Chemical Bonds stable octet

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chemical Bonds stable octet"

Transcription

1 Chemical Bonds Elements form bonds to be in a lower energy state 1. Ionic Bonds transfer of electrons, between metal and nonmetal 2. Covalent Bonds sharing of electrons, between two nonmetals 3. Metallic Bonds- neighboring atoms in solid metals form bonds Octet rule: atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons to achieve a stable octet (noble gas configuration)

2 Electron Dot Symbols Valence electrons: reside in the highest occupied energy level, reside in the outer s & p orbitals and are the electrons involved in chemical bonding. Electron-dot symbols are convenient way of showing the s & p electrons & tracking them in bond formation -They consist of the chemical symbol for the element plus a dot for each valence electron Consider sulfur whose electron configuration is [Ne]3s 2 3p 4, thus there are six valence electrons: S

3 Ch. 7 Ionic and Metallic Bonding I II III IV

4 B. Ionic Bonds Ionic Bonds atoms transfer electrons from a cation (positive ion) to an anion (negative ion) to achieve an octet. Ionic compounds are stable due to the electrostatic forces between unlike charges organizing the ions of ionic substances into a rigid, organized three-dimensional arrangement: The ions are drawn together Energy is released Ions form solid lattice structure

5 Lattice Energy Lattice energy: The energy required to completely separate a given quantity of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions. Thus, in reverse, the high energy is given off as heat and light when Na + and Cl - is incorporated into the NaCl salt lattice.

6 Steps in Ionic Bonding Process (1) Ionization Energy (IE) Step 1: The minimum energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of an isolated gaseous atom or ion. First ionization energy: Na(g) + IE 1 Na + (g) + e - ; + H (positive/ endothermic) Second Ionization Energy: Be(g) + IE 1 + IE 2 Be 2+ (g) + 2 e - ; + H (positive) The greater the IE, the more difficult it is to remove an e -.

7 Steps in Ionic Bonding Process (2) Electron Affinity (EA): Most atoms can attract e - to form negatively charged ions The energy change that occurs when an e - is added to a gaseous atom. For most atoms, the energy released when an e - is added. Cl(g) + e - Cl - (g) + electron affinity (negative/exothermic) ; - H The greater the attraction between a given atom and an added e -, the more negative the atom s EA. Halogens s 2 p 5 have the most negative EA.

8 Steps in Ionic Bonding Process (3) Lattice Energy (LE) The release of energy that occurs when ions of opposite charge are attracted to each other and form a stable ionic compound. Na + + Cl - NaCl + lattice energy ; - H (negative/exothermic) Ionic compounds have very large LE which makes up for endothermic ionization energy.

9 B. Properties of Ionic Compounds Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature Arranged in repeating threedimensional patterns Ionic compounds generally have high melting points Large attractive forces result in very stable structures

10 B. Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds can conduct an electric current when melted or dissolved in water When ionic compounds are dissolved in water the crystalline structure breaks down so ions are able to move freely which results in conductivity

11 The positive Na ions move to the cathode and the negative Cl ions move to the anode

12 Ch. 7 Ionic and Metallic Bonding III. Bonding in Metals (p ) I II III IV

13 A. Metallic Bonding Metallic bonds: Consist entirely of metal atoms. Bonding is due to valence electrons which are delocalized throughout the entire solid The metal is held together by the strong forces of attraction between the positive nuclei and the delocalized electrons.

14 B. Metals Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity because the valence electrons are able to flow freely Valence electrons of metals can be thought of as a sea of electrons, very mobile

15 C. Metallic Bond Metallic Bonding - Electron Sea

16 D. Metallic Properties Have luster, are ductile and malleable Luster = shine Ductile = ability to be drawn into wires Malleable = ability to be shaped, pounded, etc

17 D. Metallic Properties Properties can be explained by the mobility of electrons in metals When subjected to pressure, the cations easily slide past each other like a ball bearing immersed in oil.

18 B. Types of Bonds Bond Formation Smallest Unit Physical RT Melting Point Solubility in Water Electrical Conductivity Other Properties METALLIC e - are delocalized among metal atoms electron sea solid very high no yes (any form) malleable, ductile, lustrous

19 Covalent Bonding

20 What is a covalent bond? A chemical bond that results from the sharing of electrons, to form a stable octet or duet (Hydrogen only needs 2 to be stable) Molecule = two or more atoms that are held together by covalent bonds H 2 O Majority of covalent bonds form between nonmetals (CLOSE together on periodic table)

21

22 Covalent Bonding Formation Diatomic molecule molecule containing the same two atoms Some elements always exist this way because they are more stable than the individual atoms Cl 2

23 B. Diatomic Elements The Seven Diatomic Elements Br 2 I 2 N 2 Cl 2 H 2 O 2 F 2 H N O F Cl Br I

24 Bonds in all the polyatomic ions and diatomics are all covalent bonds

25 Single Covalent Bonds Two atoms held together by a sharing of one pair of electrons are joined together by a single covalent bond.

