Broadband Coverage in Europe Final Report 2011 Survey Data as of 31 December DG INFSO C December 2011 IDATE 1

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1 Broadband Coverage in Europe Final Report 2011 Survey Data as of 31 December 2010 DG INFSO C December 2011 IDATE 1

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3 Table of contents 1. Methodological notes Executive summary European benchmark EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of Fixed broadband subscriber bases and penetration DSL coverage and penetration Cable modem coverage and penetration FTTH/B coverage and penetration WiMAX solutions Satellite solutions G coverage and take-up EU-27 + Norway & Iceland, from year-end 2008 to year-end Coverage Penetration Download speeds Origin of DSL connections Country profiles Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus The Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg IDATE 3

4 4.19. Malta The Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden The United Kingdom Glossary IDATE 4

5 Figures Figure 1: Gaps between DSL coverage in rural areas and national DSL coverage... 8 Figure 2: Gaps of to 17% between DSL penetration in rural areas and national DSL penetration.. 9 Figure 3: Proportion of fixed broadband connections* with download speeds over 2/8 Mbps Figure 4: Population coverage of 3G/3G+ networks Figure 5: Fixed broadband subscriber base at the end of 2010 (in million subscribers) Figure 6: Fixed broadband penetration at the end of Figure 7: National DSL coverage at the end of Figure 8: DSL coverage in rural areas at the end of Figure 9: National DSL subscriber base at the end of 2010 (in million subscribers) Figure 10: National DSL penetration at the end of Figure 11: DSL penetration in rural areas at the end of Figure 12: DSL subscriber bases broken down by download rates, at the end of Figure 13: Breakdown of rural DSL subscriber bases by download rate, at the end of Figure 14: DSL subscriber bases broken down by access origin, at the end of Figure 15: Breakdown of rural DSL subscriber bases by access origin, at the end of Figure 16: National cable modem coverage at the end of Figure 17: Cable modem coverage in rural areas at the end of Figure 18: National cable modem subscriber bases at the end of 2010 (in million subscribers) Figure 19: National cable modem penetration at the end of Figure 20: Cable modem penetration in rural areas at the end of Figure 21: Breakdown of cable modem subscriber bases by download rates, at the end of Figure 22: Breakdown of rural cable modem subscriber bases by download rates, end Figure 23: Number of FTTH/FTTB homes passed, at the end of Figure 24: Number of FTTH/FTTB subscribers, at the end of Figure 25: WiMAX subscriber base, at the end of 2010 (in thousands) Figure 26: National 3G (UMTS) population coverage at the end of Figure 27: National 3G+ (HSDPA) population coverage at the end of Figure 28: National territorial 3G (UMTS) coverage at the end of Figure 29: National 3G (UMTS) penetration at the end of Figure 30: National DSL coverage Figure 31: Rural DSL coverage Figure 32: National cable modem coverage Figure 33: Rural cable modem coverage Figure 34: Broadband penetration by technology, 2008 and Figure 35: National broadband penetration, 2008 to Figure 36: Rural broadband penetration (DSL + cable modem), 2008 to Figure 37: National DSL download rate segmentation (Dec Dec. 2010) Figure 38: National DSL download rate segmentation (Dec. 2010) Figure 39: Rural DSL download rate segmentation (Dec Dec. 2010) Figure 40: Rural DSL download rate segmentation (Dec. 2010) Figure 41: National cable modem download rate segmentation (Dec Dec. 2010) Figure 42: National cable modem download rate segmentation (Dec. 2010) Figure 43: Cable modem download rate segmentation for rural areas (Dec Dec. 2010) Figure 44: Cable modem download rate segmentation for rural areas (Dec. 2010) Figure 45: National DSL market share (31 Dec Dec. 2010) Figure 46: National DSL market share as of 31 December Figure 47: Incumbent carriers national DSL market share IDATE 5

6 Methodological notes 1. Methodological notes The goal of this report is to deliver the final results of the survey on Broadband coverage and take-up across Europe (29 countries, i.e. EU-27 Member States + Norway and Iceland) at the end of Averages have been calculated for 6 different country groups: EU-15, which covers the 15 Member States of the European Union as it was organised just before 1st April 2004; EU , which covers the EU-15, plus Norway and Iceland; EU-25, which covers the 25 Member States of the European Union until December 2006; EU , which covers the EU-25, plus Norway and Iceland; EU-27, which covers the 27 Member States of the European Union at present; EU , which covers the EU-27, plus Norway and Iceland. The data contained in this document was collected by IDATE and its partners, from broadband networks operators, regulators and various sources in each country examined. All of the principal broadband platforms were taken into consideration: primarily ADSL, cable and FTTx (including VDSL), but also other platforms such as WLL/WLAN, satellite and PLC. 3G coverage and take-up (measured by the number of 3G SIM cards and 3G PC cards sold) were also examined, but separately from fixed broadband access. Data refers to the situation as of 31 December 2010 The survey distinguishes Urban, Suburban and Rural areas, with the following definitions: Urban area: a population density superior to 500 people/km²; Suburban area: a population density between 100 people/km² and 500 people/km²; Rural area: a population density below 100 people/km². In some countries, such as Malta or Iceland, this breakdown does not apply because of their small size. Segmentation by download rate (for ADSL and cable modem) is as follows: less than 256 kbps (bottom limit for being classified as broadband), from 256 kbps (included) to 512 Kbps included, from 512 Kbps excluded to 1 Mbps included, from 1 Mbps excluded to 2 Mbps included, from 2 Mbps excluded to 8 Mbps included, from 8 Mbps excluded to 30 Mbps included, more than 30 Mbps. Download rate classes for FTTx are limited to the upper 4 categories, the first one covering up to 2 Mbps connections. We have split the provenance of DSL connections into 3 categories: DSL access sold directly by incumbent carriers through retail offers; DSL access sold by third-party ISPs through wholesale offers marketed by the incumbent carrier (simple resale or bitstream); DSL access through unbundling offers (shared access or full unbundling). IDATE 6

