1 Airfield Pavement Rehabilitation Planning Choosing the right fix Rob McLure, M.Eng., P.Eng. Senior Associate Hatch Mott MacDonald
2 Presentation Objective ¾ Review the pavement rehabilitation strategy development process ¾ Provide you with the key information sources that influence the development of your rehabilitation strategy? ¾Improving your understanding the relationship or cause & effect when looking at pavement distress information GOAL: TO ALLOW YOU TO MAKE MORE INFORMED or BETTER AIRFIELD PAVEMENT INVESTMENT DECISIONS
3 Making CORRECT pavement investment decisions is important (why?) Airfield Pavement Assets comprise well over 50% of the total assets managed by your Management Team The cost of airfield deterioration is likely the most expensive off the books annual operations expense. Operational Impacts of airfield project implementation is a major consideration when planning projects. Many Canadian airports have airfield pavements that have surpassed their service life. Northern climatic influences and short construction season cause increased rates of deterioration The issue strategy development is very challenging because
4 Because, like those Apollo 13 engineers You have no time, lots to do, limited resources and many other factors to consider when you try to get the right fix on your airfield pavements!
5 Presentation Overview Why Pavements Deteriorate (AC) What steps comprise a sound rehabilitation strategy development process Review of Pavement Deterioration Causal Factors Examine strategy versus distress type and causal factor Look at some examples YYC Charlottetown Airport YQM Moncton International Airport
6 What are the Causes of Deterioration? The Environment (Temperature & Water) Simple? Structural Loading (Weight & Frequency)
8 Many Factors result in the shape of the deterioration curve! Key is the right fix, at the right time!
9 The Challenge Getting a good understanding of the complete pavement condition, and knowing the primary and secondary causes of the deterioration exhibited. So, you can pick the best fix for YOUR situation!
10 How do you do it? The Strategy Development Process Step 5 Monitor Step 1 Understand Step 4 Fix Step 2 Evaluate & Diagnosis Step 3 Prescribe Industry Process
11 Step 1: Understand your Pavement s Condition Past Construction History Pavement Condition Surveys Detailed Pavement Assessments Functional Structural
12 Step 1: Understand Pavement Condition Past Construction History
14 Step 1: Understand Pavement Condition All distresses colleted and combined Distress Signature SCR Structural Condition Rating assigned based on the lowest value of rating for an individual distress. My CONCERNS! Does SCR provide enough detail to develop a rehabilitation strategy? With your SCR, do you clearly understand the deterioration causal factors? What project level investigation should be initiated?
15 Good Pavement Engineers Know what they don t know! Surface condition indexes provide a good overall measure for network level planning The distress signature (or individual scores. when compared) provide a valuable understanding of the causal factors. It is very difficult to confirm need for structural investment with out detailed pavement evaluation The HWD tool is a vital tool in the investigation process.
16 Step 2: Diagnosis of the Problem Successful pavement rehabilitation strategies must go beyond the surface view from pavement distress ratings Expert System for pavement strategy development The strategy must address the causal factors and not just the symptoms.. BUT What are the causal factors? Environment, Materials, Construction, Subsoils, Drainage, Loadings
17 Diagnosis: Cracking Longitudinal, Transverse and Edge Cracks Description: Longitudinal and transverse cracks are generally isolated failures that run along joints or transverse across the pavement structure. Causal Factors: Temperature & Drainage Mix Composition Reflection of underlying layers Poor Construction Weak shoulder support Experience: The majority of longitudinal Functional cracks are thermal/age failures on poorly constructed joints and are construction related. Transverse cracks are generally Structural Environmental thermal & moisture related, reflective, or a result of poor mix design.
18 Diagnosis Structural Issues; Alligator Cracks, Map Cracking & Block Cracking Description: Alligator cracks, map cracks and block cracking are generally located in areas of load transfer. Alligator cracks are specifically base related, while map and block cracks tend to be a progressive failure of other cracking types. Causal Factors: Loads vs. pavement structure Drainage Poor maintenance of isolated cracks Poor Construction Experience: The majority of alligator type Combination cracks are due to failure of the pavement structure to withstand the loads imposed on it. This weakness may be a result of a Structural Functional number of factors but typically it is base material related.