26 Single Covalent Bonds An electron dot structure represents the shared pair of electrons of the covalent bond by two dots. A structural formula represents the covalent bonds by dashes and shows the arrangement of covalently bonded atoms

27 Single Covalent Bonds A pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms is called an unshared pair, also known as a lone pair of a nonbonding pair. Lone pair

28 Double and Triple Covalent Bonds Atoms form double or triple covalent bonds if they can attain a noble gas structure by sharing two or three pairs of electrons. A double bond involves sharing two pairs of electrons. A triple bond involves sharing three pairs of electrons.

29 Bond Length From a study of various Nitrogen containing compounds bond distance as a function of bond type can be summarized as follows: N-N 147pm N=N 124pm N N 110pm As a general rule, the more e - that are shared: the stronger the covalent bond (N N > O=O > F F) the shorter the covalent bond (N N < O=O < F F)

30 Double and Triple Covalent Bonds

31 Molecular Structure Lewis Diagrams (p ) I II III

32 Drawing Lewis Diagrams 1. Arrange atoms Singular atom is usually in the center (often Carbon) If not Carbon, least e - neg atom is in center Hydrogen is always terminal 2. Find total # of e - available to bond (valence e - ) 3. Place a pair of electrons between central atom and each terminal atom

33 Drawing Lewis Diagrams 4. Place remaining electrons in pairs around terminal atoms (except H) to satisfy octet rule Any remaining pairs are assigned to central atom 5. Determine whether or not central atom satisfies octet If not, convert one or more lone pairs from terminal atoms to double or triple bonds Certain atoms can be exceptions to octet rule H, Be, B, S, P, Xe

34 Drawing Lewis Diagrams CF 4 1 C 4e - = 4e - 4 F 7e - = 28e - 32e - - 8e - 24e - F F C F F

35 Drawing Lewis Diagrams CO 2 1 C 4e - = 4e - 2 O 6e - = 12e - 16e - - 4e - 12e - O C O

36 Polyatomic Ions To find total # of valence e - : Add 1e - for each negative charge Subtract 1e - for each positive charge Place brackets around the ion and label the charge

37 Polyatomic Ions ClO Cl 7e - = 7e - 4 O 6e - = 24e - 31e - + 1e - 32e - - 8e - 24e - O O Cl O O

38 Octet Rule F Exceptions: Hydrogen 2 valence e - Boron & Beryllium get 6 & 4 valence e - respectively B F H F N O S O H F F F F F Very unstable!! Expanded octet more than 8 valence e - (e.g. S, P, Xe)

39 Drawing Lewis Diagrams BeCl 2 1 Be 2e - = 2e - 2 Cl 7e - = 14e - 16e - - 4e - 12e - Cl Be Cl

40 Drawing Lewis Diagrams SF 6 1S 6e - = 6e - + 6F 7e - = 42e - 48e - F F F S F 48 e e - 36 e - F F

41 Resonance Structures Molecules that can t be correctly represented by a single Lewis diagram Actual structure is an average of all the possibilities Show all possible structures separated by double-headed arrows

42 C. Resonance Structures SO 3 O O S O O O S O O O S O

43 Bond Polarity Most bonds are a blend of ionic and covalent characteristics. Difference in electronegativity determines bond type.

44 Bond Polarity Electronegativity Attraction an atom has for a shared pair of electrons. higher e - neg atom - lower e - neg atom +

45 Electronegativity Difference If the difference in electronegativities is between: 1.7 to 4.0: Ionic Greater than 0.3 & less than 1.7: Polar Covalent 0.0 to 0.3: Non-Polar Covalent

46 The type of bond can usually be calculated by finding the difference in electronegativity of the two atoms that are bonded. Compound F 2 or F-F CF 4 LiF or Li-F Electronegativity Difference Type of Bond = = = 3.0 Non-polar covalent (strong) Polar covalent Ionic (noncovalent)

47 Bond Polarity Nonpolar Covalent Bond e - are shared equally symmetrical e - density usually identical atoms Ex: H 2 or Cl 2

48 Bond Polarity Polar Covalent Bond e - are shared unequally asymmetrical e - density results in partial charges (dipole) Ex: H 2 O + -

49 Polar Covalent Bonds: Unevenly matched, but willing to share.

50 - water is a polar molecule because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, and therefore electrons are pulled closer to oxygen.