7 Methodological notes Throughout the report, DSL Coverage figures refer to the percentage of the population that depends on a Local Exchange equipped with a DSLAM. In other words, coverage measurement includes those people (Households or Businesses Units) who reside too far from these switches to be able to purchase a DSL connection even if they wanted to do so. The term Eligibility refers to "the percentage of the population that depends on Local Exchanges equipped with a DSLAM and excluding those people (Households or Businesses Units) who reside too far from these switches to be able to purchase a DSL connection even if they wanted to do so. Furthermore, these eligibility percentages will differ for the available download rates. For instance, eligibility for a downstream rate of 2 Mbps will be lower than eligibility for access running at 512 Kbps. No eligibility data exist for all countries as operators cannot measure precisely how many local loops are too long to support DSL, added to which new technical developments can increase eligibility levels (e.g. the introduction of REACH DSL). In some countries (e.g. Poland and the Czech Republic), where fixed telephone lines are not available to all households, DSL coverage was recalculated to obtain the actual percentage of the population that can be physically equipped with DSL (see detailed calculations in the country monographs). Throughout the report, Cable modem coverage figures refer to the percentage of the population living in households actually passed for cable. In other words, unlike DSL coverage figures, cable modem coverage also corresponds to eligibility figures. In respect to 3G customers, measurement is based on the number of broadband mobile customers. Figures refer to subscribers using 3G-based services and paying specifically for broadband data packages in a few cases only (e.g. the UK, Spain). More often, they refer to active 3G subscribers (i.e. mobile users with a 3G-capable handset and at least one connection to a 3G-based service over the past 3 months, regardless of the duration or the amount of data transmitted). 3G coverage is measured as a % of population (according to locations of residence) and as a % of territory. Wherever possible we distinguish between 3G and enhanced networks (more specifically HSDPA). Figures on 3G coverage refer to the mobile network with the highest rate of coverage in each national market. Country-specific data were also used to establish European benchmarks and averages. Averages have been calculated on a weighted basis. NB: In the tables and graphs, n.a. or no indication means that data is not available (while "0" indicates that there are no subscribers) and "n.r." is used when categories are not relevant. IDATE 7

8 Executive summary 2. Executive summary There were million fixed broadband subscribers in the 29 European countries surveyed 1 at the end of 2010, a 7% increase over the previous year. This translates into a 26.5% penetration rate (26.5 subscribers per 100 inhabitants, 1.7 percentage points higher than at the end of 2009) on average, and 28.8% when looking only at Western European countries (the EU-15 + Norway and Iceland). Country by country, take-up figures range from 14% in Romania to 39% in Denmark. DSL and cable modem remain by far the most prominent technologies. They still account for 9 of total fixed broadband connections in the region. However, their share has been declining over recent years (down by 2.7% compared to the end of 2009). With million subscribers (+3.8% in 2010), ADSL accounted for 74.9% of total fixed broadband connections at the end of 2010 (-2.1 percentage points) while cable modem accounted for 14.5% of the subscriber base (19.5 million subscribers, +5.2% in 2010). The remaining 10.6% are connected chiefly via fixed wireless access and FTTx technologies (including not only FTTH/B but also VDSL and DOCSIS 3.0) with the latter enjoying the highest rates of increase (see below). DSL coverage over 95% One of the reasons why DSL is the dominant access mode is that the POTS network on which DSL technologies operate is very widely available. At the end of 2010, average DSL coverage was over 95% (95.2% in the EU ), and even above 98% in Western European countries (98.1% in the EU ). This is 0.8 points higher than at the end of 2009, but progress has been slowing down when compared with previous years. At the national level, DSL coverage is now close to or over 95% in 19 countries. The 10 countries lagging behind are Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovenia, Greece, the Czech Republic and Estonia, with the first four countries listed reporting below 83% coverage despite significant progress in some of them in recent years (not least a +14% increase in Romania in the past two years). Furthermore, these national figures still reveal discrepancies between urban/suburban and rural areas. On average in the EU-27+2, DSL coverage in rural areas stood at 83.1% at the end of 2010, compared to 99.1% in urban areas: the gap between coverage in urban and rural areas has narrowed from 21 points at the end of 2008 to 19 points at the end of 2009, and to 16 points at the end of Figure 1: Gaps ranging from to 63% between DSL coverage in rural areas and national DSL coverage BE DK FR LU UK NL ES PT SE AT HU CY DE NO IT FI IE IC EE CZ EL SI LV LT SK RO BG PL DSL coverage in rural areas gap with national DSL coverage Nota: Definition of rural areas not applicable in Malta Source: IDATE survey 1 EU-27 plus Norway and Iceland IDATE 8