19 Diagnosis: Surface Defects Raveling Description: Aggregate loss and general disintegration of the asphalt surface. Causal Factors: Temperature (Freeze Thaw) Poor Mix Composition (Low AC) Poor Construction (Compaction) Poor Construction (Temperature) Poor Construction (Materials handling) Age & Oxidation Experience: The majority of raveling failures are related to aged surface and/or poor construction Combination quality. Late season asphalting or low compaction results due to poor workmanship (timing, Structural temperature, segregation) Functional during placement.
20 Diagnosis: Surface Deformation Rutting, Shoving & Distortion Description: Rutting and Shoving are deformation type failures. They are characterized by wheel path (high load area) failure. Many times this is base failure but in others it is AC mat movement. Shoving occurs in areas of excessive lateral movement or braking. Causal Factors: Temperature (high load hot day) Mix Composition Poor Construction (compaction) Poor Construction (layer bond) Structure failure (Soon!) Experience: The majority of rutting and Combination shoving is due to failure of the structure and AC mat. In some cases alligator cracking follows fast, but in others, the initial Structural Functional deformation forces problems of surface drainage and ride comfort.
21 Diagnosis: Surface Defects Bleeding Description: Bleeding is characterized as areas with liquid asphalt permeating to the surface of the mat. The mat will have a tacky or wet look as the excess asphalt coats the area. Typically found in wheel track areas. Causal Factors: Temperature Mix Composition (AC Content) Tack Coat from underlying areas High traffic loads Experience: Combination The majority of bleeding occurs in areas with poor mix composition. Excess asphalt under repeated wheel loadings makes Structural its way to the surface causing Functional functional and operational problems.
22 Step 2: The Diagnosis: Understand your causal factors?? Investigate? Structural Deep Fixes Surface Functional Fixes
23 Step 3: Narrow down your alternatives
24 Step 3: Develop or Prescribe your Fix Economic Factors Cost of Fix vs. Budget Life Cycle Costs Costs of partial or interim fixes Consideration of all the influences is critical to the selection of the FINAL rehabilitation strategy ECONOMICS Pavement Condition Distress Types Distress Severity Causal Factor Potential Strategies CONDITION OPERATIONS Operational Factors Scope of Project Timing of the Work Phasing and Programming Airport Masterplan
25 Step 4: Perform the Work
26 Step 5: Monitor your System Step 5 Monitor Step 4 Fix Step 3 Prescribe Step 1 Understand Step 2 Evaluate & Diagnosis Track the performance of the repair Monitor the deterioration of your system Track the system investment Invest in pavement management if possible
27 Summary: Keys to Effective Rehabilitation Strategy Development (Picking the right fix) 1. Good pavement history (construction, investment, performance, condition curve) 2. Understand that distresses are not the key problem, they are a symptom. 3. Document the pavement failure causal factors to allow adjustment of QC Programs, Specifications or typical designs. 4. Build your tool kit of solutions. (resources, specifications) 5. Spend wisely to respect the pavement life cycle and the other investment influences
28 Case Studies for: Effective Pavement Rehabilitation Strategy Development Greater Moncton International Airport YQM 2010 Airfield Rehabilitation Program Charlottetown Airport YYC 2011 Runway Rehabilitation
29 Atlantic Canada Airports Key Airports (Approx # s) Halifax 5M St. John s 1.25M Moncton.65M Charlottetown.23M St. John.150M Fredericton, Sydney, Gander, Goose Bay, Deer lake <.15M
30 Charlottetown Airport YYC is located in Charlottetown PEI only airport on the Island with passenger service. The CAA took operation of the airport 10years ago. Apron 1 expansion overlay assignments on Hatch Mott MacDonald contracted to plan, design and manage the construction phase services for the rehabilitation project. Recent Master planning has identified airfield rehabilitation as a priority for the airport.