51 Ch. 8 Molecular Structure Molecular Geometry (p ) I II III

52 VSEPR Theory Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory Electron pairs orient themselves in order to minimize repulsive forces

53 VSEPR Theory Types of e - Pairs Bonding pairs form bonds Lone pairs nonbonding e - Total e - pairs bonding + lone pairs Lone pairs repel more strongly than bonding pairs!!!

54 A. VSEPR Theory Lone pairs reduce the bond angle between atoms Bond Angle

55 Determining Molecular Shape Draw the Lewis Diagram Tally up e - pairs on central atom (bonds + lone pairs) double/triple bonds = ONE pair Shape is determined by the # of bonding pairs and lone pairs

56 Common Molecular Shapes 2 total Electronic Geometry = linear 2 bond 0 lone BeH 2 LINEAR 180

57 Common Molecular Shapes 3 total 3 bond 0 lone Electronic Geometry = trigonal planar BF 3 TRIGONAL PLANAR 120

58 Molecular Polarity Polar molecule = one end slightly + and one end slightly Molecule with 2 poles = dipolar molecule or dipole

59 Molecular Polarity Shape, symmetry and bond polarity determines molecular polarity H O bond is polar and water is asymmetrical, so H 2 O is polar C Cl bond is polar, but CCl 4 is symmetrical, so molecule is nonpolar

60 Molecular Polarity Identify each molecule as polar or nonpolar O 2 CS 2 CF 4 H 2 O Nonpolar bonds nonpolar Linear nonpolar Tetrahedral nonpolar Bent polar

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 1 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties design of periodic table is based on observing properties

More information

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy

More information

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16 Covalent Bonding Goals : To gain an understanding of : NOTES: 1. Valence electron and electron dot notation. 2. Stable electron configurations. 3. Covalent bonding. 4. Polarity

More information

Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures

Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Introduction Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Molecular compounds are formed by sharing electrons between non-metal atoms. A useful theory for understanding the formation of molecular

More information

A pure covalent bond is an equal sharing of shared electron pair(s) in a bond. A polar covalent bond is an unequal sharing.

A pure covalent bond is an equal sharing of shared electron pair(s) in a bond. A polar covalent bond is an unequal sharing. CHAPTER EIGHT BNDING: GENERAL CNCEPT or Review 1. Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself. Electronegativity is a bonding term. Electron affinity is the

More information

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided. Name Date lass APTER 6 REVIEW hemical Bonding SETIN 1 SRT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. a A chemical bond between atoms results from the attraction between the valence

More information

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding SECTION 1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding OBJECTIVES 1. Define Chemical bond. 2. Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds. 3. Describe ionic and covalent bonding.. 4. Explain

More information

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Why do TiCl 4 and TiCl 3 have different colors?... different chemical properties?... different physical states? Chemical Bonding and Properties Difference in

More information

Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic

Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic compounds. Chemical bonds are electrostatic forces; they

More information

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.

More information

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n)

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n) Chemistry I ATOMIC BONDING PRACTICE QUIZ Mr. Scott Select the best answer. 1) A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is

More information

Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds Transfer of Electrons When metals bond with nonmetals, electrons are from the metal to the nonmetal The becomes a cation and the becomes an anion. The between the cation

More information

5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules

5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules 5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules What you will accomplish in this experiment This experiment will give you an opportunity to draw Lewis structures of covalent compounds, then use those

More information

Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chemical Bonds Three types: Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions Covalent Sharing of electrons Metallic Metal atoms bonded to several other atoms Ionic Bonding

More information

CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING

CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING Active Learning Questions: 3-9, 11-19, 21-22 End-of-Chapter Problems: 1-36, 41-59, 60(a,b), 61(b,d), 62(a,b), 64-77, 79-89, 92-101, 106-109, 112, 115-119 An American chemist

More information

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules INTRODUCTION Lewis dot structures are our first tier in drawing molecules and representing bonds between the atoms. The method was first published

More information

Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms

Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Lewis dot formulas or Lewis dot representations are a convenient bookkeeping method for tracking valence electrons. Valence electrons are those electrons that are transferred

More information

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song: (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs)

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song:  (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs) Most atoms are not Packet 4: Bonding Atoms will, or share electrons in order to achieve a stable. Octet means that the atom has in its level. If an atom achieves a stable octet it will have the same electron