9 Executive summary The gap between coverage in rural areas and in urban areas remains very significant in Bulgaria (82 points with no change in 2010), Cyprus (65 points), Romania and Slovakia (45 points each), Poland (36 points) and Greece (38 points) but it is zero in the Benelux countries, Denmark, France, the UK and Spain. As to ADSL penetration, national figures range from 3.9% in Romania to 30.5% in France, with a weighted average of 19.9% for the 29 countries at the end of 2010 (+0.7 percentage points compared to the end of 2009) and 23.1% for Western countries (+0.8 pp). At the end of 2010, DSL penetration was above the regional average in only eight countries, but these include the four largest in terms of population (France, Germany, the UK and Italy). In Nordic countries, ADSL penetration rates have decreased in recent years due to competition from FTTx (Sweden) and from 3G (Finland, Norway). There are disparities between penetration levels in rural areas and national averages, as well as general differences in the penetration/coverage ratio. This means that in rural areas, not only does deficient coverage limit penetration, but the fact that broadband came later to those areas has created further delays in take-up. Some countries are nevertheless reporting higher ADSL penetration in rural areas due to a lack of or limited coverage for competing access technologies which are largely available in the rest of the country (cable, fibre ): starting with Belgium where cable modem was not available in some parts of Wallonia and, to a lesser extent, in the UK, Estonia, Latvia, Luxembourg, Norway and Slovenia. 4 Figure 2: Gaps of to 17% between DSL penetration in rural areas and national DSL penetration FR IC LU DE UK CY DK IT EL NL FI NO ES SE IE SI AT EE BE PT PL CZ HU LV SK LT BG RO DSL penetration in rural areas gap with DSL national penetration Nota: Definition of rural areas not applicable in Malta Source: IDATE survey On the matter of download speed, 8 of DSL users subscribe to offers running at over 2 Mbps (up 9% compared to the end of 2009) and 35% to a service running at over 8 Mbps (+7 points). Connections delivering speeds of over 2 Mbps account for 9 or more of all DSL in 12 countries, with close to in six of them (Belgium, Bulgaria, Luxembourg, Latvia, Malta, and Slovakia) while they accounted for less than 35% in Slovenia (34.1%), Poland (26%), and Cyprus (3). Disparities between connection rates subscribed to nationally and in rural areas are narrowing only slowly, with the average share of DSL connections with download speeds over 2 Mbps still 12 points lower in rural areas than at national level at the end of 2010 compared to 13 points at the end of As average speeds increase it may be more difficult for rural areas to close the gap due notably to technical limitations (the longer local loops, the lower DSL connection speeds).. Regarding the origin of DSL access, 54% of DSL connections are supplied directly by incumbent carriers to end-users at the end of 2010 (1% lower than at the end of 2009), with competing offers being now based chiefly on unbundled lines (36%; points), while the share of resale/bitstream offers decreased to 1 of all DSL connections. Unbundling remains less common in rural areas but it is gaining ground over time (+3 percentage points in 2010) and it is now far more popular than connections supplied through resale/bitstream offers (24% of DSL connections via unbundled lines, compared to 13.3% via resale/bitstream solutions). IDATE 9

10 Executive summary Cable modem ahead of other fixed broadband access technologies Cable modem availability is low compared to DSL: the average national coverage rate was only 45.1% at the end of 2010, and new deployments have been few and far between (+0.3 percentage points compared to the end of 2009). There are in fact some countries where cable is not or no longer available: Italy, Greece and Iceland while, in some large countries (France, the UK), cable is available primarily in big cities, with an average of only 14% coverage in rural areas. Basic cable modem penetration stood at 3.8% at the end of million subscribers in the 29 countries, which is up 5.2% compared to the end of 2009 and at only 1.4% in rural areas. Download speeds are generally higher than for DSL: in particular, connections with download speeds over 8 Mbps account for nearly 69% of total basic cable modem subscriptions, which is double the figure for DSL. It is also more than 54% in rural areas (compared to 23% for DSL) which may explain why cable modem is more successful in those areas with a penetration/coverage ratio of 1, versus less than 9% at national levels. Other fixed access technologies are making progress, notably FTTx which accounted for 11.3 million subscribers at the end of 2010, or 54.5% more than the year before, with connection speeds generally higher than 30 Mbps (more than half of total FTTx subscriber base or 5.7 million connections). FTTH/B still accounts only for one out of 3 FTTx customers (3.7 million FTTH/B subscribers at the end of 2010 in the 29 countries surveyed). Meanwhile, VDSL which is largely available in Germany, in Belgium and in a few other countries and DOCSIS 3.0 standard cable systems have developed more rapidly as some operators have invested primarily in the least costly network upgrades. The European average for FTTH/B coverage is less than 1, compared to more than 3 for FTTx as a whole. Fixed wireless access networks (notably WiMAX and two-way satellite) have also attracted 3.3 million subscribers altogether which accounts for 2.5% of total fixed broadband connections. These technologies are mainly (but not only) used in areas where wireline connections are not available, and especially in rural areas. 83% of fixed broadband connections with download speeds over 2 Mbps In total, (advertised) connection speeds exceed 2 Mbps for 83% of fixed broadband connections and 38% run at over 8 Mbps. The lowest speeds can be seen in Cyprus, Slovenia and Poland while the share of "over 2 Mbps" connections is close to in nine countries (Bulgaria, Malta, Belgium, Slovakia, Latvia, Denmark, Portugal, the UK and Romania) Figure 3: Proportion of fixed broadband connections* with download speeds over 2/8 Mbps BG MT BE SK LV DK PT UK RO LU SE IC LT ES CZ IE NL 29 FR IT HU AT FI DE NO EE EL PL SI CY >2 Mbps >8 Mbps * DSL + cable modem + FTTx Source: IDATE survey IDATE 10

11 Executive summary Strong dynamics of mobile broadband access In the mobile segment, 9 of the population, on average, was covered for 3G at the end of 2010, with six countries Denmark, Malta, Finland, Sweden, Ireland and Latvia at or very close to, and four the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Belgium reporting 98% 3G coverage. A large portion of 3G networks have been upgraded to HSDPA and/or HSUPA with 85% of the population having access to 3G+ services. Geographical coverage remains lower than that, however, as rural areas in particular are still underserved in numerous countries. In most European countries, geographical coverage for UMTS has reached 90- in urban areas but stands at less than 7 in rural areas in half of those countries Figure 4: Population coverage of 3G/3G+ networks DK MT SE FI IE LV NL NO SI BE PT UK IT CY AT ES EL FR 29 EE LU RO DE HU SK IC BG LT PL CZ 3G+ 3G Nota: 3G+ coverage data not available for the Czech Republic Source: IDATE survey The number of active 3G users stood at million at the end of 2010, i.e. nearly 22% of total mobile customers in the region. IDATE 11

