 10% 20% 9% 0% 4% NL 65% 53% 51% 33% 18% 13% 6% 6% 1% 2% AT 66% 51% 54% 36% 20% 12% 7% 6% 0% 2% PL 53% 45% 54% 35% 21% 6% 10% 6% 1% 1% PT 67% 76% 45% 26% 17% 7% 8% 5% 0% 3% RO 57% 53% 41% 37% 15% 9% 11% 7% 0% 3% SI 50% 40% 51% 38% 15% 8% 10% 8% 2% 1% SK 57% 53% 51% 28% 22% 14% 8% 4% 0% 1% FI 68% 38% 47% 36% 16% 8% 4% 6% 1% 2% SE 63% 42% 56% 38% 25% 15% 3% 4% 1% 2% UK 47% 52% 54% 34% 24% 10% 10% 10% 1% 2% Highest percentage per country Highest percentage per item Lowest percentage per country Lowest percentage per item Socio-demographic breakdown reveals some influence of age, education and occupation and minor influence of gender mainly on the three navigation-based services aimed at safety. Search and rescue operations of stranded people is more likely to be mentioned by respondents aged (65% compared to the average of 60%)) and least likely by manual workers (55%). Help people with disabilities is the only navigation-based service investigated in this survey that involves a significant gender difference: more women than men find this useful (63% vs. 54%). Further, this service is cited most often by respondents who finished school at the age of 15 or earlier (70%); conversely it is mentioned least often by the younger respondents aged and (53% and 54% respectively), the better educated until the age of 20 or longer (54%) and self-employed interviewees (51%). 27

29 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Real-time information about dangerous situations on the road is found to be useful most often by respondents aged and (58% and 57% respectively), and by selfemployed interviewees and employees (both 58%). It is least likely to be cited by the youngest respondents aged (47%) and interviewees who had left school at the age of 15 or younger (48%). Other salient group differences are that weather forecasts and news in the area where you are, is least likely to be mentioned by respondents who finished school at the age of 15 or younger (24% compared to the average of 30%). Information on the timetables of public transport in the area where you are is mentioned most often by the youngest respondents aged (26% compared to the average of 18%); this is also true of social networking (15% compared to the average of 10%). Cross-analysis with use of navigation systems shows some differences between users and non-users. Users of navigation systems are more likely than non-users to cite search and rescue operations of stranded people (63% vs. 57%) and real-time information about dangerous situations on the road (60% vs. 47%); users are however less likely than non-users to mention help people with disabilities (55% vs. 62%). Q4 Which navigation-based services accessible via handheld devices do you or would you find most useful? (ROTATE - MAX. 3 ANSWERS) Search and rescue operations of stranded people (skiers, hikers, fishermen) Help people with disabilities (e.g. help blind and partially sighted people to get around safely) Real-time information about dangerous situations on the road (e.g. traffic congestion, accidents) Weather forecasts and news in the area where you are Information on the timetables of public transport in the area where you are Social networking Real time information about available parking spaces Information about nearby restaurants, hotels and theatres None of them (DO NOT READ OUT) EU27 60% 59% 53% 30% 18% 10% 8% 5% 1% 1% Sex Male 58% 54% 55% 31% 18% 9% 10% 6% 1% 2% Female 61% 63% 51% 30% 18% 10% 6% 4% 1% 1% Age % 53% 47% 31% 26% 15% 11% 8% 0% 1% % 54% 58% 32% 21% 10% 10% 9% 0% 0% % 60% 57% 29% 15% 8% 7% 4% 0% 1% % 63% 50% 29% 15% 9% 6% 2% 1% 3% Education (End of) 15-57% 70% 48% 24% 15% 8% 7% 3% 1% 3% % 61% 52% 30% 16% 11% 7% 5% 1% 1% % 54% 57% 33% 19% 8% 8% 6% 1% 1% Still studying 58% 53% 49% 30% 27% 15% 11% 9% 0% 1% Respondent occupation scale Self-employed 62% 51% 58% 32% 17% 9% 8% 7% 1% 1% Employee 64% 57% 58% 32% 19% 8% 9% 6% 0% 1% Manual workers 55% 58% 52% 28% 15% 10% 8% 5% 0% 2% Not working 58% 62% 49% 29% 18% 11% 7% 4% 1% 2% DK/NA *** 28

