1 Language: so / such / too / enough

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1 Unit 1 1 Language: so / such / too / enough Weusesotoexpressemphasis: so+adjective: I msotired! =I mverytired. so+adjective+(that)+verb: Hewassotired(that)hefell =Hewasverytired.Asaresult,he asleep in front of the TV. fell asleep. Wealsousesuchinordertoexpressemphasis: such+(adjective)+noun It ssuchapity! It ssuchalovelyday! They re such nice people! They resuchnicepeople(that)theywon tbeangry. Itwassuchbeautifulweather(that)westayedoutallday. It stoodifficult(forme)todothat. =It sverydifficult.ican tdoit. Lookatthesewaysofusing enough: enough + noun: enough+noun+to: Adjective+enough+to: Are there enough books? Arethereenoughpeopletostarttheclass? Isitcoldenough(forus)toturnontheheating? Rewrite these sentences as one sentence, using the word in brackets. 1 The film was very sad. Everyone cried. (so) 2 I can t understand him. He speaks too fast. (too) 3 Howmuchmoneyhavewegot?Canwepayforthetickets? (enough) 4 Itwasaverygoodmeal.Weatefartoomuch. (such) 5 The teacher was very stupid. He believed the children. (enough) 6 The trousers were very cheap. I bought six pairs. (such) 7 How much food is there? Can we feed everyone?. (enough) 8 Thefilmwasverybad.Mostpeoplewalkedout. (so) 9 Hecan twalkfar.he sold. (too) 10 Mybosswaskind.Hepaidforthemeal. (enough) 190

2 Unit 2 1 Language: word formation prefixes and suffixes Aprefixisaddedtothebeginningofawordtochangeitsmeaning. Here are some examples of prefixes added to nouns: mis(= bad or wrong) non-(= not, usually with a hyphen) in(= without) mis( = to do something badly or wrongly) Common prefixes added to verbs include the following: re(=todoagain) dis(=tonotdosomething) misunderstanding misspelling misuse non-smoker non-fiction non-payment inaccurate inability indecision misunderstand misspell rewrite redo remake disagree disapprove disobey Prefixes added to adjectives include those that give a negative meaning to the adjective: im(usedbeforeb,m,p) in il (used before l) un impossible immature imbalance inactive inelegant illegal illiterate unrecognised uncomfortable unattractive Asuffixisaddedtotheendofawordtochangeitsmeaning.Herearesomeexamplesofcommon suffixes added to words in order to make adjectives: able(=abletobe) less(= without) en(=madeofsomething) ish(= approximately) drinkable washable hopeless painless wooden golden twentyish greenish Putthewordinbracketsintothecorrectform. 1 Theyhavenochildren.Theyare... (child) 2 Ican tacceptthissituation.it s... (accept) 3 Ithinkweshoulddiscussthisprojectagain.Let s...it. (think) 4 Itwasnotsensitiveofthemtodothat.Itwasvery... (sensitive) 5 ItwasnotpracticaltogotoLondon.Itwas... (practical) 6 Themoneytheymakeisforcharity.It sa...organisation. (profit) 7 Shewasalittlebittooearlyfordinner.Shewas...fordinner. (early) 8 Hewastedhistimeatuniversity.He...histimeatuniversity. (spend) 9 Shewasnotsatisfiedwiththerestaurantservice.Shewas... (satisfied) 10 Hedoesn tenjoybeingwithpeople.he s... (sociable) 11 Iwas...,butluckilyIcaughtthebus. (late) 12 Hekeptwarminthesnow.Heworea...sweater. (wool) 13 Icouldn tevertakeabribe.itwouldbe... (think) 14...thevideo.Iwanttoseethatshotagain. (wind) 15 Hehasverybadhandwriting.Itiscompletely... (legible) 1Myscore: outof15 191