12 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of European benchmark 3.1. EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of Fixed broadband subscriber bases and penetration Subscriber base Figure 5: Fixed broadband subscriber base at the end of 2010 (in million subscribers) IC M T LU CY EE LV SI LT SK IE BG FI NO HU AT PT DK EL CZ RO SE BE NL PL ES IT UK FR DE There were million fixed broadband subscribers at the end of 2010 in the 29 European countries covered by the survey, representing a 7% increase over the previous year (125.8 million subscribers at the end of 2009). Germany (26.2 million), France (21.3 million) and the UK (19.5 million) remain the largest contributors to this base; the three countries together accounting for nearly half of the broadband subscriber base in the region. In the rest of Europe, on the one hand, growth was still very high in Bulgaria (+27.4% in 2010) and in Greece (+17.5%) and was over 1 in five other countries Cyprus +13.3%, Poland +12.8%, the Czech Republic and Slovakia with +11.5% each, and Portugal +10.6%. On the other hand, growth is now low in some advanced countries (e.g. Netherlands, +2.8%), and has even decreased in Finland (-0.5%) for the second year in a row. Table 1: Fixed broadband subscriber bases at the end of 2010 (in million subscribers) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU IDATE 12

13 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 Fixed broadband penetration Figure 6: Fixed broadband penetration at the end of 2010 average % RO 14% SK PL 16% 17% BG HU PT EL LV LT CZ IT ES IE SI AT CY EE 19% 19% 19% 2 21% 21% 22% 22% 22% 23% 24% 24% 25% 26% MT FI 29% 29% BE UK DE SE FR LU IC NO 31% 32% 32% 32% 33% 33% 34% 35% NL DK 38% 39% 5% 1 15% 2 25% 3 35% 4 45% In terms of penetration, figures range from 14% in Romania to 39% in Denmark, with a weighted average for the 29 countries of 26.5%. Scandinavian and Benelux countries, plus France, Germany and the UK, all report penetration rates over or close to 3, which are the highest in the world (only South Korea also appears in this range). The other two largest European countries, Spain and Italy, are still lagging behind at 22%. Take-up is generally lower in Eastern European countries, with Greece and Portugal also remaining home to relatively low penetration levels. Table 2: Fixed broadband penetration at the end of 2010 (broadband connections as a % of the population) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 28.8% 27.1% 27.2% 26.4% 26.5% IDATE 13

14 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of DSL coverage and penetration DSL coverage Figure 7: National DSL coverage at the end of 2010 PL 77% average % BG RO SK 81% 82% 83% LT LV SI EL CZ EE IC IE FI IT NO DE CY HU AT SE PT ES NL MT UK LU FR DK BE 89% 89% 92% 92% 92% 94% 95% 96% 96% 96% 97% 97% 97% 98% 98% 98% 99% 99% 99% 99% DSL coverage at the national level ranged from 77% (Poland) to or very close to in five countries (Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Belgium, the UK) at the end of 2010, with a regional weighted average of 95.2% (+0.8 percentage points compared to DSL coverage at the end of 2009). DSL coverage at national levels is now higher than 9 in 23 out of the 29 countries surveyed and above 95% in 19 countries. Table 3: DSL coverage at the end of 2010 (as a % of the population) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 98.1% % 95.2% IDATE 14

15 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 Figure 8: DSL coverage in rural areas at the end of 2010 MT na nr average % BG 18% CY 45% SK PL RO EL 55% 58% 6 62% LV LT 67% 69% EE 8 SI CZ IC IT IE FI DE SE HU PT AT NO ES NL UK BE DK FR LU 84% 85% 86% 86% 89% 9 91% 92% 93% 94% 94% 96% 99% 99% Coverage in rural areas is now 83% on average in the 29 countries surveyed, which is still 12 points below the national average. The gap between rural and national coverage is narrowing but mainly thanks to significant progress in Romania (from 47% coverage in rural areas at the end of 2009 to 6 at the end of 2010). DSL coverage in rural areas is similar or very close to national average in seven countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain and the UK). On the flipside, there is still an over 5 gap in two countries: Bulgaria with 63% and Cyprus with 52%. Table 4: DSL coverage in rural areas at the end of 2010 (as a % of the population) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 93.9% 85.9% 86.2% 82.8% 83.1% IDATE 15

16 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 DSL penetration Figure 9: National DSL subscriber base at the end of 2010 (in million subscribers) MT IC LU EE LV CY LT SI BG SK IE HU RO CZ NO FI PT AT BE DK SE EL PL NL ES IT UK FR DE There were million DSL subscribers at the end of 2010 in the 29 countries covered, representing a 3.8% increase in a year (97.2 million at the end of 2009). Germany (22.1 million), France (19.9 million), the UK (15.4 million) and Italy (13.0 million) are by far the largest contributors, and together account for 7 of the regional DSL subscriber base. Table 5: National DSL subscriber bases at the end of 2010 (in million subscribers) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU IDATE 16