30 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 3 ROLE OF THE EU The preceding chapter described Europeans use of navigation systems and their wishes regarding specific navigation-based services. This chapter elaborates further on Europeans wishes with respect to European space activity. The following topics will be discussed in this chapter: Priority areas for space European space activity Role of the EU in developing space monitoring systems and space exploration Level of EU involvement in space exploration 3.1 Priority areas for European space activity The interviewees were informed that space can contribute to a wide range of activities and they were presented with seven options; then they were asked to choose two options that they would like the European space activity to focus on as a priority. 11 The options chosen most often, each by around one-third of the respondents, are health improvement (36%) and climate change understanding (33%). The next most cited options, each by at least one-fourth of the interviewees, are prevention and management 11 Q3 Space can contribute to a wide range of activities. Which of the options in the following list would you like the European space activity to focus on as a priority? (ROTATE MAX. 2 ANSWERS) 29

31 FLASH EUROBAROMETER of natural and man-made risks (28%) and energy management - oil, gas, electricity (25%). Two other options are mentioned by at least one-fifth of the interviewees: ecology and food production (22%) and education (20%). A minority cited transport and mobility (13%). A further 1% did not make a choice and another 2% say they don t know. Country-by-country breakdown shows the following differences. Health improvement is chosen most often in Greece (53%), Romania (50%), Malta and Portugal (both 49%). Overall, this option ranked first in 13 out of 27 Member States. Interviewees in Sweden (24%), Poland and Estonia (both 25%) are least likely to cite this option. Climate change understanding is mentioned most often in Sweden (55%), Germany (51%), and Denmark (50%). Overall this option ranked first in 9 of the 27 Member States. Romania (13%) stands out as the country with the smallest percentage of respondents citing climate change understanding, followed at distance by Poland and Hungary (both 22%). Prevention and management of natural and man-made risks is mentioned most often in Poland (47%) and Hungary (42%); conversely it is least likely to be mentioned in Slovenia (13%), Cyprus, the UK (each 14%), Greece and Austria (both 15%). Energy management (oil, gas, electricity) is cited most often by interviewees in the UK (33%) and Denmark (32%); by contrast this is least the case in Bulgaria and Estonia (16%). Ecology and food production is most likely to be cited in Slovenia (41%), Slovakia (37%) and the Czech Republic (35%); it is also the most of all cited option in these countries. Conversely, it is least likely to be mentioned in Germany (14%) and Portugal (17%). Education is most likely to be chosen in Romania and Malta (32%); least likely in Lithuania (10%) and Austria (12%). Transport and mobility is most likely to be mentioned by interviewees in Austria (22%), Latvia and the Czech Republic (both 20%). Conversely, transport and mobility is mentioned least often in the smaller-island-countries Greece (6%), Cyprus (7%) and Malta (8%). Interviewees in the NMS12 countries are more likely than those in the EU15 countries to cite prevention and management of natural and man-made risks (36% vs. 26%) and ecology and food (28% vs. 20%); conversely, they are less likely to cite climate change understanding (23% vs. 36%) and also energy management i.e. oil, gas, electricity (21% vs. 26%). 30

32 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 31

33 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Socio-demographic analysis shows the influence of age and education; and slight influence of gender. Health improvement is most likely to be mentioned by women (40%), the oldest respondents aged 55+ (41%) and lesser educated respondents - who had left school at the age of 15 or younger (47%). By contrast, health improvement is cited least often by men (31%), the better educated respondents - till the age of 20 or beyond (31%) and self-employed interviewees (31%). Climate change understanding is mentioned most often by employees (38%); least often by respondents who had left school at the age of 15 or younger (25%). Prevention and management of natural and man-made risks is most likely to be mentioned by better-educated respondents until the age of 20 or beyond (33%); conversely it is mentioned least often by the oldest respondents aged 55+ (24%) and respondents who had left school at the age of 15 or younger (19%). Energy management (oil, gas, electricity) is cited more often by men (28%) and respondents from the younger age groups and (30% and 29% respectively). By contrast, it is cited least often by women (22%), the oldest respondents aged 55+ (22%) and interviewees who had left school at the age of 15 or younger (21%). Ecology and food production is least likely to be mentioned by the youngest respondents aged (15% compared to the average of 22%). Education is most likely to be cited by the youngest respondents aged (25%) and the lesser education respondents who had left school at the age of 15 or younger (24%). By contrast, it is mentioned least often by interviewees aged (17%). Transport and mobility is most likely to be cited by men (18%) and the youngest respondents aged (18%); conversely, it is cited least often by women (9%) and respondents who had left school at the age of 15 or younger (8%). Navigation systems use analysis shows some differences between users and nonusers. Users of navigation systems are more likely than non-users to cite climate change understanding (37% vs. 30%) and transport and mobility (17% vs. 10%); users are however less likely than non-users to mention health improvement (32% vs. 39%). Galileo awareness analysis reveals that the differences between interviewees who heard of Galileo and those who did not, follow a similar pattern as with navigation system users. Respondents who are aware of the Galileo programme are more likely than nonaware interviewees to mention climate change understanding (36% vs. 29%) and transport and mobility (16% vs. 11%); They are however noticeably less likely than the non-aware to mention health improvement (32% vs. 41%). 32