31 Developing the Plan Step 5 Monitor Step 1 Understand Runway is the cross wind runway at YYC. 1524m x 60m (5000 x 200 ) Code 3E? Past study stated $7M mill & overlay Runway Step 1 Step 5 Understand Monitor edge lighting is in fair to poor condition Step 2 The length Step 4 of 5,000 not adequate to Evaluate & Fix Diagnosis accommodate commercial operations Step 3 Prescribe Used by lighter and smaller general aviation aircraft. Airport concerned about investment Step 4 Fix Step 3 Prescribe Step 2 Evaluate & Diagnosis
32 Rehabilitation Strategy Development Charlottetown Airport Operational Costs an issue Winter and Summer Runway accommodated 80% of all runway operations Runway (20% of all traffic) but mainly GA activities. Surface Distress Assessment (ERD-121) The section west of Runway low to medium severity transverse and longitudinal cracking low to medium severity block cracking over 25 % of the surface low severity ravel over 100% of the surface asphalt patching completed in 1998 on longitudinal mat joint cracks SCR = 4.5 The section east of Runway Increased surface distress, with low to high severity transverse and longitudinal cracking Low to medium severity block cracking over 75% of the surface Low to high ravel over 100% of the surface Minor vegetation growth in cracks, some pop-outs, ponding water on the asphalt along the edges of the runway SCR = 4.0
33 Rehabilitation Strategy Development Charlottetown Airport Runway has excellent crown and experiences no drainage concerns. The edge drain system was recently sampled by video and revealed a system in excellent condition. The surface exhibits extensive longitudinal cracking along paving joints. These longitudinal cracks have an average width of 10mm.
34 Rehabilitation Strategy Development Charlottetown Airport The transverse cracks are more pronounced on the north end of the runway and average 9 meter spacing with a coverage of 50% north of runway and 25% coverage on the south end. The transverse cracks are severe and the average width is 15mm. Over 50% of the major cracking and transverse cracking occurs in the centre 30m width of the runway.
35 Major Transverse Cracking!!
36 Summary of Findings The runway is severely oxidized and has moderate ravelling with a 90 to 100% coverage. FOD is not present and much of the polished aggregate is due to sweeping as opposed to continuous loss. The 1997 Transport Canada condition assessment "mirrors" the 2009 assessment. It is suspect that the ravelling of 100% of the surface occurred in the first 10 years of the runway. Overall, the runway has deteriorated from thermal loading (environmental). It shows no signs of distortion, rutting, or any structural failure, except at the intersection of the two runways. The runway is in good structural shape, but the severity of the cracks is such that a standard overlay will not last. It is expected that if a standard overlay were attempted, reflective cracking would occur, in the first 3 years. Cracks are very severe and load transfer and base strength reduction impacts of water unknown.
37 Need for In-depth Testing
38 Rehabilitation Plan Developed Confirmed structural strength Weak load transition across the system All surface repairs, age and functional The strategy will involve; Reduction of runway width and focus on the centre Mill 30-50mm (to be determined) to a 45 meter width Mill all deep cracks 300mm wide and pad with AC Remove 30m width total 100 mm depth of AC (15 meters each side of centreline) Pave 70mm of AC in the centre 30m strip Pave mm AC overlay 45 meters wide the entire length of runway. Replace edge lights Total Cost $5.5M (savings of $1.5M)
39 Other Program Findings HDW Tests done for whole airfield (economies) Confirmed long term role of m x 45 (5000 x 150 ) as a Code 3C Examination of potential to extend to 1829m x 45m (6000 x 150 ) as a 4D for Commercial traffic and more balanced usage of the airfield
40 Project 2: Greater Moncton Airport YQM is located in southeastern New Brunswick. GMIAA took operation of the airport over 10years ago. Expansionary projects and were addressed in that period. Extensive backlog of paving projects on the books and Board identified these as priorities in program. Hatch Mott MacDonald contracted to plan, design and manage the construction phase services of the $20M program.
