1 Language: so / such / too / enough

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1 Language: so / such / too / enough"

Transcription

1 Unit 1 1 Language: so / such / too / enough Weusesotoexpressemphasis: so+adjective: I msotired! =I mverytired. so+adjective+(that)+verb: Hewassotired(that)hefell =Hewasverytired.Asaresult,he asleep in front of the TV. fell asleep. Wealsousesuchinordertoexpressemphasis: such+(adjective)+noun It ssuchapity! It ssuchalovelyday! They re such nice people! They resuchnicepeople(that)theywon tbeangry. Itwassuchbeautifulweather(that)westayedoutallday. It stoodifficult(forme)todothat. =It sverydifficult.ican tdoit. Lookatthesewaysofusing enough: enough + noun: enough+noun+to: Adjective+enough+to: Are there enough books? Arethereenoughpeopletostarttheclass? Isitcoldenough(forus)toturnontheheating? Rewrite these sentences as one sentence, using the word in brackets. 1 The film was very sad. Everyone cried. (so) 2 I can t understand him. He speaks too fast. (too) 3 Howmuchmoneyhavewegot?Canwepayforthetickets? (enough) 4 Itwasaverygoodmeal.Weatefartoomuch. (such) 5 The teacher was very stupid. He believed the children. (enough) 6 The trousers were very cheap. I bought six pairs. (such) 7 How much food is there? Can we feed everyone?. (enough) 8 Thefilmwasverybad.Mostpeoplewalkedout. (so) 9 Hecan twalkfar.he sold. (too) 10 Mybosswaskind.Hepaidforthemeal. (enough) 190

2 Unit 2 1 Language: word formation prefixes and suffixes Aprefixisaddedtothebeginningofawordtochangeitsmeaning. Here are some examples of prefixes added to nouns: mis(= bad or wrong) non-(= not, usually with a hyphen) in(= without) mis( = to do something badly or wrongly) Common prefixes added to verbs include the following: re(=todoagain) dis(=tonotdosomething) misunderstanding misspelling misuse non-smoker non-fiction non-payment inaccurate inability indecision misunderstand misspell rewrite redo remake disagree disapprove disobey Prefixes added to adjectives include those that give a negative meaning to the adjective: im(usedbeforeb,m,p) in il (used before l) un impossible immature imbalance inactive inelegant illegal illiterate unrecognised uncomfortable unattractive Asuffixisaddedtotheendofawordtochangeitsmeaning.Herearesomeexamplesofcommon suffixes added to words in order to make adjectives: able(=abletobe) less(= without) en(=madeofsomething) ish(= approximately) drinkable washable hopeless painless wooden golden twentyish greenish Putthewordinbracketsintothecorrectform. 1 Theyhavenochildren.Theyare... (child) 2 Ican tacceptthissituation.it s... (accept) 3 Ithinkweshoulddiscussthisprojectagain.Let s...it. (think) 4 Itwasnotsensitiveofthemtodothat.Itwasvery... (sensitive) 5 ItwasnotpracticaltogotoLondon.Itwas... (practical) 6 Themoneytheymakeisforcharity.It sa...organisation. (profit) 7 Shewasalittlebittooearlyfordinner.Shewas...fordinner. (early) 8 Hewastedhistimeatuniversity.He...histimeatuniversity. (spend) 9 Shewasnotsatisfiedwiththerestaurantservice.Shewas... (satisfied) 10 Hedoesn tenjoybeingwithpeople.he s... (sociable) 11 Iwas...,butluckilyIcaughtthebus. (late) 12 Hekeptwarminthesnow.Heworea...sweater. (wool) 13 Icouldn tevertakeabribe.itwouldbe... (think) 14...thevideo.Iwanttoseethatshotagain. (wind) 15 Hehasverybadhandwriting.Itiscompletely... (legible) 1Myscore: outof15 191