34 FLASH EUROBAROMETER One of the priorities of the GMES programme is climate change understanding. Nevertheless, respondents who are aware of this programme are slightly less likely to cite climate change understanding as a priority (34%) compared to those who are not aware of it (31%). Q3 Space can contribute to a wide range of activities. Which of the options in the following list would you like the European space activity to focus on as apriority? (ROTATE MAX. 2 ANSWERS) Health improvement Energy management (oil, gas, electricity) Transport and mobility Ecology and food production Climate change understanding Education Prevention and management of natural and man-made risks None of them (DO NOT READ OUT) DK/NA EU27 36% 25% 13% 22% 33% 20% 28% 1% 2% Sex Male 31% 28% 18% 21% 33% 19% 27% 1% 2% Female 40% 22% 9% 22% 34% 21% 29% 1% 2% Age % 30% 18% 15% 33% 25% 27% 1% 1% % 29% 14% 21% 34% 20% 31% 0% 1% % 23% 14% 23% 36% 17% 31% 1% 2% % 22% 11% 24% 31% 20% 24% 1% 3% Education (End of) 15-47% 21% 8% 21% 25% 24% 19% 1% 4% % 24% 13% 22% 32% 19% 26% 1% 2% % 26% 15% 23% 36% 18% 33% 0% 1% Still studying 31% 30% 18% 16% 34% 26% 28% 0% 0% Respondent occupation scale Self-employed 31% 25% 16% 23% 35% 18% 31% 0% 2% Employee 32% 28% 15% 21% 38% 18% 31% 1% 1% Manual workers 35% 26% 13% 23% 30% 18% 26% 1% 2% Not working 40% 23% 12% 22% 30% 23% 25% 1% 3% Use of navigation system Yes 32% 27% 17% 20% 37% 19% 30% 1% 1% No 39% 23% 10% 24% 30% 21% 26% 1% 3% Yes Heard of Galileo Systeme 32% 26% 16% 23% 36% 18% 30% 0% 1% No 41% 24% 11% 21% 29% 23% 25% 1% 3% Heard of GMES Yes 36% 24% 12% 25% 31% 19% 31% 0% 2% No 36% 26% 14% 20% 34% 20% 26% 1% 2% 33

35 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 3.2 Role of the EU in space activities development - Three-quarters of Europeans think the EU should play a role in space monitoring systems; over six in ten Europeans want the EU to develop space exploration programme with humans or robots - The interviewees were informed that the USA, China and Russia are developing their own space activities. Then interviewees were asked what they think should be done when it comes to space activities in the EU. They were asked to say for each of three specific themes by whom they think it should be developed: each EU country who wishes so; the EU alone for all Member States; the EU together with the Member States; neither the EU nor the Member States should develop it at all. The three themes investigated are 12 : A space monitoring system to manage disasters and crisis as well as mitigate the effects of climate change A space monitoring system to detect the satellites and space debris and prevent their collision A space exploration programme with humans or robots Around three-quarters of Europeans think the EU should play a role in the two space monitoring systems (77%, 74% respectively) and six in ten (63%), say the same for the space exploration programme. Development by the EU should however be done together with the Member States according to the majority of Europeans (63%, 59% and 51% for the three themes respectively). Over one in ten Europeans think each EU country who wishes so should develop it (12%, 11% and 12% respectively). 12 Q6 The USA, China and Russia are developing their own space activities. In your opinion, when it comes to space activities in the EU, what do you think should be done for each of the following themes? (ROTATE) 6.1 A space monitoring system to detect the satellites and space debris and prevent their collision 6.2 A space monitoring system to manage disasters and crisis as well as mitigate the effects of climate change 6.3 A space exploration programme with humans or robots 34