17 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 Figure 10: National DSL penetration at the end of 2010 RO BG 3.9% 4.5% average % LT SK LV HU CZ PL PT BE EE 6.6% 7.3% 7.8% 7.9% 8.3% 8.4% 10.1% 10.4% 11. AT SI MT IE SE ES NO FI NL EL IT DK CY 12.9% 13.9% 15.3% 16.4% 17.3% 17.9% 19.1% 19.3% 19.7% 19.8% 21.4% 22.3% 22.6% UK DE LU 25.2% 26.8% 27.8% IC FR % 5% 1 15% 2 25% 3 35% In terms of penetration, figures range from 3.9% in Romania to 30.5% in France, with a weighted average for the 29 countries of 19.9% (compared to 19.2% at the end of 2009). DSL remains by far the leading broadband access technology in Europe (74.9% of all fixed broadband connections) and DSL take-up depends on the general level of broadband development in each country. It does, however, also depend on the level of competition from other technologies which has been mainly cable modem up until recently, but now more and more FTTx as well. Table 6: National DSL penetration at the end of 2010 (as a % of the population) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 23.1% 20.8% 20.8% 19.9% 19.9% IDATE 17

18 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 Figure 11: DSL penetration in rural areas at the end of 2010 MT BG LT RO PL 0. nr 1.8% 2.7% 3.3% 3.8% average % CY SK HU 5.9% % CZ PT LV DK EE AT EL 8.7% 9.6% 10.4% 10.7% 11.5% 11.7% 13.2% SE ES SI 15.2% 15.6% 15.8% FI IE NL IT NO DE BE IC UK LU 18.1% 18.5% 19.3% 19.4% 19.9% 20.2% 21.6% 23.1% 24.7% 25.7% FR 28.2% 5% 1 15% 2 25% 3 DSL penetration in rural areas is still below national levels (14.7% on average vs. 19.9%) but it continued to increase in 2010, with significant contributions to growth from the largest countries (France, Germany, Poland, Italy, Spain) except the UK and, to a lesser extent, from Ireland and Portugal. Table 7: DSL penetration in rural areas at the end of 2010 (as a % of the population) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 20.2% 15.9% % 14.7% IDATE 18

19 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 DSL download rate segmentation Figure 12: DSL subscriber bases broken down by download rates, at the end of AT BE BG CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU IC IE IT LV LT LU MT NL NO PL PT RO SK SI ES SE UK 29 <256k k 512k-1M 1M-2M 2M-8M 8M-30M >30M On average, 8 of DSL customers subscribe to offers with download rates over 2 Mbps, including more than 35% subscribing to download rates over 8 Mbps (ADSL2+). France, Germany (not including VDSL), the UK and Spain concentrate the largest bases of high-speed DSL subscribers: nearly 11 million for France, 6.5 million for the UK, 6.2 for Germany and 5.3 million for Spain. In relative terms, the share of connections with headline speeds over 8 Mbps exceeds 5 in 6 countries (Bulgaria, France, Greece, Iceland, Portugal, Spain) and it is very close to 5 in Denmark. In rural areas, 68% of DSL customers subscribe to offers with download speeds over 2 Mbps, which still is 12 percentage points below national levels. Figure 13: Breakdown of rural DSL subscriber bases by download rate, at the end of na na nr na AT BE BG CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU IC IE IT LV LT LU MT NL NO PL PT RO SK SI ES SE UK 29 <256k k 512k-1M 1M-2M 2M-8M 8M-30M >30M * Average calculation excludes countries where figures are not available. IDATE 19

20 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 DSL access origin Figure 14: DSL subscriber bases broken down by access origin, at the end of AT BE BG CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU IC IE IT LV LT LU MT retail incumbent resale/bitstram ULL NL NO PL PT RO SK SI ES SE UK Avg. 29 On average, 54% of DSL connections are supplied directly by incumbent carriers (again one percentage point less when compared with previous year), while 1 are sold through resale and bitstream offers (vs. 11.5% one year before): with 36%, the share of DSL connections provided through unbundling has gained 2.4 percentage points within a year and nearly 9 points since the end of 2007 (27.3%). LLU is particularly well-entrenched and continue to gain market share in the recent period in the UK (48.6% of DSL connections at the end of 2010, + 4% compared to the end of 2009), France (44.7%, +3%) and Germany (40.8%, +1%) all three of which lag just behind Greece (49.2%, +7%). Not surprisingly, unbundling remains less developed in rural areas (only 24% on average) due to the smaller size of local exchanges which makes it less economical for a competitive supplier to install its own DSLAMs; it has nevertheless become more popular than resale offers in those areas as well. Figure 15: Breakdown of rural DSL subscriber bases by access origin, at the end of na na nr na AT BE BG CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU IC IE IT LV LT LU MT NL retail incumbent resale/bitstram ULL NO PL PT RO SK SI ES SE UK Avg. 29 * Average calculation excludes countries where figures are not available. IDATE 20

21 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of Cable modem coverage and penetration Cable modem coverage Figure 16: National cable modem coverage at the end of 2010 IT IC EL average % CY FR LT 28% 29% 31% SK PL SE FI IE CZ AT SI 35% 35% 38% 41% 42% 43% 43% 45% UK NO 5 5 ES LV DE DK BG 55% 57% RO EE 68% 69% LU 76% HU PT 84% 85% BE NL MT 92% 95% 95% Cable modem coverage at national levels ranged between (Greece, Italy, where it is not at all available, and Iceland where the service was abandoned three years ago) and 95% (Netherlands and Malta) at the end of 2010, with a regional weighted average of 45.1%, which marks a very slight increase compared to the end of Cable modem is generally more ubiquitous in Benelux, Portugal and in Eastern European countries, especially in Hungary, Estonia, Romania, Bulgaria and Latvia (all five countries with national cable modem coverage levels between 57% and 84%). Table 8: Cable modem coverage at the end of 2010 (as a % of the population) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 43.7% 43.8% 43.8% % IDATE 21