3 Unit 4 1 Language: where / whose / what / which / whom We use the relative pronoun where after nouns referring to place. LondonwasthecitywhereIhadlivedasachild. Or,wecanusewhich+at/in,orat/in+which LondonwasthecitywhichIhadlivedinasachild. LondonwasthecityinwhichIhadlivedasachild.(moreformal) Weusetherelativepronounwhoseinsteadofhis/her/their. That sthegirlwhosecati mlookingafter.(=iamlookingafterhercat.) ThemanwhosecarIborrowedisangrywithme.(=Iborrowedhiscar.) Weusetherelativepronounwhattomeanthethingthat/which. What you said was very interesting. TheygavemeexactlywhatIaskedfor. Weusetherelativepronounwhichtorefertoawholesentence. The police believed me, which was a relief. Heshoutedather,whichreallyupsether. Whentherelativepronounistheobjectoftheclause,wecanusewhom,butitisveryformal. Theperson(whom/who/that)youdescribediscomingtodinner. TheprofessortowhomIspokeisfamous. (=Theprofessor(who)Ispoketois...) Rewrite these pairs of sentences as one sentence using the relative pronoun in brackets. 1 Thisistheplace.Wemetinthisplace. (where) 2 Ihaven tdoneenoughrevision.thismeansthatimaynotpasstheexam. (which) 3 You did something. I know about it. (what) 4 The lecturer has written an important book. We are listening to the lecturer. (whom) 5 That s the girl. I really fancy her brother. (whose) 6 Theyheldthepartyinaroom.Itwasonthesecondfloor. (inwhich) 7 Youhaveit.Ineedit. (what) 8 There sthegirl.herdressisthesameasyours. (whose) 9 The workers arrived very late. This was very annoying. (which) 10 Isthisthestreet?Didithappenhere? (where) 192

4 Unit 5 1 Language: defining / non-defining relative clauses Adefiningrelativeclausetellsyouwhichpersonorthingitisreferringto. She sthewomanwho/thathelpedme. That sthebook(which/that)everyoneistalkingabout. Defining relative clauses do not have commas. In non-defining relative clauses, we already know which person or thing the speaker is talking about. The relative clause simply gives more information about the person or thing. WewenttoPrague,whichwasverybeautiful. With non-defining clauses, we use who/ whom(not that) for people. Thisismyfather,who/whomyou vealreadymet,ithink. Weusewhich(notthat)forthings. Thiscar,whichwonthe1965GrandPrix,willbeputintheMotorMuseum. You cannot omit the relative pronoun in non-defining clauses. Commas MUST be used in non-defining clauses, as shown in the examples above. Rewrite these two sentences as one sentence, inserting commas where necessary. 1 Wehadlunchinavillage.Myfriendknewthevillagewell. 2 People never remember my birthday. It s on 25th December. 3 The children welcomed the teacher. She smiled warmly at them. 4 Themanhaslefttheroom.Hewastheonethataskedthequestion. 5 MarieHeatherhadafantasticvoice.Ihadneverheardofher. 6 Where sthedog?itbitthechild. 7 TheFerrariteamisfamous.ItwontheFormula1trophythisyear. 8 HaveyoumetJames?Helivesinthesamestreetasyou. 9 Thethingsareonthetable.Youboughtthem. 10 Officer,itwasthatman.Hedamagedmycar. 193

5 Unit 65 1 Language: countable nouns / uncountable nouns; plurals These nouns are usually uncountable: news luggage baggage information weather accommodation advice furniture traffic work behaviour luck travel permission progress damage Tomakesomeofthesenounscountable,weusetheexpressionapieceof: apieceofnews/apieceofluggage/apieceofinformation/apieceofadvice/apieceoffurniture Many abstract nouns can be both countable and uncountable. When they are uncountable they have a general meaning. There sroominthecarforonemore. (room=spaceinthecar) Whatalargeroomthisis! (room = a particular room in a house) Words for materials(wood, paper, glass) are uncountable. Weneedsomemorepaper. Glass is transparent. When they are countable, they have a particular meaning. Doyouhavemuchexperience asateacher?(=practiceinteaching) MyvisittoAmericawasawonderful experience.(experience = the things that happened to me). But when we refer to something made of a material, the noun is countable. Didyoubuyapaperthismorning? (= a newspaper) I dlikeaglassofwater. Somenounsonlyhaveapluralform.Butwecansayapairoftrousers/apairofscissors. trousers jeans scissors glasses/spectacles theenglish/french/spanish Someofthesesentenceshavemistakes.Tick( )thesentencesthatarecorrect.ifasentenceis incorrect, rewrite the sentence correctly. 1 Happinessissomethingallhumanbeingswant Itwaspitythatwecouldn thelphim Thescissorsareoverthere Thenewsarewonderful!... 5 That saninterestinginformation Wherearemyluggage?... 7 Whentheytoldher,shefeltnothingbutjoy Weneedtobuysomenewfurnituresforthesittingroom Myunclehasaflockofsheepsonhisfarm Haveyougotatimetohelpme?

