The Rise of the Roman Empire

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1 The Rise of the Roman Empire

2 The Republic Collapses Many or Rome s rich landowners lived on huge estates. These estates were worked by slaves-many of whom were captured peoples from various wars. Small farmers found it difficult to compete with the large estates run by labor of enslaved people. Many of the farmers were former soldiers. This caused the number of urban poor to total about onefourth of Roman society.

3 The Gracchus Brothers Two brother, Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus attempted to help Rome s poor. They proposed to limit the size of estates and giving land to the poor. The brothers made enemies of numerous senators. Both met violent deaths because of this. Their deaths caused a civil war, of conflict between groups within the same country.

4 Trouble in Rome The republic was starting to collapse and so was its onceloyal military. Generals started seizing power for themselves. They recruited soldiers from the landless poor by promising them land. It was now possible for a military leader supported by his own troops to take over by force.

5 Caesar Takes Control In 60 B.C., a military leader named Julius Caesar joined forces with Crassus, a wealthy Roman, and Pompey, a popular general. Caesar was elected consul in 59 B.C. For the next ten years these three men would dominate Rome as a triumvirate, a group of three rulers.

6 Caesar Takes Control Caesar was a strong leader and a genius at military strategy. During B.C., Caesar led his legions in a grueling but successful campaign to conquer all of Gaul (now France). The reports of Caesar s successes in Gaul made him very popular with the people of Rome.

7 Caesar Takes Control Caesar s successes in Gaul made Pompey fear his former ally. Pompey convinced the senate to disband Caesar s legions and order them to return home. This angered Caesar and January 10, 49 B.C., he led his army swiftly toward Rome.

8 Caesar and Cleopatra Caesar allied himself with the 21 year old co-ruler of Egypt named Cleopatra. She promised help in the war against Pompey if Caesar would help her overthrow her 12 year-old brother the Pharaoh. Eventually Caesar had a son with Cleopatra named Caesarian.

9 Caesar Takes Control With help from Cleopatra, Caesar s troops defeated Pompey s armies in Greece, Asia, Spain, and Egypt. In 46 B.C., Caesar returned to Rome, where he had the support of the army and masses. That same year the senate appointed him dictator. In 44 B.C., he was named dictator for life.

10 Caesar s Reforms Granted Roman citizenship to many people in the provinces. He expanded the senate, adding his friends and supporters from Italy and other regions. Caesar also helped the poor by creating jobs, especially through the construction of new public buildings. He started colonies where people could own property, and he increased pay for soldiers.

11 Caesar s Reforms Caesar also gave land to his soldiers and free grain to the poor citizens of Rome. He changed the way people measured time-creating the basis for our modern calendar. (January - Roman god Janus, March - named for Mars, June - named for Juno, July - named for Julius Caesar)

12 Beware the Ides of March The changes created in Rome made Caesar many enemies in the Senate. A group of 60 senators, led by Marcus Brutus, felt they only way to protect Rome was to assassinate him. On March 15, 44 B.C., as Caesar entered the senate chamber, he was stabbed 35 times.

13 Beginning of the Empire After the murder of Caesar, many people fought for control of Rome. One of those people was Caesar's youngest sister's grandson Octavian. Caesar had adopted him as his son so that made him the rightful heir to the rule of Rome.

14 The Second Triumvirate Octavian joined with an experienced general named Mark Antony and a powerful politician named Lepidus. The triumvirate tracked down the senators who plotted Caesar s death and defeated their forces. They then split the Roman territories among themselves. Lepidus took over control of the western part, Octavian stayed in Italy and Marc Antony was awarded the East.

15 Mark Antony and Cleopatra Octavian forced Lepidus to retire. While leading troops against Rome s enemies in Anatolia, Mark Antony met and fell in love with Cleopatra. He was convinced to appoint Caesarion, son of Cleopatra and Caesar as co-ruler of Egypt and legitimate son and inheritor of Caesar s empire. Octavian accused Antony of plotting to rule Rome from

16 The Battle of Actium Another civil war erupted. Octavian defeated the combined forces of Antony and Cleopatra at the naval battle of Actium in 31. B.C. Later, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.

17 Augustus With the death of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, Octavian became the unchallenged ruler of Rome. Eventually he accepted the title of Augustus, or exalted one. He also kept the title imperator, or supreme military commander, a term from which the word emperor is derived.

18 The Pax Romana Rome was at the peak of its power from the beginning of Augustus s rule in 27 B.C. to A.D For 207 years, peace reigned throughout the empire. This period of peace and prosperity is known as the Pax Romana - Roman peace. During this time, the Roman Empire included more than 3 million square miles. Its population numbered between 60 and 80 million people.

19 The Pax Romana The Romans held their vast empire in part through efficient government and able rulers. Augustus set a up a government that survived centuries. He set up a civil service-paid workers to manage the affairs of government. Although the senate still functioned, civil servants drawn from plebeians and even former slaves actually help run the empire.

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