22 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 Figure 17: Cable modem coverage in rural areas at the end of 2010 MT IT IC n average EL EE CZ CY FI PL SK FR LT SE LV ES DE UK AT SI IE 1% 1% 1% 1% 3% 5% 12% 14% 18% 19% 21% 23% NO DK RO BG PT NL 25% 34% 4 45% 51% 51% LU BE HU 52% 6 63% In rural areas, cable modem coverage has reached 14% on average: progress was minimal when compared with 2009 figures (13.5%) and coverage in rural areas remains far below the national levels due to the fact that, in some large countries (France, the UK notably), cable is available primarily in big cities only. Table 9: Cable modem coverage in rural areas at the end of 2010 (as a % of the population) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 11.8% 10.6% % 14.. IDATE 22

23 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 Cable modem penetration 4.5 Figure 18: National cable modem subscriber bases at the end of 2010 (in million subscribers) EL IC IT CY LU LV LT MT EE SK BG SI IE FI RO CZ NO SE AT DK PT HU FR BE PL NL ES DE UK There were 19.5 million cable subscribers at the end of 2010 in the 29 countries covered, which represents a 5.2% increase over the year before (18.6 million cable modem subscribers at the end of 2009). The UK still leads the way with 3.8 million subscribers and a share of close to 2 of the total for the EU The six largest cable modem markets in Europe (the UK, Germany, Spain, Netherlands, Poland and Belgium) together account for more than two thirds of the regional subscriber base. Table 10: National cable modem subscriber bases at the end of 2010 (in million subscribers) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU IDATE 23

24 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 Figure 19: National cable modem penetration at the end of 2010 IT IC EL LV FR BG LT SK RO CY DE PL FI ES IE CZ LU 1.1% 1.4% 1.5% 1.5% 1.6% 1.8% 2.2% 2.7% average % 4.1% 4.2% 4.4% 4.5% 4.6% 4.7% EE SE SI UK AT PT 5.6% 5.8% 6.1% 6.2% 6.6% 6.6% HU 8.4% NO DK 9.8% 9.9% NL 11.6% MT 12.4% BE 13.4% 3% 6% 9% 12% 15% In terms of penetration, figures ranged from in Greece, Italy and Iceland, where cable is not or no longer (Iceland) available, to 13.4% in Belgium at the end of 2010 with a weighted average for the region of 3.8%, i.e. five times lower than DSL penetration rates. Table 11: National cable modem penetration at the end of 2010 (as a % of the population) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 3.9% 3.9% % 3.8% IDATE 24

25 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 Figure 20: Cable modem penetration in rural areas at the end of 2010 IT IC EL FI EE CY PL SK LT FR LV SE DE RO LU PT IE CZ UK % 0.04% 0.04% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 0.9% % 1.1% average % 1.1% 1.9% AT DK ES BG NO HU SI 3.3% 3.9% 4.4% 4.5% 4.7% 4.8% 5.1% BE 11.3% NL 16.3% 3% 6% 9% 12% 15% 18% Cable modem penetration in rural areas is very low, with a European average of only 1.4% with only Belgium and the Netherlands reporting penetration above 1 in rural areas. Table 12: Cable modem penetration in rural areas at the end of 2009 (as a % of the population) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 1.6% 1.3% 1.4% 1.3% 1.4% IDATE 25

26 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 Cable modem download rate segmentation Figure 21: Breakdown of cable modem subscriber bases by download rates, at the end of AT BE BG CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU IC IE IT LV LT LU MT NL NO PL PT RO SK SI ES SE UK 29 <256k k 512k-1M 1M-2M 2M-8M 8M-30M >30M On average, 91.9% of cable modem customers subscribed to offers with download rates of over 2 Mbps, which marks an increase over the 86.5% at the end of In addition, 68.8% subscribe to download rates of over 8 Mbps, which is nearly 13 percentage points more compared to figure at the end of In four countries (Belgium, Portugal, Spain and the UK), connections with download speeds over 8 Mbps account for 75% or more of total cable modem connections, with three more countries the Czech Republic, 73.7%, Germany, 74.3% and the Netherlands, 74.7% nearing this level. On average, cable modem connections offer higher download rates than DSL, including in rural areas. Figure 22: Breakdown of rural cable modem subscriber bases by download rates, at the end of na 0 0 na na nr na na AT BE BG CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU IC IE IT LV LT LU MT NL NO PL PT RO SK SI ES SE UK 29 <256k k 512k-1M 1M-2M 2M-8M 8M-30M >30M IDATE 26

27 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of FTTH/B coverage and penetration FTTH/B coverage Figure 23: FTTH/FTTB coverage*, at the end of 2010 MT EL CY BE RO PL UK IE DE ES AT CZ HU NL IT NO LU FR SK FI EE DK SE IC BG LV 0. na 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.7% average % 1.1% 1.2% 1.5% 2.5% 3.5% 5.1% 5.9% 9.9% 10.1% % 20.9% 21.6% 23.2% 25.4% 30.8% 32.3% 32.7% 35.2% 36.1% SI PT LT 37.7% 38.6% 81.8% * homes passed per 100 households There were 19.7 million FTTH/B homes passed in the 29 countries surveyed at the end of 2010 (9.1 homes passed per 100 households in average, +1.1 percentage points when compared to the end of 2009), with France accounting for nearly 3 of this total due to the upgrade plan of cable company, Numericable (4.5 million homes passed for FTTB). Developments were particularly significant in Portugal (+409,000 homes passed in 2010), Italy (+350,000) and Lithuania (+333,000), the latter with the highest coverage ratio by far in the EU Table 13: National FTTH/B homes passed at the end of 2010 (in millions) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 8.9% % % IDATE 27