36 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Space monitoring system for disasters, crisis and climate change Over three-quarters of Europeans (77%) think a space monitoring system to manage disasters and crisis as well as mitigate the effects of climate change should be developed by the EU: 14% say by the EU alone for all Member States, but a majority of 63% think it should be by the EU together with the Member States. Almost one in eight Europeans (12%) thinks it should be developed by each EU country who wishes so. Just over one in twenty Europeans (6%) believes neither the EU nor the Member States should develop it at all. A further 5% of respondents are unable to form an opinion on this matter. Country-by-country analysis shows there is an absolute majority of respondents within every single Member State except Poland - who are in favour of development of this space monitoring system for disasters, crises, and climate change by the EU together with the Member States. Highest percentages of interviewees with this view are in Latvia (76%), Finland (75%), Germany (74%) and Estonia (73%); conversely, lowest percentages are in Poland (43%), Slovenia (50%) and Slovakia (52%). Development of this space monitoring system by the EU alone for all EU Member States is preferred most likely in Slovakia and Poland (each 23%); and least likely in Latvia (5%), Finland (6%) and Estonia (8%). Each EU country that wishes so should develop it is cited most often in Poland (28%) and Romania (25%), at some distance followed by Slovakia 17%); conversely this is mentioned least in Ireland (5%), Estonia, Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands (each 7%). Neither the EU nor the Member States should develop it at all is an opinion most likely to be found in the UK (12%) and the Netherlands (11%); by contrast, this is least the case in Estonia (2%) and Bulgaria (3%). 35

37 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Respondents in the NMS12 countries are more likely than those in the EU15 countries to say that each EU country that wishes so should develop it (21% vs. 10%); conversely, they are less likely to say the EU should develop it together with the Member States (54% vs. 66%). Socio-demographic breakdown reveals only limited influence of gender, age, education and occupation. Slightly more men than women (66% vs. 61%) think a space monitoring system for disasters, crises, and climate change should be developed by the EU together with the Member States. The youngest respondents aged are more likely than the older respondents (17% compared to the average of 12%) to say that each EU country that wishes so should develop it; this is also true of manual workers (19% compared to the average of 12%). 36

38 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Manual workers are less likely than employees (56% vs. 67%) to think development should be by the EU together with the Member States. Navigation systems use analysis shows that users of navigation systems are somewhat more likely than non-users to say this monitoring system should be developed by the EU together with the Member States (67% vs. 60%). Galileo awareness analysis reveals that interviewees who are aware of the Galileo programme are more likely than those who are unaware interviewees to to say this monitoring system should be developed by the EU together with the Member States (67% vs. 59%). GMES awareness analysis did not show significant differences. Q6.2 The USA, China and Russia are developing their own space activities. In your opinion, when it comes to space activities in the EU, what do you think should be done for each of the following themes? (ROTATE) A space monitoring system to manage disasters and crisis as well as mitigate the effects of climate change The EU alone should develop it for all EU Member States The EU should develop it together with the Member States Each EU country who wishes so should develop it Neither the EU nor the Member States should develop it at all DK/NA EU27 14% 63% 12% 6% 5% Sex Male 15% 66% 10% 6% 3% Female 13% 61% 14% 6% 6% Age % 61% 17% 5% 3% % 64% 14% 5% 2% % 65% 11% 6% 3% % 62% 10% 7% 7% Education (End of) 15-12% 56% 11% 10% 11% % 63% 14% 6% 4% % 66% 10% 5% 3% Still studying 14% 64% 14% 6% 2% Respondent occupation scale Self-employed 17% 64% 11% 5% 3% Employee 14% 67% 11% 6% 2% Manual workers 15% 56% 19% 6% 4% Not working 13% 62% 12% 7% 6% Use of navigation system Yes 15% 67% 11% 5% 2% No 14% 60% 13% 8% 5% Heard of Galileo Systeme Yes 15% 67% 10% 5% 3% No 13% 59% 14% 8% 6% Heard of GMES Yes 14% 65% 13% 5% 3% No 14% 62% 12% 7% 5% 37