6 Unit 7 1 Language: the future tense / the future perfect tense Weusethefutureperfecttense(willhave+pastparticiple)tosaythatsomethingwillhavebeendone byacertaintimeinthefuture. Let stalkaboutthingsattheweekend,wheni llhaveseenthedoctor. (=I llhaveseenhimanytimebetweennowandtheweekend,eg,onthursday,orfriday). Weoftenuseby(by4o clock,byfriday),orbythen/bythetime(that)tosignifythelatesttimeby which something will have happened. ThebuilderswillhavefinishedthehousebyFriday(andmaybebeforethen). Bythetimeyouarriveheretomorrow,Iwillhavegone. Totalkaboutplansandintentions,weusethegoingtofuture. I mgoingtotalktohimtomorrow.(=i vealreadydecidedtotalktohim). Totalkaboutsomethingyouhavedecidedtodoatthemomentofspeaking,weuseI ll+verb. Janehasn theardthenews.i lltellher. To talk about personal arrangements, we often use the present continuous future. TheSmithsareleavingonFriday. I mseeinghernextweek. Whenwemakepredictions,weusewillorgoingto.Weusegoingtowhenthereisoutsideevidencefor a future situation. Don tworry,you llpasstheexam. Lookatthoseclouds,it sgoingtorain! Wecanusethefuturesimple(will/won t +verb)whentalkingaboutfuturefacts(notapersonal arrangement or prediction). Thetrainwillleaveat10.40pm. The Prime Minister will visit the hospital. Wecanusethepresentsimpletensetotalkabouteventswhicharepartofatimetable. WeflytoSpainonFridayandthenleaveforItalyonSunday. Complete the sentences with the correct future form, using the verb(s) in brackets. 1 Bynextweekendtheship (arrive)atitsdestination. 2 You retootiredtocook.i (cook)tonight. 3 You veworkedallnight.you (be)verytiredtomorrow. 4 We (have) dinner with our neighbours on Saturday. 5 Themeeting (takeplace)tomorrowatnine. 6 Bythetimetheboys (get)there,everyone (leave). 7 Theterm (start)on8thseptember. 8 Theparty..(end)bythetimewe.(get)there. 9 Ifyou..(notdo)somerevision,you.(notpass)theexam. 10 I (go)skiinginswitzerlandthisyear. 195

7 Unit 8 1 Language: I prefer / I d rather Whenwetalkaboutpreferencesingeneralweuseprefer,orprefer+(do)ing,orprefer+(do)ingto Ipreferdogstocats. Ipreferswimmingtorunning. Wecanalsouseprefer+to(do)ratherthan(to)(do). Iprefertowritelettersratherthan(to)use . Iprefertocookratherthan(to)eatout. Totalkaboutaparticularpreferencewecanusewouldprefer(not)+to(do). Wouldyoupreferteaorcoffee? I dprefercoffee. Wouldyouliketogoouttonight? I dprefernottogoout. I dprefertostayin. When talking about particular preferences, we can also use I d rather(not)(do). Shallwegobycar? I drathernotgobycar. I dratherwalk. When comparing particular preferences, we can use I d rather(do) than(do). I dratherwalkthandrive. Whenwewantsomebodytodosomething,wecansayI drather(you)(did). Doyouwanttodoit? No,I dratheryoudidit. Althoughweusethepast(did),wearereferringtothepresentortothefuture. Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. 1 Ilikepopmusicmorethanjazz. (prefer) 2 Can you tell him about it please? (rather) 3 Idon twanttodomyhomeworknow. (prefer) 4 Ilikespendingtimewithonefriendmorethanwithagroup. (prefer) 5 Idon twanttogotothetheatre.i dliketoseeamovie. (rather) 6 Idon twanttogobycar.i dliketowalk. (prefer) 7 IlikeEngland,butItalyismyfavouriteplaceforaholiday. (prefer) 8 Mozart was a great composer, but I like Beethoven s music better. (prefer) 9 I don t feel like going to the movies tonight. (rather) 10 I would prefer to go by car because it s more comfortable. (rather) 196