More information

Lab Manual Supplement

Lab Manual Supplement Objectives 1. Learn about the structures of covalent compounds and polyatomic ions. 2. Draw Lewis structures based on valence electrons and the octet rule. 3. Construct 3-dimensional models of molecules

More information

Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8)

Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8) Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8) End of Chapter questions: 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18, 23, 27, 28, 32, 33, 39, 43, 46, 67, 77 Chemical reaction valence electrons of atoms rearranged (lost,

More information

The Lewis electron dot structures below indicate the valence electrons for elements in Groups 1-2 and Groups 13-18

The Lewis electron dot structures below indicate the valence electrons for elements in Groups 1-2 and Groups 13-18 AP EMISTRY APTER REVIEW APTER 7: VALENT BNDING You should understand the nature of the covalent bond. You should be able to draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for any atom, molecule, or polyatomic ion.

More information

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding 1. There are paired and unpaired electrons in the Lewis symbol for a phosphorus atom. (a). 4, 2 (b). 2, 4 (c). 4, 3 (d). 2, 3 Explanation: Read the question

More information

Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson

Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\00bondingtrans.doc The Nature of Bonding Types 1. Ionic 2. Covalent 3. Metallic 4. Coordinate covalent Driving

More information

EXPERIMENT 17 : Lewis Dot Structure / VSEPR Theory

EXPERIMENT 17 : Lewis Dot Structure / VSEPR Theory EXPERIMENT 17 : Lewis Dot Structure / VSEPR Theory Materials: Molecular Model Kit INTRODUCTION Although it has recently become possible to image molecules and even atoms using a high-resolution microscope,

More information

Molecular Geometry and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland Community College for the use of this experiment.

Molecular Geometry and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland Community College for the use of this experiment. Molecular and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland ommunity ollege for the use of this experiment. Objectives To construct molecular models for covalently bonded atoms in molecules and polyatomic ions

More information

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s)

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) BONDING MIDTERM REVIEW 7546-1 - Page 1 1) Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) 2) The bond between hydrogen and oxygen in

More information

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key 1) Nitrogen is the central atom in each of the following species: N2 N2 - N2 + Nitrogen can also form electron deficient compounds with a single unpaired electron on the

More information

C has 4 valence electrons, O has six electrons. The total number of electrons is 4 + 2(6) = 16.

C has 4 valence electrons, O has six electrons. The total number of electrons is 4 + 2(6) = 16. 129 Lewis Structures G. N. Lewis hypothesized that electron pair bonds between unlike elements in the second (and sometimes the third) row occurred in a way that electrons were shared such that each element

More information

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds 4.1 Chemical Bonding o Chemical Bond - the force of attraction between any two atoms in a compound. o Interactions involving valence

More information

3/5/2014. iclicker Participation Question: A. MgS < AlP < NaCl B. MgS < NaCl < AlP C. NaCl < AlP < MgS D. NaCl < MgS < AlP

3/5/2014. iclicker Participation Question: A. MgS < AlP < NaCl B. MgS < NaCl < AlP C. NaCl < AlP < MgS D. NaCl < MgS < AlP Today: Ionic Bonding vs. Covalent Bonding Strengths of Covalent Bonds: Bond Energy Diagrams Bond Polarities: Nonpolar Covalent vs. Polar Covalent vs. Ionic Electronegativity Differences Dipole Moments

More information

Assessment Schedule 2015 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of bonding, structure, properties and energy changes (91164)

Assessment Schedule 2015 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of bonding, structure, properties and energy changes (91164) NCEA Level 2 Chemistry (91164) 2015 page 1 of 7 Assessment Schedule 2015 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of bonding, structure, properties and energy changes (91164) Evidence Statement Q Evidence

More information

Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance

Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance Lewis Dot notation is a way of describing the outer shell (also called the valence shell) of an

More information

EXPERIMENT 14: COMPARISONS OF THE SHAPES OF MOLECULES AND IONS USING MODELS

EXPERIMENT 14: COMPARISONS OF THE SHAPES OF MOLECULES AND IONS USING MODELS EXPERIMENT 14: CMPARISNS F TE SAPES F MLECULES AND INS USING MDELS PURPSE Models of various molecules and ions will be constructed and their shapes and geometries will be compared. BACKGRUND LEWIS STRUCTURES

More information

Question 4.2: Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of the following elements: Mg, Na, B, O, N, Br.