41 Greater Moncton International Airport APRON VIII ATB TAXI E R N U W A Y TAXI D RUNWAY TAXI B TAXI C APRON I TAXI A
42 Overall Paving Program CONSTRUCTION $4.4M 2011 CONSTRUCTION $10M 2012 CONSTRUCTION $5.6M
43 Rehabilitation Strategy Development Greater Moncton International Airport Step 5 Monitor Step 1 Understand Step 5 Monitor Step 1 Understand Step 4 Fix Step 2 Evaluate & Diagnosis Step 2 Step 4 Evaluate & Fix Diagnosis Research of Past work Interview with Step Operations 3 Prescribe Field Investigation Geotechnical Program HWD Program Interview with Stakeholders Step 3 Prescribe
44 Key Challenges Limited Data on drainage systems Apron 1 and Taxi A black topped during life. Apron 1 having low PCN Taxi A showing signs of map cracking and borderline alligator cracking Deep asphalts due to many overlays Six (6) intersections FedEx, Purolator, Transport Canada, Prince Edward Air, MFC all impacted
45 Purolator / Fed Ex Cargo Operations Transport Canada / RCMP Operations Flight College Ensure Maximum Apron Slopes are not Exceeded along Limits of 60mm Overlay.
46 Need for Deeper Investigation Visual Distress Survey of all Pavement Surfaces showing some surface defects. Deep asphalt, black top, poor drainage and some potential early structural defects identified. Need for Boreholes, Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD)
47 Runway Intersection REHABILITATION OPTIONS: Intersection Runway / Exhibiting Numerous Surface Distresses Elastic Modulus of Asphalt is Low Structural Integrity was found to be acceptable using the HWD. Most Cracking is Not Associated with structural Failure. Remove Existing Asphalt Full Depth and Repave in Order to Address the Soft Asphalt.
48 Apron 1 - Rehabilitation Apron I 42 Year old Concrete Apron Already Undergone Extensive Repairs 75% of the Concrete Panels require Continual Maintenance. Structurally Sound Several Options were Explored: Remove Top 50mm and place New Asphalt Surface. Remove Top 50mm, Place Crack Relief Layer, Place New Asphalt Surface. Rubblize Existing Concrete and Place New Asphalt Surface Remove Concrete and Place New Flexible Pavement Structure. REHABILITATION OPTION: Remove Existing Concrete and Place a New Asphalt Pavement Structure.
49 Taxi A REHABILITATION OPTION: Taxi Alpha Last Resurfaced in 1991 Significant Cracking in Wheelpaths Some Isolated Alligator Cracking Performed Well to Date HWD Analysis Indicates that the Pavement Requires Strengthening. 1. Where Alligator Cracking is Present, Remove the 65mm of Asphalt and Repave. 2. Tack Coat and Place 60mm Asphalt Overlay over the Entire Surface.
50 Apron 5 Entrance Apron V Entrance Constructed in 1996 Significant portion has been repaired since then. Moderate Alligator Cracking Some cracking at Construction Joints Distresses are indicative of Ongoing Structural Failure. REHABILITATION OPTION: Reconstruction of the entire Pavement Structure.
51 Final Program Total Cost for 2010 Construction Program $4.4M APRON VIII Phase 1 Phase Full Phase Reconstruction of Full Concrete 60mm Full Depth Reconstruction Asphalt Apron Asphalt Overlay Mill of & Replace Apron V Entrance Select Edge Drains Edge Reinstate Drains Replace Edge Edge Lighting Drains Drains Estimated Reinstate Lighting Cost $1.3M Estimated Cost Cost $1.3M $0.7M $0.4M TAXI A APRON I
52 Project Success! Detailed pavement rehab planning process and good tender documents and strategy resulted in tenders at 15% below budget Contractor delivered the planned 16 wks of work in 7 weeks! Aggressive schedule and 24 hours of operation for; & intersection Cargo Apron No delays, excellent quality and well developed pavement strategy
53 A Final Note Pavement rehabilitation strategy development involves a comprehensive process. Project investments are typically large and therefore the right fix is critical Surface distresses are symptoms, not the problems. Understand the problems! Know when you don t know! Great pavement rehabilitation programs address the fundamental causal factors and respect the operational and economic influences at the airport.
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