8 Unit 10 1 Language: to / so as to / in order to / so that Therearevariouswaystotalkaboutpurpose.Veryoften,weuseto.Thereisnonegativeformofthis. Ididittohelpyou. Wesatdowntoeat. Moreformally,weusesoas(not)to. I vestartedworkinglongerhourssoasto earn more money. Inorder(not)toisevenmoreformal. Hewrotealetterinordertoexplainwhyhe missed the meeting. Wecanalsousesothat+can/could/will/wouldn t. WeMUSTusethisstructurewhenthesubjectsofthetwoclausesaredifferent. MysisterwenttoChinasothatshecouldlearnChinese. or MysisterwenttoChinato/soastolearnChinese. I m speaking slowly so that she will understand. Ispokeslowlysothatshewouldunderstand. Lessformally,weusesowithoutthat. IwillarriveearlysoIcangetagoodseat. CompleteCompletethesentencesusingto/soas(not)to/inorderto/sothat. 1 Thestudentspaidthetopprice...theywouldgetgoodseats. 2 Hehadtostayuplate...completehishomeworkontime. 3 I vewritteneverythingdown...you llknowwhattodo. 4 Turnthemusicdown...disturbtheneighbours. 5 Youneedtofillintheform...enterthecompetition. 6 Youmustsignthecontract...makeitlegallyvalid. 7 Wewalkedslowly...thechildrencouldkeepupwithus. 8 I llsayitveryslowly...helphimunderstand. 9 Igotupveryearly...missthetrain. 10 Wewentbycar...grandmotherwouldn thavetowalkveryfar. 197

9 Unit 11 1 Language: ability and possibility - can / could / to be able to Canandtobeabletoarebothwaysoftalkingaboutabilityandpossibility. Icandrive(=Iamabletodrive.) Ican tdoit(=i mnotabletodoit.) Icanseeyoutomorrow(=Iwillbeabletoseeyoutomorrow.) Wecanalsousethenegativeformtobeunableto. Theyareunabletohelp. Can/cannot ismoreusualthantobeableto. Canhasonlytwoforms:can(presenttense)andcould/couldnot(pasttense). Youcanseethedoctornow. Thedoctorcouldnotseeyouyesterday.Hehadtoansweranemergencycall. Thismorning,Ihavebeenabletotalktothedoctor. (thereisnoequivalentformofcan) Whenwetalkaboutgeneralabilityinthepastweusecould.Was/wereabletoisalsopossible. Hecouldswim(=Hehadtheabilitytoswim.) BUT,whenwetalkaboutabilityinaparticularsituationweusewasableto,notcould. Luckilyhewasabletoswim,sohesurvivedwhentheboatsank. BecausehespokeEnglishhewasabletohelpher.(=Hemanagedtohelpher.) The negative couldn t is also possible. Hecouldn tswim,sohedrowned. Other ways of talking about ability: Hemanagedtoopenthedoor. Doyouknowhowtodothis? 1A Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. 1 They vemanagedtofindit. (able) 2 Wecan tgountilnextweek. (unable) 3 The child couldn t explain. (know) 4 Howwereyouabletopersuadethem? (manage) 5 Thearmywasnotabletostoptheinvasion. (couldn t) 1B Completethesentenceswithcouldorwas/wereableto. 1 Theydidn twanttodoitbuti...persuadethem. 2 WhenIwasyoungerI...runformiles. 3 Themenwerebadlywoundedbutthesurgeonssavethem. 4...completetheMarathonlastyear? 5 Myson...walkattheageoftenmonths. 198

