# CHAPTER 8 ROAD SURFACE PROPERTIES

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1 CHAPTER 8 ROAD SURFACE PROPERTIES 230

5 high vehicle speed, the thick water layer on the road surface and the insufficient tyre profile. Figure 8.4 schematically shows how a rubber tyre rolls or slides over a wet road surface. Three zones are distinguished: zone 1 (no contact), zone 2 (local contact) and zone 3 (dry contact). When zone 1 enlarges the friction coefficient decreases, finally resulting in aquaplaning. This effect is intensified if a standing wheel is brought to rotation very quickly; this occurs at a landing aircraft where the phenomenon of aquaplaning was observed first. Figure 8.4: Schematic representation of a rolling tyre on a wet road surface. Re 4. Vehicle speed On a dry road surface the influence of the speed of the wheel (vehicle) on the friction coefficient in general is limited. However, on a wet road surface the friction coefficient strongly decreases with increasing vehicle speed and increasing thickness of the water layer (figure 8.5). The friction coefficient only becomes greater if the driver slows down or if the thickness of the water layer decreases (e.g. through a greater crossfall). Figure 8.5: The relationship between the friction coefficient and the vehicle speed as a function of the thickness of the water layer (100% wheel slip, profiled radial tyre, concrete road with a fine texture). 234

6 Re. 5 Wheel slip and drift angle A wheel can be braked off in such a way that solely forces in the longitudinal direction occur in the contact area between the tyre and the road surface. If ω 1 is the rotary speed of the braked wheel and ω 0 is the rotary speed of a purely ω0 ω1 rolling wheel, then the percentage of wheel slip is ( ) x 100%. ω0 The magnitude of the longitudinal force varies with the percentage of wheel slip. A braking wheel can also have a so-called drift angle with the direction of travel (e.g. braking in a curve). The occurring transversal braking forces are dependent on the magnitude of the drift angle Standards for skidding resistance: For reason of traffic safety there exist minimum requirements for the skidding resistance in the longitudinal direction. The standards used in The Netherlands are based on research of S.W.O.V. (Foundation for Scientific Research into Traffic Safety) that has found relationships between the skidding resistance of a road surface and the chance for traffic accidents. Characteristic values for the skidding resistance of roads outside built-up areas in The Netherlands are given in table 8.1. The skidding resistance has to be measured according to the standardised method of the Road and Hydraulic Engineering Division ( DWW ) of the Ministry for Transport, Public Works and Water Management. The standards are based on skidding resistance measurements with a retarded wheel with 86% wheel slip, a 0.5 mm thick water layer and a vehicle speed of 50 km/h. The measurement tyre does not have any profile and it is internationally standardised. Minimum value Guideline value = reject value Deduct value Table 8.1: Characteristic values for the skidding resistance of roads outside built-up areas. If at the delivery stage of the road the skidding resistance appears to be below the deduct value, the contractor gets a penalty. In the case that at the delivery the skidding resistance is below the guideline value, the contractor has to take such measures that after that the guideline value is exceeded everywhere. 8.3 Ride-ability and evenness: On one hand ride-ability can be expressed as driving comfort; this is a measure for the inconvenience for the passengers in a vehicle driving over a road. This inconvenience mainly includes the duration, the frequency, the 235

9 8.4.2 Concrete pavements: The desired texture on concrete pavements is obtained by treating (brooming) the surface of the fresh concrete. A properly constructed concrete pavement usually does not exhibit any unevenness. The diffuse reflection of (artificial) light is sufficient because of the natural light colour of the concrete Bituminous pavements: The skidding resistance originates from the angular aggregates in the wearing course at the road surface. The film of bitumen around the aggregates wears off under the repeated traffic loadings or is not present at all, which is the case when so-called chippings (small-sized stone aggregates) are strewed during compaction of the wearing course. Chippings are therefore (nearly) always applied on new dense asphalt wearing courses. The reflection of light is improved by the application of light-coloured aggregates in the wearing course. Under wet weather conditions the skidding resistance of a porous asphalt wearing course (in Dutch: ZOAB) generally is not any problem because the rainwater is removed through this asphalt layer. However, under dry weather conditions a newly constructed porous asphalt wearing course may exhibit a somewhat lower skidding resistance during a certain period of time, because the aggregates are then covered with bitumen. The micro texture of the aggregates only can contribute to the skidding resistance when the bitumen has worn off. Strewing chippings for a better skidding resistance during the first months is impossible as they would disappear into the porous asphalt. 8.5 Noise production of road surfaces: Traffic noise is not only caused by the vehicles engines and exhausts but also by the road surface together with the vehicle tyres driving over it. Therefore a distinction is made between operating noise and rolling noise, and this latter noise is generated by the vehicle tyres and the road surface. With increasing vehicle speed the rolling noise increases more strongly than the operating noise. The rolling noise is dominant over the operating noise for vehicle speeds of more than about 30 km/h (for luxury cars) and 60 km/h (for trucks) respectively. To solve the rolling noise problem solutions have to be found in the tyres and in the road surface. In this paragraph only the effects of the road surface on the production of rolling noise are very briefly discussed. It appears from acoustic considerations that both the depth and the wavelength of the surface texture have a substantial effect on the noise production. The diameter of the applied aggregate influences both factors: the smaller the diameter of the aggregate, the smaller the texture depth and the smaller the texture wavelength. A study for VBW-Asfalt (1) learned that, compared to dense asphalt that serves as a reference material, the various pavement types yield the difference in noise production as given in table 8.2. This table shows that porous asphalt results in a substantial reduction of the rolling noise. 238

10 Small element pavement Broomed concrete pavement Dense asphalt wearing course Porous asphalt wearing course (ZOAB) +2 till +5 db(a) +2 db(a) 0 db(a) -3 db(a) Table 8.2: Equivalent noise pressure levels on various types of road surface compared to a dense asphalt wearing course. 8.6 References: 1. Asphalt and traffic noise (in Dutch) Publication nr. 9; VBW-Asfalt; Breukelen

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