39 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Space monitoring system to detect satellites and space debris preventing their collision We saw that almost three-quarters of Europeans (74%) think a space monitoring system to detect the satellites and space debris and prevent their collision should be developed by the EU: 15 % say by the EU alone, but a majority, 59%, think it should be by the EU together with the Member States. Just over one in ten Europeans (11%) think each EU country who wishes so should develop this space monitoring system. Almost one in ten Europeans (9%) believes neither the EU nor the Member States should develop this space monitoring system at all. A further 6% say they don t know. Country-by-country analysis shows various differences regarding the role of the EU in development of a space monitoring system to detect the satellites and space debris and prevent their collision. Development should be by the EU together with the Member States, is the prevailing majority opinion within every single Member State with the exception of Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. Largest proportions of respondents having this opinion are in Latvia (73%), Germany (72%) Finland (71%), and Estonia (69%); conversely, smallest proportions are in Poland (40%), Slovakia (49%) and Slovenia (49%). Interviewees are most likely to believe development of this space monitoring system should be by the EU alone for all EU Member States in Poland (25%) and Slovakia (23%); and least likely so in Finland (7%), Latvia (8%), and Estonia (9%). Each EU country that wishes so should develop it is an opinion observed most often in Poland (26%) and Romania (21%), at some distance followed by Slovakia 16%); conversely this is mentioned least in Germany (4%), Estonia and Ireland (each 5%). Neither the EU nor the Member States should develop it at all is an opinion most likely to be found in the UK (15%) and the Netherlands (14%); by contrast, this is least the case in Bulgaria (3%), Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia (each 4%). Again, interviewees in the NMS12 countries are more likely than the interviewees in the EU15 countries to say that each EU country that wishes so should develop it (19% vs. 8%); conversely, they are less likely to say the EU should develop it together with the Member States (52% vs. 62%). 38

40 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Socio-demographic analysis shows only minor influence of age, education and occupation. The younger the respondents, the more likely they are to say that each EU country that wishes so should develop it: those aged (15%) compared to those aged 55+ (8%). Respondents who had left school at the age of 15 or younger are less likely to think development should be by the EU together with the Member States than their better educated counterparts (51% compared to the average of 59%). By contrast, employees are more likely to think so (63% compared to the average of 59%). Navigation systems use analysis shows that users of navigation systems are somewhat more likely than non-users to say this monitoring system should be developed by the EU together with the Member States (64% vs. 56%). 39

41 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Galileo awareness analysis reveals that Galileo-aware interviewees are more likely than unaware interviewees to say this monitoring system should be developed by the EU together with the Member States (63% vs. 55%). GMES awareness analysis show a slight difference, as GMES-aware respondents are more likely than those who are unaware to say this monitoring system should be developed by the EU together with the Member States (63% vs. 58%). Q6.1 The USA, China and Russia are developing their own space activities. In your opinion, when it comes to space activities in the EU, what do you think should be done for each of the following themes? (ROTATE) A space monitoring system to detect the satellites and space debris and prevent their collision The EU alone should develop it for all EU Member States The EU should develop it together with the Member States Each EU country who wishes so should develop it Neither the EU nor the Member States should develop it at all DK/NA EU27 15% 59% 11% 9% 6% Sex Male 16% 61% 9% 10% 4% Female 15% 58% 12% 8% 7% Age % 56% 15% 7% 4% % 61% 13% 8% 3% % 62% 10% 9% 4% % 58% 8% 11% 9% Education (End of) 15-13% 51% 9% 13% 14% % 61% 11% 9% 5% % 62% 9% 8% 4% Still studying 16% 60% 15% 6% 3% Respondent occupation scale Self-employed 17% 59% 10% 9% 5% Employee 15% 63% 9% 9% 4% Manual workers 14% 58% 15% 8% 5% Not working 15% 57% 11% 9% 8% Heard of Galileo Systeme Yes 16% 63% 9% 8% 4% No 14% 55% 13% 10% 8% Heard of GMES Yes 14% 63% 11% 7% 5% No 16% 58% 10% 10% 6% Use of navigation system Yes 15% 64% 10% 8% 3% No 15% 56% 11% 10% 8% 40