Question 4.2: Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of the following elements: Mg, Na, B, O, N, Br. Question 4.1: Explain the formation of a chemical bond. A chemical bond is defined as an attractive force that holds the constituents (atoms, ions etc.) together in a chemical species. Various theories

More information

Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Element: A substance that cannot be chemically converted into simpler substances;

More information

Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies

Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Without consulting Table 8.2, arrange the ionic compounds NaF, CsI, and CaO in order of increasing lattice energy. Analyze From the formulas for three

More information

3.4 Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures

3.4 Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures 3.4 Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures The Lewis Model of Chemical Bonding In 1916 G. N. Lewis proposed that atoms combine in order to achieve a more stable electron configuration. Maximum stability results

More information

Chapter 9-10 practice test

Chapter 9-10 practice test Class: Date: Chapter 9-10 practice test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which one of the following is most likely to be an ionic compound?

More information

Health Science Chemistry I CHEM-1180 Experiment No. 15 Molecular Models (Revised 05/22/2015)

Health Science Chemistry I CHEM-1180 Experiment No. 15 Molecular Models (Revised 05/22/2015) (Revised 05/22/2015) Introduction In the early 1900s, the chemist G. N. Lewis proposed that bonds between atoms consist of two electrons apiece and that most atoms are able to accommodate eight electrons

More information

Chapter 7. Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Ionic Bonds. Types of Bonds. Quick Review of Bond Types. Covalent Bonds

Chapter 7. Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Ionic Bonds. Types of Bonds. Quick Review of Bond Types. Covalent Bonds Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonds Chapter 7 Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure Intermolecular forces (much weaker than bonds) must be broken Ionic bonds must be broken 1 Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds

More information

ch9 and 10 practice test

ch9 and 10 practice test 1. Which of the following covalent bonds is the most polar (highest percent ionic character)? A. Al I B. Si I C. Al Cl D. Si Cl E. Si P 2. What is the hybridization of the central atom in ClO 3? A. sp

More information

Questions on Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Questions on Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Questions on Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Circle the Correct Answer: 1) Which ion below has a noble gas electron configuration? A) Li 2+ B) Be 2+ C) B2+ D) C2+ E) N 2-2) Of the ions below,

More information

Bonding Practice Problems

Bonding Practice Problems NAME 1. When compared to H 2 S, H 2 O has a higher 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: boiling point because H 2 O contains stronger metallic bonds covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds 2. Which

More information

TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE

TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE Electron configurations determine organization of the periodic table Next properties of elements and their periodic behavior Elemental properties determined

More information

Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies

Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Without consulting Table 8.2, arrange the following ionic compounds in order of increasing lattice energy: NaF, CsI, and CaO. Analyze: From the formulas

More information

Test 8: Review Questions

Test 8: Review Questions Name: Thursday, February 14, 2008 Test 8: Review Questions 1. Based on bond type, which compound has the highest melting point? 1. CH OH 3. CaCl 3 2 2. C H 4. CCl 6 14 4 2. Which compound contains ionic

More information

Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

More information

Sharing of Electrons. Covalent Bonding Chapter 8. Ch. 8 Vocabulary OBJECTIVES. Exothermic Reaction Structural Formula (Ch. 8.3) Polar Covalent Bond

Sharing of Electrons. Covalent Bonding Chapter 8. Ch. 8 Vocabulary OBJECTIVES. Exothermic Reaction Structural Formula (Ch. 8.3) Polar Covalent Bond Ch. 8 Vocabulary 2 Covalent Bonding Chapter 8 Covalent bond Molecule Lewis Structure Sigma bond Pi bond Bond Dissociation Energy Endothermic Reaction Exothermic Reaction Structural Formula (Ch. 8.3) Polar

More information

Lewis Structures. Sections Learning goals:

Lewis Structures. Sections Learning goals: 1 Lewis Structures. Sections 3.3-3.7 Learning goals: (1) Writing valid Lewis structures for the constitutional structure of molecular substances for a given composition. (2) Predicting molecular geometry

More information

Chapter 12 Review 1: Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure

Chapter 12 Review 1: Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure Chapter 12 Review 1: Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure 1) How are ionic bonds and covalent bonds different, and what types of elements combine to form each? Ionic bonds result from the transfer of

More information

Bonding Web Practice. Trupia

Bonding Web Practice. Trupia 1. If the electronegativity difference between the elements in compound NaX is 2.1, what is element X? bromine fluorine chlorine oxygen 2. Which bond has the greatest degree of ionic character? H Cl Cl