28 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 FTTH/B penetration Figure 24: FTTH/FTTB peneration, at the end of 2010 MT UK CY EL BE PL ES HU DE LU AT IE IT RO CZ FR average % % 0.03% 0.03% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% NL PT FI 1.4% 1.5% 1.5% BG EE LV DK 2.3% 2.7% 2.8% 3.2% IC SK SI 3.7% 3.7% 4. NO 5.5% SE 6.4% LT 9.5% 2% 4% 6% 8% 1 The number of FTTH/FTTB subscribers stood at nearly 3.7 million at the end of 2010 (0.7 subscribers per 100 inhabitants in average) in the 29 countries covered up from 2.7 million at the end of 2009 (+35%). Almost half of the installed base is concentrated in four countries (Sweden, France, Italy and Lithuania, the latter with the highest penetration rate in the EU ). Developments were particularly significant in France (+160,500 subscribers in 2010), Bulgaria (+138,000) and Portugal (+118,500). Table 14: National FTTH/B subscriber bases at the end of 2009 (in millions) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% IDATE 28

29 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of WiMAX solutions WiMAX subscribers Figure 25: WiMAX subscriber base, at the end of 2010 (in thousands) na na na na na 0.1 IC CY NL RO SI SE LU EL UK IE LV MT SK BE IT BG PT LT FR FI PL AT EE NO DK ES HU DE CZ There were 1.3 million WiMAX subscribers in the 29 European countries surveyed at the end of 2010: half of them were concentrated in only one country, the Czech Republic (see section 4.5). The number of WiMAX subscribers is slightly declining (-3% compared to the subscriber base at the end of 2009) as new broadband access technologies, notably 3G, become increasingly available and offer competitive alternatives to WiMAX. Table 15: WiMAX subscriber bases at the end of 2010 (in thousands) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU , , , ,333.5 IDATE 29

30 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of Satellite solutions Satellite can prove to be a competitive solution for reducing the digital divide: Covering broadband dead zones requires considerable investments from telcos who have neither an obligation nor necessarily a financial incentive to undertake them. As a result, it often falls to public authorities, and usually local ones, to provide coverage in these areas. While satellite-based broadband solutions were cost prohibitive at the start of the century, recent technological developments have made it possible to deliver access up to 10 Mbps downlink/2 Mbps uplink for a reasonable price (e.g. 35 EUR a month, terminal included, for the basic offering in France). Despite certain technical restrictions, the introduction of the Ka band is helping to drive a revival of high-speed satellite access thanks to a much more appealing business model than the one tied to the introduction of the Ku band several years back. Satellite players are currently investigating the possibility of offering 50 Mbps downlink from IDATE 30

31 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of G coverage and take-up 3G population coverage Figure 26: National 3G (UMTS) population coverage at the end of 2010 CZ 45% average 29 9 PL 62% LT 76% BG IC SK HU DE RO LU EE FR EL ES AT CY IT UK PT BE SI NO NL LV IE FI SE MT DK 8 81% 83% 85% 86% % 92% 95% 95% 96% 96% 97% 98% 98% 98% 98% 99% 99% At the end of 2010, 3G deployments were underway in all countries, with an average population coverage of 9 only eight countries were below the 9-mark, in fact. The above figure refers to UMTS coverage with speeds of 384 Kbps and upwards. In numerous countries, operators have also upgraded their networks to 3.5G (HSDPA notably) to deliver higher speeds (1.5 Mbps+). See below for details. Table 16: 3G coverage at the end of 2010 (as a % of the population) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 94% IDATE 31

32 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of G+ population coverage Figure 27: National 3G+ (HSDPA) population coverage at the end of 2010 CZ na average 29 85% PL 49% RO 59% SK 68% BG IC LT 74% 74.89% 76% SI 81% PT HU DE LV NO LU EE FR EL IE AT ES CY IT UK BE NL SE FI MT DK 85% 85% 85% 85% 87% % 92% 94% 95% 95% 96% 96% 97% 98% 99% On the whole, 3G+ coverage is by now close to 3G coverage levels, especially in Western European countries (93% on average compared to 94% for 3G coverage). But there are still significant gaps between 3G and 3G+ coverage, notably in Ireland, Portugal and in Eastern Europe in general. Table 17: 3G+ coverage at the end of 2010 (as a % of the population) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 93% 87% 87% 85% 85% * Average calculation excludes countries where figures are not available. IDATE 32

33 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of 2010 Territorial 3G coverage Figure 28: National territorial 3G (UMTS) coverage at the end of 2010 ES CZ IC na na 5% average 29 58% LT 32% HU 37% RO 45% FR EL PL SK DE AT UK 52% 55% 55% 56% 57% 59% 6 EE CY PT 65% 65% 67% NO LU 75% 75% IT SI BG FI 8 81% 83% 84% BE SE IE NL LV MT DK 92% 95% 95% 98% 98% Territorial coverage for 3G (UMTS) is lower than population coverage due to the fact that the first rollouts were performed in densely populated areas (large towns, dense suburban areas) and, except in a few countries, rural areas are still underserved. On average, national UMTS coverage stood at 58% at the end of G networks have been largely upgraded to HSDPA, but there are still significant gaps in some countries between UMTS and HSDPA coverage levels, notably in a few Nordic countries (Norway, Sweden), in Ireland and in many Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia). The average for HSDPA territorial coverage is 46% (+9 percentage points compared to the end of 2009). Table 18: 3G coverage at the end of 2010 (as a % of the countries land mass) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 58% 58% 58% IDATE 33

34 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland at the end of G penetration Figure 29: National 3G (UMTS) penetration at the end of 2009* LV CZ 3% 3% average 29 28% EE ES HU PL BE 5% 7% 8% 9% 1 MT BG NO AT SK LT PT DK DE NL EL RO SI FI SE LU FR 17% 18% 19% 21% 21% 23% 24% 25% 26% 26% 27% 28% % 32% 35% UK IE 39% 41% IC 46% CY 53% IT 57% 15% 3 45% 6 75% There were million active 3G users* at the end of 2010 in the 29 countries covered (+3 compared to the end of 2009 on a comparable basis), which represents a 28% penetration rate. Takeup is slightly more advanced in Western countries (EU ). Table 19: 3G penetration at the end of 2009 (as a % of the population) EU-15 EU EU-25 EU EU-27 EU % 31.5% 28.3% 28.2% 28.1% 28. * Definitions can vary from one country to another (different periods for measuring active use, voice calls over 3G networks taken into account or not) IDATE 34