42 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Space exploration programme with humans or robots Over six in ten Europeans (63%) say a space exploration programme with humans or robots should be developed by the EU: 12 % say by the EU alone, but 51%think it should be developed by the EU together with the Member States. One in eight Europeans (12%) has the opinion that each EU country who wishes so should develop this space monitoring system. Almost one in five Europeans (18%) believes neither the EU nor the Member States should develop space exploration programme with humans or robots at all. A further 7% of the interviewees are unable to form an opinion. Country-by-country analysis reveals differences concerning the role of the EU in space exploration programme with humans or robots. Also with this theme, the most widespread opinion is that development should be by the EU together with the Member States; a majority of interviewees think so within 19 of the 27 Member States. Highest percentages of respondents with this view are observed in Latvia (65%), Lithuania (64%) and Hungary (63%); on the other end of the spectrum, Poland stands out with the lowest percentage (35%), followed at a distance by the UK (43%). The opinion that development of this space exploration programme should be by the EU alone for all EU Member States is found most often in Poland (22%) and Slovakia (19%); conversely, least so in Finland (5%), Sweden, Germany and Latvia (each 7%). Interviewees in Poland (26%) and Slovakia (20%) are the most likely to believe that each EU country that wishes so should develop it; by contrast, this is least likely of respondents in Portugal (6%), Estonia, Malta and Luxembourg (each 7%). Neither the EU nor the Member States should develop it at all is a view most often found in the UK (26%), Sweden and Spain (each 23%); conversely, it is observed least often in Bulgaria (6%), and Lithuania (7%). Again, as with the two space programmes (Galileo and GMES) in previous sections, interviewees in the NMS12 countries are more likely than the interviewees in the EU15 countries to say that a space exploration programme with humans or robots should be developed by each EU country that wishes so (19% vs. 10%); conversely, they are less likely to say the EU should develop it together with the Member States (47% vs. 52%). Nevertheless, respondents in the NMS12 are also somewhat more inclined than those in the EU15 to think the EU alone should develop it for all EU Member States (16% vs. 11%); and, noticeably, they are less inclined to say that neither the EU nor the Member States should develop it at all (12% vs. 20%). 41

43 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Socio-demographic breakdown reveals some influence of gender, age and education regarding the role of the EU in developing a space exploration programme with humans or robots. More men than women (56% vs. 47%) think development should be by the EU together with the Member States. The younger the respondents, the more likely they are to say that each EU country that wishes so should develop it: those aged (20%) compared to those aged 55+ (7%). This is also true of the lesser-educated who had left school at the age of 15 or earlier (26% compared to the average of 18%); they are also less likely to think development should be by the EU together with the Member States (41% compared to the average of 51%). Navigation systems use analysis reveals that users of navigation systems are noticeably more likely than non-users to say this space exploration programme should be developed by the EU together with the Member States (56% vs. 46%). 42

44 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Galileo awareness analysis shows that Galileo-aware respondents believe more often than unaware interviewees that this space exploration programme should be developed by the EU together with the Member States (55% vs. 46%). GMES awareness analysis reveals some influence: GMES-aware interviewees are somewhat more likely than the unaware to think this space exploration programme should be developed by the EU together with the Member States (54% vs. 49%). Q6.3 The USA, China and Russia are developing their own space activities. In your opinion, when it comes to space activities in the EU, what do you think should be done for each of the following themes? (ROTATE) A space exploration program with humans or robots The EU alone should develop it for all EU Member States The EU should develop it together with the Member States Each EU country who wishes so should develop it Neither the EU nor the Member States should develop it at all DK/NA EU27 12% 51% 12% 18% 7% Sex Male 14% 56% 10% 16% 4% Female 11% 47% 13% 20% 9% Age % 47% 20% 15% 4% % 53% 15% 16% 4% % 54% 10% 18% 5% % 49% 7% 21% 11% Education (End of) 15-10% 41% 9% 26% 14% % 52% 12% 18% 7% % 54% 11% 16% 5% Still studying 15% 49% 18% 14% 4% Use of navigation system Yes 13% 56% 11% 16% 4% No 12% 46% 12% 21% 9% Heard of Galileo Systeme Yes 13% 55% 10% 17% 5% No 11% 46% 14% 20% 9% Heard of GMES Yes 12% 54% 11% 16% 7% No 13% 49% 12% 19% 7% 43