More information

2. Atoms with very similar electronegativity values are expected to form

2. Atoms with very similar electronegativity values are expected to form AP hemistry Practice Test #6 hapter 8 and 9 1. Which of the following statements is incorrect? a. Ionic bonding results from the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. b. Dipole moments result

More information

Molecular Models: Lewis Structure and VSEPR Theory

Molecular Models: Lewis Structure and VSEPR Theory Minneapolis Community & Technical College Chemistry Department Chem 1020 Laboratory Molecular Models: Lewis Structure and VSEPR Theory bjectives To determine the Lewis structure for a molecule To determine

More information

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Ionic Compounds Section 8.1 Forming Chemical Bonds In your textbook, read about chemical bonds and formation of ions. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. chemical bond electrons

More information

Covalent Bonding And Molecular Geometry

Covalent Bonding And Molecular Geometry ovalent Bonding And Molecular Geometry Questions: 1.ow can the valence electrons of an atom be represented? 2.ow do atoms achieve an octet? 3.ow are electrons shared in a molecule? 4.ow can the geometries

More information

The Lewis structure is a model that gives a description of where the atoms, charges, bonds, and lone pairs of electrons, may be found.

The Lewis structure is a model that gives a description of where the atoms, charges, bonds, and lone pairs of electrons, may be found. CEM110 Week 12 Notes (Chemical Bonding) Page 1 of 8 To help understand molecules (or radicals or ions), VSEPR shapes, and properties (such as polarity and bond length), we will draw the Lewis (or electron

More information

Valence Bond Theory - Description

Valence Bond Theory - Description Bonding and Molecular Structure - PART 2 - Valence Bond Theory and Hybridization 1. Understand and be able to describe the Valence Bond Theory description of covalent bond formation. 2. Understand and

More information

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding 6.1 Organizing the Elements I. The Periodic Law A. The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers B. Elements

More information

Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory

Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory Chapter 10 Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory Concept Check 10.1 An atom in a molecule is surrounded by four pairs of electrons, one lone pair and three bonding pairs. Describe how the four

More information

5. Which of the following subatomic particles are most important in determining the chemical reactivity and physical properties of an atom?

5. Which of the following subatomic particles are most important in determining the chemical reactivity and physical properties of an atom? 1. For the following compounds draw the Lewis Structure and determine: (a) The # of Bonding Pairs (b) The # of Lone pairs (c) The electron domain shape (d) The molecular shape (e) Hybridization (f) Whether

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Modified by Dr. Daniela R. Radu Why This Chapter? Description of basic ways chemists account for chemical

More information

2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties:

2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: Electronegativity and polarity Polar and non-polar bonds: 1) Non-Polar bonds: 2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: A covalent bond shares an electron pair: In a hydrogen molecule, the electrons

More information

11/9/2014. Atoms of elements (except Gp.8A) exist in some form of aggregation.

11/9/2014. Atoms of elements (except Gp.8A) exist in some form of aggregation. APTER 8 hemical Bonding Atoms of elements (except Gp.8A) exist in some form of aggregation. All compounds made (by chemical combination) of different elements exist in some form of aggregation of elements.

More information

Periodic Table Study Guide

Periodic Table Study Guide Chemistry Periodic Table Name: Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Periodic Table Study Guide Directions: Please use this packet as practice and review. DO NOT try to answer these questions during presentations, take

More information

Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding

Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Octet rule-duet role: when undergoing chemical reaction, atoms of group 1A-7A elements tend to gain, lose, or share sufficient electrons to achieve an electron

More information

Background: Electron Dot Formula Basics

Background: Electron Dot Formula Basics Background: Electron Dot Formula Basics 1. What do the dots in an electron dot formula represent? 2. Describe the pattern of electron dot formulas as you move from left to right in a period of the Periodic

More information

Vocabulary: VSEPR. 3 domains on central atom. 2 domains on central atom. 3 domains on central atom NOTE: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Vocabulary: VSEPR. 3 domains on central atom. 2 domains on central atom. 3 domains on central atom NOTE: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory Vocabulary: VSEPR Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory domain = any electron pair, or any double or triple bond is considered one domain. lone pair = non-bonding pair = unshared pair = any electron

More information

SOME TOUGH COLLEGE PROBLEMS! .. : 4. How many electrons should be shown in the Lewis dot structure for carbon monoxide? N O O

SOME TOUGH COLLEGE PROBLEMS! .. : 4. How many electrons should be shown in the Lewis dot structure for carbon monoxide? N O O SME TUGH CLLEGE PRBLEMS! LEWIS DT STRUCTURES 1. An acceptable Lewis dot structure for 2 is (A) (B) (C) 2. Which molecule contains one unshared pair of valence electrons? (A) H 2 (B) H 3 (C) CH 4 acl 3.