10 Unit 12 1 Language: participle clauses Weuse ingclausestosaywhatsomebody/somethingisdoingorwasdoingataparticulartime. Who sthemanwhoistalkingtoyoursister? Who sthemantalkingtoyoursister? Thelightthatisflashingonandoffisanalarm. Thelightflashingonandoffisanalarm. Wecanalsouse ingclausestotalkaboutsomethingthathappensallthetime. Themotorwaythatpassesthetownhas. Themotorwaypassingthetownhas alotoftraffic. alotoftraffic. ThecarpetthathangsonthewallisfromIran. ThecarpethangingonthewallisfromIran. Weuse edclausestodothesamethingwiththepassive. Thecarwasparkedbadly.Thepolicetook Thecarparkedbadlywastakenawayby it away. the police. Themanwhowascaughtbythepoliceis Themancaughtbythepoliceisamurderer. amurderer. It sananimalthatisonlyfoundintropical It sananimalfoundonlyintropical countries. countries. Rewrite the sentences as one sentence using participle clauses. 1 It sanewbook.itwaswrittenbythreefamousjournalists. 2 Didyouseeanobject?Theobjectwasmovingveryfastacrossthesky. 3 Themapshowstheroute.Themapisonthetable. 4 Thepresentwasperfect.Itwasboughtformebymyparents. 5 Doyouknowthatwoman?Sheisstandinginthecorner. 6 Children are taught by these methods. The children often do better. 7 Themanissittingoppositeme.Hekeepssmilingatme. 8 Thepictureispaintedbyyoursister.Itisabsolutelyawful! 9 It saherb.it susedonlyincertainpartsofthecountry. 10 Thestarsshineinthesky.Theyhavebeenthereforbillionsofyears. 199

11 Unit 13 1 Language: reporting verbs When quoting direct speech, many different verbs are used. Here are some of the most common ones: exclaim cry laugh whisper scream shout murmur grunt Verbs used for quoting direct speech: Thatwaswrongofyou, heexclaimed. I m sorry, the girl whispered. The same verbs in reported speech: Heexclaimed(that)itwaswrongofher. The girl whispered(that) she was sorry. Other reporting verbs follow the rules of reported speech. We say: explain/complain/deny/admit/agree/promise/warn/demand/suggest/recommend+(that)+ verb. It sverydangerous, hesaid. Whydon tyoubuythecar,john? Isaid. Some reporting verbs are followed by to + verb. These verbs include: offer/promise/agree/refuse. I lllendyouthemoney, myfatheroffered. Other reporting verbs are followed by someone + to. These verbs include: invited/ persuade/ advise. Youshoulddiscussit, saidthedoctor. Hewarnedus(that)itwasverydangerous. Isuggested(that)Johnboughtthecar. Myfatherofferedtolendmethemoney. Thedoctoradvisedustodiscussit. TheverbsuggestcanbefollowedbyshouldORthesubjunctiveform,whichisthesameasthe present simple. Ring the company, my friend said. My friend suggested(that) we should ring the company. Myfriendsuggested(that)weringthe company. Note these structures: accuse someone of +(do)ing/ apologise for +(do)ing. Iknowyoustolethemoney,Simon! she cried. SheaccusedSimonofstealingthemoney. Rewrite the sentences as reported speech using verbs from the box. complain accuse grunt apologise deny advise admit invite suggest exclaim 1 Comeandstaytheweekend, Matthewsaidtome. 2 Thecustomersaid, Thefoodisn thot. 3 Alright,it strue,iborrowedthecar, said the boy. 4 Themansaid, I msosorryibehavedbadly. 5 Ididn tbreakthewindow, thechildsaid. 6 Myneighboursaid, Lockupyourhouse, 7 The teacher said, John, you re lying. 8 Youcouldbuyit, myfathersaidtome. 9 I hate school! exclaimed the girl. 10 Allright,I lldoit, hegrunted. 200