45 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 3.3 Level of EU involvement in space exploration In the previous section we saw that 18% of the respondents think that a space exploration programme with humans or robots should not be developed at all by the EU or by the Member States. These respondents were not presented with the question dealt with in this section: whether the EU should do more in the field of Space Exploration. Of all other respondents, almost three-quarters (73%) believe the EU should do more in the field of Space Exploration 13 : 32% say yes, definitely and 41% say yes, probably. However, over one-fifth of them say this should not be the case: 15% say probably not and 7% say definitely not. A further 5% are unable to form an opinion. Base: total sample with exclusion of respondents who think neither the EU nor the Member States should develop a space exploration programme with humans and robots at all; n= In 2009 a similar question was asked on Space activities in a survey % of respondents believed that the EU should do more in the field of space exploration (26% Yes definitely, 38% Yes, perhaps, 28% No, 2% Does not matter/not interested). 13 Q7 Should the EU do more in the field of Space Exploration? 14 Q6. Should the European Union do more on the field of Space Exploration? ANSWERS POSSIBLE: Yes, definitely; Yes, perhaps; No; Does not matter/not interested, Don t know. FL272, Space activities in the European Union, 44

46 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Country-by-country analysis shows that in every single Member State there is a majority of interviewees in support of the EU doing more in the field of Space Exploration, with the largest proportions observed in Romania (91%), Bulgaria (88%), Lithuania (86%), Latvia (84%) and Greece (83%). The lowest percentages are in Austria (59%), Sweden (63%), the Netherlands and Denmark (both 64%). Member States with highest percentages of interviewees who say yes definitely are Bulgaria (54%), Romania (50%), Greece and Malta (both 46%). Countries where respondents are most inclined to say yes probably are Finland (57%), Poland (55%) and Latvia (53%). Base: total sample with exclusion of respondents who think neither the EU nor the Member States should develop a space exploration programme with humans and robots at all; n=

47 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Respondents in the NMS12 countries are more likely than those in the EU15 countries to say the EU should do more in the field of Space Exploration (81% vs. 70%). Socio-demographic breakdown reveals influence of gender, age and education. Men are more likely than women (76% vs. 69%) to say the EU should do more in the field of Space Exploration. The younger the respondents, the more likely they are to share this view: 82% of the youngest respondents aged compared to 65% of the oldest respondents aged 55+. Respondents who had left school at the age of 15 or younger are far less likely than their more educated counterparts (61% compared to the average of 73%) to be in support of the EU doing more in the field of Space Exploration. Q7 Should the EU do more in the field of Space Exploration? Yes, definitely Yes, probably No, probably not No, definitely not DK/NA EU27 32% 41% 15% 7% 5% Sex Male 39% 37% 13% 7% 4% Female 25% 44% 16% 8% 7% Age % 50% 12% 4% 2% % 44% 14% 5% 5% % 41% 15% 6% 5% % 34% 16% 11% 8% Education (End of) 15-31% 30% 15% 14% 10% % 42% 15% 7% 5% % 41% 15% 6% 5% Still studying 34% 47% 12% 4% 3% *** 46

48 ANNEXES

49 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

50 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Space activities TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Between the 9th and the 12th of July 2012, TNS Political & Social, a consortium created between TNS political & social, TNS UK and TNS opinion, carried out the survey FLASH EUROBAROMETER about Space activities. This survey has been requested by the EUROPEAN COMMISSION, Directorate-general for DG ENTREPRISE AND INDUSTRY. It is a general public survey co-ordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication ( Research and Speechwriting Unit). The FLASH EUROBAROMETER covers the population of the respective nationalities of the European Union Member States, resident in each of the 27 Member States and aged 15 years and over. All interviews were carried using the TNS e-call center (our centralized CATI system). In every country respondents were called both on fixed lines and mobile phones. The basic sample design applied in all states is multi-stage random (probability). In each household, the respondent was drawn at random following the "last birthday rule". TNS has developed its own RDD sample generation capabilities based on using contact telephone numbers from responders to random probability or random location face to face surveys, such as Eurobarometer, as seed numbers. The approach works because the seed number identifies a working block of telephone numbers and reduces the volume of numbers generated that will be ineffective. The seed numbers are stratified by NUTS2 region and urbanisation to approximate a geographically representative sample. From each seed number the required sample of numbers are generated by randomly replacing the last two digits. The sample is then screened against business databases in order to exclude as many of these numbers as possible before going into field. This approach is consistent across all countries. For each country a comparison between the sample and the universe was carried out. The Universe description was derived from Eurostat population data or from national statistics offices. For all countries surveyed, a national weighting procedure, using marginal and intercellular weighting, was carried out based on this Universe description. In all countries, gender, age, region and size of locality were introduced in the iteration procedure. For international weighting (i.e. EU averages), TNS Political & Social applies the official population figures as provided by EUROSTAT or national statistic offices. The total population figures for input in this post-weighting procedure are listed above. TS1