More information

EXAM 4 CH (Blackstock) November 30, 2006

EXAM 4 CH (Blackstock) November 30, 2006 EXAM 4 CH101.004 (Blackstock) November 30, 2006 Student name (print): honor pledge: 1. Which of these choices is the general electron configuration for the outermost electrons of elements in the alkaline

More information

Copyright Page 1

Copyright Page 1 1 Introduction to Bonding: Two-Dimensional Lewis tructures Key Terms: abbreviated electron configuration combines the inert, noble core electrons (abbreviated via a noble element) with the outermost or

More information

OCTET RULE Generally atoms prefer electron configurations with 8 valence electrons. - Filled s and p subshells

OCTET RULE Generally atoms prefer electron configurations with 8 valence electrons. - Filled s and p subshells TYPES EMIAL BDIG 1 Ionic Bonding - Bond between ions whose charges attract each other - ne atom gives electrons and one atom takes electrons. Example a + l - ionic bond ovalent Bonding - two atoms each

More information

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each. Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

More information

Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1

Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1 Unusual electron configurations Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1 Examples: Cr and Cu Transition metal ions: s and d energy levels change

More information

Self Assessment_Ochem I

Self Assessment_Ochem I UTID: 2013 Objective Test Section Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. There is only one correct answer; please carefully bubble your choice on the scantron sheet.

More information

Chapter 10 Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory

Chapter 10 Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory Chem 1: Chapter 10 Page 1 Chapter 10 Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory I) VSEPR Model Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Model A) Model predicts Predicts electron arrangement and molecular

More information

Ionic and Metallic Bonding

Ionic and Metallic Bonding Ionic and Metallic Bonding BNDING AND INTERACTINS 71 Ions For students using the Foundation edition, assign problems 1, 3 5, 7 12, 14, 15, 18 20 Essential Understanding Ions form when atoms gain or lose

More information

Chapter 11: Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11: Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter 11: Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Name: Many of the concepts in this chapter come from the idea that elements are always trying to obtain 8 valence electrons because this

More information

6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties

6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties 324 Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe and explain the observed trends

More information

: : Solutions to Additional Bonding Problems

: : Solutions to Additional Bonding Problems Solutions to Additional Bonding Problems 1 1. For the following examples, the valence electron count is placed in parentheses after the empirical formula and only the resonance structures that satisfy

More information

Chemistry Workbook 2: Problems For Exam 2

Chemistry Workbook 2: Problems For Exam 2 Chem 1A Dr. White Updated /5/1 1 Chemistry Workbook 2: Problems For Exam 2 Section 2-1: Covalent Bonding 1. On a potential energy diagram, the most stable state has the highest/lowest potential energy.

More information

Chemical bonds between atoms involve electrons.

Chemical bonds between atoms involve electrons. Chapter 6, Section 2 Key Concept: Chemical bonds hold compounds together. BEFORE, you learned Elements combine to form compounds Electrons are located in a cloud around the nucleus Atoms can lose or gain

More information

UNIT TEST Atomic & Molecular Structure. Name: Date:

UNIT TEST Atomic & Molecular Structure. Name: Date: SCH4U UNIT TEST Atomic & Molecular Structure Name: _ Date: Part A - Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Who postulated that electrons

More information

Unit 8: Drawing Molecules

Unit 8: Drawing Molecules Unit 8: Drawing Molecules bjectives Topic 1: Lewis Dot Diagrams & Ionic Bonding 1. Draw a Lewis dot diagram of any representative element. 2. Draw a Lewis dot diagram of any ionic compound. A Lewis structure

More information

PREDICTING MOLECULAR SHAPE AND POLARITY USING VSEPR THEORY

PREDICTING MOLECULAR SHAPE AND POLARITY USING VSEPR THEORY EXPERIMENT 2 PREDICTING MOLECULAR SHAPE AND POLARITY USING VSEPR THEORY Materials Needed Molecular model kit. Textbook Reading Smith, chapter 3.10-3.12 Background In this lab, you will practice your understanding

More information

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Intermolecular Forces

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Intermolecular Forces Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Intermolecular Forces Physical Properties & Bond Types Physical properties of substances are affected by the attractive forces between particles Greater attraction

More information

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges.

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges. Name: 1) Which molecule is nonpolar and has a symmetrical shape? A) NH3 B) H2O C) HCl D) CH4 7222-1 - Page 1 2) When ammonium chloride crystals are dissolved in water, the temperature of the water decreases.