35 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland, from year-end 2008 to year-end EU-27 + Norway & Iceland, from year-end 2008 to yearend Coverage Figure 30: National DSL coverage PL BG RO 31/12/2009 SK LT LV SI EL CZ EE IC 29 IE FI IT NO DE CY HU AT SE PT NL MT ES UK LU FR DK BE Average DSL coverage in the EU reached 95.2% at the end of 2010, gaining 2.4 percentage points over the past two years. DSL coverage now exceeds 97% in half of the countries surveyed (14 out of 29); among the largest five European countries, Italy is the only one lagging behind. In 2010, significant progress was seen in Hungary and Romania and, to a lesser extent, in Portugal, Austria, Cyprus, Ireland, Greece, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Poland (which remained the only country with coverage level below the 8 mark). IDATE 35

36 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland, from year-end 2008 to year-end 2010 Figure 31: Rural DSL coverage MT BG CY SK PL RO EL LV LT EE 29 SI CZ IT IC IE FI DE SE HU PT AT NO NL ES UK LU FR DK BE nr 31/12/ Average DSL coverage in rural areas was just over 83% (EU ) at the end of 2010 with the gap with national coverage narrowing from 15.4% at the end of 2008 to 12.1% two years later (significant strides were made in 2010). Coverage levels in rural areas increased substantially in Cyprus, Romania and Poland, three countries where DSL availability has been traditionally low and progress is still needed (coverage in rural areas ranged between 45% and 6 at the end of 2010) but also in Ireland, Hungary, Portugal and Austria. Bulgaria continues to trail well behind with 18% coverage in rural areas. IDATE 36

37 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland, from year-end 2008 to year-end 2010 Figure 32: National cable modem coverage EL IT IC CY FR LT SK PL SE FI IE CZ AT SI 29 NO UK ES LV BG DE DK RO EE LU HU PT BE MT NL na na na na 31/12/ Average cable modem coverage in the EU was just above 45% at the end of 2010, up from 43.4% at the end of 2008 (very little progress was made in 2010 except in Ireland and more substantially in Norway). The situation still differs widely from country to country: from Greece, Italy and Iceland where cable is not or no longer available, to Belgium, Malta and the Netherlands where cable modem is now available to over 9 of the population. IDATE 37

38 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland, from year-end 2008 to year-end 2010 Figure 33: Rural cable modem coverage MT CY CZ EE EL IC IT FI PL SK FR LT SE LV ES 29 DE UK AT SI IE NO DK RO BG NL PT LU BE HU nr na na 31/12/ Average cable modem coverage in rural areas is still low compared to national coverage levels: only 14% (EU ) which is 31 percentage points below national coverage. Progress was seen in Bulgaria, in Norway and to a lesser extent in Hungary and Belgium, although the difference with national coverage levels remains significant even in those countries. IDATE 38

39 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland, from year-end 2008 to year-end Penetration Figure 34: Broadband penetration by technology, 2008 and 2010 DK NL NO IC LU FR SE DE UK BE FI MT 29 EE CY AT SI IE ES IT CZ LT LV EL PT HU BG PL SK RO DSL Cable modem Other 5% 1 15% 2 25% 3 35% 4 45% DSL remains by far the dominant fixed broadband technology, accounting for 75% of broadband connections, on average, in the EU It leads the way in all Western European countries, is facing stiffer competition in Eastern and Central European nations, first in Romania and Bulgaria (with DSL accounting for less than 3 of broadband connections in both countries) but also in Slovakia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, the Czech Republic and Estonia. In some of these countries, cable modem is well entrenched (notably in Hungary) but competition is also coming from other alternative technologies such as WiMAX (e.g. in the Czech Republic) and fibre (Baltic countries). In Finland, fixed broadband penetration has been decreasing as customers switch to mobile broadband. Progress was very slow in Sweden for the same reason. IDATE 39

40 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland, from year-end 2008 to year-end 2010 Figure 35: National broadband penetration, 2008 to 2010 RO SK 31/12/2009 PL BG HU PT EL LV LT CZ IT ES IE SI AT CY EE 29 MT FI BE UK DE SE FR LU IC NO NL DK Denmark and the Netherlands still rank number one overall in terms of broadband penetration, with a penetration rate just close to or over 38% at the end of Growth has been very strong over the last two years in Bulgaria, Greece and Cyprus (broadband take-up rose by 6.5% to 7.7% in all three countries) but progress was also significant in a number of places, including large and already well advanced markets (France, +5.2%; Germany, +4.3%; UK, +3.6%). IDATE 40

41 EU-27 + Norway & Iceland, from year-end 2008 to year-end 2010 Figure 36: Rural broadband penetration (DSL + cable modem), 2008 to 2010 MT LT PL RO CY SK BG CZ LV PT EE HU EL DK AT SE 29 IT FI IE ES DE SI IC NO UK LU FR BE NL nr na 31/12/ * Average calculation is weighted based on the rural population in the different countries Fixed broadband penetration in rural areas is generally far below the national average (just over 16% on average in rural areas, compared to 26.5% at the national level*), due primarily to lower coverage rates in those areas (3G coverage is now higher in some countries). * figures do not refer to exactly the same base, as penetration in rural areas is calculated on the basis of DSL and cable modem connections IDATE 41

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