12 Unit 14 1 Language: the gerund and the infinitive Thegerund(verb+-ing)canbeusedasanoun,egasthesubjectofasentence. Swimming is very enjoyable. Watching television is entertaining. However,whenanounhasasimilarmeaningtoagerund,weusuallyusethenoun. Workhastobedone. NOTWorkinghastobedone. Theinfinitivecanalsobeusedasthesubjectofasentence,butitisveryformalandnolongerused much.wemoreoftenuseit+adjective+to. Togotobedearlyishealthy. To eat in restaurants is expensive. Look at these different forms of the infinitive: to(do)=ordinaryinfinitive notto(do)=negativeinfinitive tobe(do)ing=progressiveinfinitive tohave(done)=perfectinfinitive (not)tobe(done)=passiveinfinitive tohavebeen(done)=perfectpassiveinfinitive It shealthytogotobedearly. It s expensive to eat in restaurants. Examples of their use: I msogladtoseeyou. I mgladnottostudytoday. It sgreattobetalkingtoyou. I mhappytohavefinishedmyexams. I dliketobeincludedintheplans. Sheoughtnottohavebeentold. Certain adjectives can be followed by of + the infinitive: nice kind polite rude silly good generous stupid It sniceofyoutovisittheoldlady. Itwasrudeofhimtosayyoucan tcomewithus. Butwesay: kind/polite/generous/good/generous/rude/nicetosomeone: Heisverynicetotheoldlady. Hewasveryrudetoyou. Pleasebekindtothem. Rewrite the sentences as shown using either the gerund or an infinitive form. Sometimes both are possible. 1 Itwaswrongofhimtodothat. Heought 2 Ithinkthegatehasbeenmended. Thegateseems 3 Itcanberiskytoinvestinthestockmarket....canberisky. 4 I stupidly forgot my passport. Itwas 5 Itcanbedangeroustoskioff-piste,butmanypeopleloveit....dangerousbutmanypeopleloveit. 6 Istakingvitaminpillssometimesagoodidea? Isitagoodidea...? 7 Someone should clean the kitchen. Thekitchenneeds 8 Tomeetyouagainiswonderful. It s 9 I m delighted I m working here. I mdelighted 10 Ican tseeitanywhere. It s 201

13 Unit 15 1 Language: verbs followed by gerund or infinitive Someverbscanbefollowedbythegerund(verb+ing)ortheinfinitive,butwithachangeofmeaningin eachcase.theseverbsinclude:toremember/toregret/togoon/totry/tostop/tomean. Irememberphoninghim.(=ItelephonedhimandIrememberthatIdidthis.) Youmustremembertophonehim.(=Thisissomethingyoumustdo.) Iregrettosay/tellyou/informyouthatIamleaving.(=Iamsorry,butImusttellyouthat ) Iregretnottellingthetruth.(=IdidnottellthetruthandnowIamsorryIdidthis.) Thestudentswentontalkingwhentheteachercamein.(=Thestudentscontinuedtalkingwhen the teacher came in). The class discussed unemployment and then went on to discuss the economy. (= First the class discussed unemployment and then it did something else.) IwantedtostopsmokingsoItriedtosmokelesseachday.(=Itwasdifficulttodothis.) IwantedtostopsmokingsoItriedvisitingahypnotist.(=Iusedthemethodofhypnotism). I vestoppedlookinginshopwindows.(=idon tlookinshopwindowsanymore.) Sarahwaswalkinghomebutstoppedtolookinashopwindow.(=Shestoppedinordertolook ) Ididn tmeantoupsethim.(=ididn tintendtoupsethim). Idon twanttotellhimifitmeansupsettinghim. (=iftheresultisthathewillbeupset.) Puttheverbsinbracketsineitherthegerundortheinfinitiveform. 1 Istopped(talk)...becauseIcouldseenoonewaslistening. 2 Johnstoodupangrilyandleftthedinnertablebuteveryonewenton(eat) 3 Beforeyouleaveonholiday,remember(give)...ourneighbourthehousekey. 4 Didyoumean(tell)...himtheanswer? 5 Theboytried(climb)...thewallbutitwastoohigh. 6 Doyouremember(meet)...theWatsonfamilylastyear? 7 ItwasamistakeandIregret(do)...it. 8 Idon tremember(see)...himattheparty. 9 Ifwedecidetogo,itwillmean(leave)...veryearly. 10 Thecompanydidbadlyatfirstbutwenton(do)...verywell. 202