More information

H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart

H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart Non-Covalent Molecular Forces 2/27/06 3/1/06 How does this reaction occur: H 2 O (liquid) H 2 O (gas)? Add energy H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart H 2O liquid: bonding between molecules Use heat

More information

5. Which of the following is the correct Lewis structure for SOCl 2

5. Which of the following is the correct Lewis structure for SOCl 2 Unit C Practice Problems Chapter 8 1. Draw the lewis structures for the following molecules: a. BeF 2 b. SO 3 c. CNS 1- d. NO 2. The correct Lewis symbol for ground state carbon is a) b) c) d) e) 3. Which

More information

Chapter 18: How Atoms Bond and Molecules Attract. 18.1: Electron-Dot Structures Help Us to Understand Bonding

Chapter 18: How Atoms Bond and Molecules Attract. 18.1: Electron-Dot Structures Help Us to Understand Bonding Chapter 18: How Atoms Bond and Molecules Attract Name: 18.1: Electron-Dot Structures Help Us to Understand Bonding What are the 3 types of bonds we will be learning about? When 2 atoms meet, which part

More information

Principal energy levels are divided into sublevels following a distinctive pattern, shown in Table 5.1 below.

Principal energy levels are divided into sublevels following a distinctive pattern, shown in Table 5.1 below. 56 Chapter 5: Electron Configuration, Lewis Dot Structure, and Molecular Shape Electron configuration. The outermost electrons surrounding an atom (the valence electrons) are responsible for the number

More information

Bonding Models. Bonding Models (Lewis) Bonding Models (Lewis) Resonance Structures. Section 2 (Chapter 3, M&T) Chemical Bonding

Bonding Models. Bonding Models (Lewis) Bonding Models (Lewis) Resonance Structures. Section 2 (Chapter 3, M&T) Chemical Bonding Bonding Models Section (Chapter, M&T) Chemical Bonding We will look at three models of bonding: Lewis model Valence Bond model M theory Bonding Models (Lewis) Bonding Models (Lewis) Lewis model of bonding

More information

Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding. Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular Forces

Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding. Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular Forces onour Chemistry Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular orces 10.1: Molecular Geometry Molecular Structure: - the three-dimensional

More information

Models. Localized Electron Model. Localized Electron Model. Fundamental Properties of Models

Models. Localized Electron Model. Localized Electron Model. Fundamental Properties of Models Models Models are attempts to explain how nature operates on the microscopic level based on experiences in the macroscopic world. Fundamental Properties of Models A model does not equal reality. Models

More information

CHAPTER 10 THE SHAPES OF MOLECULES

CHAPTER 10 THE SHAPES OF MOLECULES ATER 10 TE AE MLEULE EMIAL ETI BED READIG RBLEM B10.1 lan: Examine the Lewis structure, noting the number of regions of electron density around the carbon and nitrogen atoms in the two resonance structures.

More information

Ch a p t e r s 8 a n d 9

Ch a p t e r s 8 a n d 9 Ch a p t e r s 8 a n d 9 Covalent Bonding and Molecular Structures Objectives You will be able to: 1. Write a description of the formation of the covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms to form a hydrogen

More information

A REVIEW OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY: ELECTRONS, BONDS AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES

A REVIEW OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY: ELECTRONS, BONDS AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES A REVIEW OF GENERAL CEMISTRY: ELECTRONS, BONDS AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES A STUDENT SOULD BE ABLE TO: 1. Draw Lewis (electron dot and line) structural formulas for simple compounds and ions from molecular

More information

chemical bond: a force that holds atoms together in molecules or ions together in crystals

chemical bond: a force that holds atoms together in molecules or ions together in crystals Chapter 9 (ill/petrucci/mccreary/perry Chemical Bonds: Ionic and Covalent This chapter deals with the forces that chemists call chemical bonds chemical bonds hold ions together in ionic compounds like

More information

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Problems to try at end of chapter: Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7b,9b,15,17,23,25,29,31,33,45,49,51,53,61 13.1 Properties of Liquids 1. Liquids take the shape of their container,

More information

Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015. Score:

Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015. Score: Name: Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015 Score: Instructions: Clearly circle the one best answer 1. Valence electrons are electrons located A) in the outermost energy level of an atom. B) in the nucleus of

More information

Solid Type of solid Type of particle

Solid Type of solid Type of particle QUESTION (2015:3) Complete the table below by stating the type of solid, the type of particle, and the attractive forces between the particles in each solid. Solid Type of solid Type of particle Cu(s)

More information