51 Readers are reminded that survey results are estimations, the accuracy of which, everything being equal, rests upon the sample size and upon the observed percentage. With samples of about 1,000 interviews, the real percentages vary within the following confidence limits: Statistical Margins due to the sampling process (at the 95% level of confidence) various sample sizes are in rows various observed results are in columns 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 95% 90% 85% 80% 75% 70% 65% 60% 55% 50% N=50 6,0 8,3 9,9 11,1 12,0 12,7 13,2 13,6 13,8 13,9 N=50 N=500 1,9 2,6 3,1 3,5 3,8 4,0 4,2 4,3 4,4 4,4 N=500 N=1000 1,4 1,9 2,2 2,5 2,7 2,8 3,0 3,0 3,1 3,1 N=1000 N=1500 1,1 1,5 1,8 2,0 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,5 2,5 N=1500 N=2000 1,0 1,3 1,6 1,8 1,9 2,0 2,1 2,1 2,2 2,2 N=2000 N=3000 0,8 1,1 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8 1,8 1,8 N=3000 N=4000 0,7 0,9 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 N=4000 N=5000 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,3 1,4 1,4 1,4 N=5000 N=6000 0,6 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,3 1,3 N=6000 N=7000 0,5 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,1 1,1 1,2 1,2 N=7000 N=7500 0,5 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,0 1,1 1,1 1,1 1,1 N=7500 N=8000 0,5 0,7 0,8 0,9 0,9 1,0 1,0 1,1 1,1 1,1 N=8000 N=9000 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 0,9 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 N=9000 N= ,4 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,8 0,9 0,9 1,0 1,0 1,0 N=10000 N= ,4 0,6 0,7 0,7 0,8 0,9 0,9 0,9 0,9 0,9 N=11000 N= ,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,8 0,9 0,9 0,9 0,9 N=12000 N= ,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,7 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,9 0,9 N=13000 N= ,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,7 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,8 N=14000 N= ,3 0,5 0,6 0,6 0,7 0,7 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,8 N= % 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 95% 90% 85% 80% 75% 70% 65% 60% 55% 50% TS2

52 ABBR. COUNTRIES INSTITUTES N INTERVIEWS FIELDWORK DATES POPULATION 15+ BE Belgium TNS Dimarso /07/ /07/ BG Bulgaria TNS BBSS /07/ /07/ CZ Czech Rep. TNS Aisa s.r.o /07/ /07/ DK Denmark TNS Gallup A/S /07/ /07/ DE Germany TNS Infratest /07/ /07/ EE Estonia TNS Emor /07/ /07/ EL Greece TNS ICAP /07/ /07/ ES Spain TNS Demoscopia S.A /07/ /07/ FR France TNS Sofres /07/ /07/ IE Ireland IMS Millward Brown /07/ /07/ IT Italy TNS Infratest /07/ /07/ CY Rep. of Cyprus CYMAR /07/ /07/ LV Latvia TNS Latvia /07/ /07/ LT Lithuania TNS LT /07/ /07/ LU Luxembourg TNS Dimarso /07/ /07/ HU Hungary TNS Hoffmann Kft /07/ /07/ MT Malta MISCO International Ltd /07/ /07/ NL Netherlands TNS NIPO /07/ /07/ AT Austria TNS Austria /07/ /07/ PL Poland TNS OBOP /07/ /07/ PT Portugal TNS EUROTESTE /07/ /07/ RO Romania TNS CSOP /07/ /07/ SI Slovenia RM PLUS /07/ /07/ SK Slovakia TNS AISA Slovakia /07/ /07/ FI Finland TNS Gallup Oy /07/ /07/ SE Sweden TNS SIFO /07/ /07/ UK United Kingdom TNS UK /07/ /07/ TOTAL EU /07/ /07/ TS3

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