14 Unit 17 1 Language: It is said that... / He is said to... Weusethephrase: Theysay/believe /think(that) +verbtotalkaboutgeneralopinion. Theysay(that)thePrimeMinisterhaslosthisparty ssupport. They think(that) the climate is getting warmer. Tosaythesamethingmoreformally,weusethephrase: Itissaid/thought/believed/known/feared/whispered(that) +verb. Itissaid(that)theactorhaslefthiswifeandfamily. It is thought(that) the Antarctic glaciers are melting. The infinitive is used in the following very formal structure to talk about general opinion. Notice that the infinitive form corresponds to the tense in the first sentence. For example: the past tense Theterroristshaveleftthecountry. For example: future tenses ThePrimeMinisterwillretiresoon. Here are some more examples: Thesingerremainssilentbeforea performance. Theworkershavenotbeentold. the perfect infinitive Theterroristsaresaidtohaveleftthecountry. progressive infinitive ThePrimeMinisterisknowntoberetiring soon. Thesingerissaidtoremainsilentbefore a performance. Theworkersarenotthoughttohave been told. Rewrite the sentences using the phrases in brackets. 1 Thecouncilwillbuildanewroadroundthetown. (Theysay) 2 Hedoesnotalwaystellthetruth. (Itisknown) 3 The economy is deteriorating. (It is feared) 4 TheactorwillstarinafilmaboutHitler. (isbelievedto) 5 The bears have left the region. (are thought to) 6 The author s new book has been completed. (is said to) 7 Theclimberhasbeenlostinthesnowstorm (Itisthought) 8 Thenewgroupplaysverypopularmusic. (isknownto) 9 Itisverydangeroustogohikingaloneonthismountain. (Theysay) 10 Thescientistisworkingonanewinvention. (isknownto) 2BMyscore: outof10 203

15 Unit 18 1 Language: to have / get something done / its time we... We use the structure: to have something(done) to talk about an arrangement in which somebody else does something for us. Ihadthecarrepaired.(=Someonerepairedthecarforme.) I mgoingtohavemyhaircut.(=someonewillcutmyhair.) Wecanalsousethestructuretotalkaboutanexperiencethathappenstous. Ihadmywatchstolenlastweek.(=Someonestolemywatchlastweek.) Wecanusethesamestructurebutwiththewordget:togetsomething(done).Itisslightlymore informal. Wemustgetthecarpetcleaned. Imustgetmyhaircut. Weusethestructure:It stimewe(left)tosaythatitistherighttimeforsomethingtohappen. Althoughweusethepasttense,wearetalkingaboutthepresentorthefuture. It stimesomeonetoldherthetruth. It stimeyoulefthome,youngman! Wecanalsosay:It stimeforsomeoneto(do)something. It stimeforhertogivehimtherealstory. It stimeforustoleavetheparty. Rewrite the sentences using either the structure to have/ get something(done) or the structure It s time 1 Ithinkweshouldasksomeonetoredecoratethehouse. 2 Heoughttoreturntowork. 3 Whyhasn tshegotupyet? 4 Someonestoleourcarlastmonth. 5 Weneedtoinstallanewkitchen. 6 Iloveitwhensomeonemanicuresmynails. 7 Weshouldtellhimwhatreallyhappenedtohisfather. 8 Thecomputerwasupgradedforme. 9 Iinjuredmylegplayingfootballlastweek. 10 Myhair stoolong,imustgetitcut. 204

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