3 Unit 4 1 Language: where / whose / what / which / whom We use the relative pronoun where after nouns referring to place. LondonwasthecitywhereIhadlivedasachild. Or,wecanusewhich+at/in,orat/in+which LondonwasthecitywhichIhadlivedinasachild. LondonwasthecityinwhichIhadlivedasachild.(moreformal) Weusetherelativepronounwhoseinsteadofhis/her/their. That sthegirlwhosecati mlookingafter.(=iamlookingafterhercat.) ThemanwhosecarIborrowedisangrywithme.(=Iborrowedhiscar.) Weusetherelativepronounwhattomeanthethingthat/which. What you said was very interesting. TheygavemeexactlywhatIaskedfor. Weusetherelativepronounwhichtorefertoawholesentence. The police believed me, which was a relief. Heshoutedather,whichreallyupsether. Whentherelativepronounistheobjectoftheclause,wecanusewhom,butitisveryformal. Theperson(whom/who/that)youdescribediscomingtodinner. TheprofessortowhomIspokeisfamous. (=Theprofessor(who)Ispoketois...) Rewrite these pairs of sentences as one sentence using the relative pronoun in brackets. 1 Thisistheplace.Wemetinthisplace. (where) 2 Ihaven tdoneenoughrevision.thismeansthatimaynotpasstheexam. (which) 3 You did something. I know about it. (what) 4 The lecturer has written an important book. We are listening to the lecturer. (whom) 5 That s the girl. I really fancy her brother. (whose) 6 Theyheldthepartyinaroom.Itwasonthesecondfloor. (inwhich) 7 Youhaveit.Ineedit. (what) 8 There sthegirl.herdressisthesameasyours. (whose) 9 The workers arrived very late. This was very annoying. (which) 10 Isthisthestreet?Didithappenhere? (where) 192

4 Unit 5 1 Language: defining / non-defining relative clauses Adefiningrelativeclausetellsyouwhichpersonorthingitisreferringto. She sthewomanwho/thathelpedme. That sthebook(which/that)everyoneistalkingabout. Defining relative clauses do not have commas. In non-defining relative clauses, we already know which person or thing the speaker is talking about. The relative clause simply gives more information about the person or thing. WewenttoPrague,whichwasverybeautiful. With non-defining clauses, we use who/ whom(not that) for people. Thisismyfather,who/whomyou vealreadymet,ithink. Weusewhich(notthat)forthings. Thiscar,whichwonthe1965GrandPrix,willbeputintheMotorMuseum. You cannot omit the relative pronoun in non-defining clauses. Commas MUST be used in non-defining clauses, as shown in the examples above. Rewrite these two sentences as one sentence, inserting commas where necessary. 1 Wehadlunchinavillage.Myfriendknewthevillagewell. 2 People never remember my birthday. It s on 25th December. 3 The children welcomed the teacher. She smiled warmly at them. 4 Themanhaslefttheroom.Hewastheonethataskedthequestion. 5 MarieHeatherhadafantasticvoice.Ihadneverheardofher. 6 Where sthedog?itbitthechild. 7 TheFerrariteamisfamous.ItwontheFormula1trophythisyear. 8 HaveyoumetJames?Helivesinthesamestreetasyou. 9 Thethingsareonthetable.Youboughtthem. 10 Officer,itwasthatman.Hedamagedmycar. 193

5 Unit 65 1 Language: countable nouns / uncountable nouns; plurals These nouns are usually uncountable: news luggage baggage information weather accommodation advice furniture traffic work behaviour luck travel permission progress damage Tomakesomeofthesenounscountable,weusetheexpressionapieceof: apieceofnews/apieceofluggage/apieceofinformation/apieceofadvice/apieceoffurniture Many abstract nouns can be both countable and uncountable. When they are uncountable they have a general meaning. There sroominthecarforonemore. (room=spaceinthecar) Whatalargeroomthisis! (room = a particular room in a house) Words for materials(wood, paper, glass) are uncountable. Weneedsomemorepaper. Glass is transparent. When they are countable, they have a particular meaning. Doyouhavemuchexperience asateacher?(=practiceinteaching) MyvisittoAmericawasawonderful experience.(experience = the things that happened to me). But when we refer to something made of a material, the noun is countable. Didyoubuyapaperthismorning? (= a newspaper) I dlikeaglassofwater. Somenounsonlyhaveapluralform.Butwecansayapairoftrousers/apairofscissors. trousers jeans scissors glasses/spectacles theenglish/french/spanish Someofthesesentenceshavemistakes.Tick( )thesentencesthatarecorrect.ifasentenceis incorrect, rewrite the sentence correctly. 1 Happinessissomethingallhumanbeingswant Itwaspitythatwecouldn thelphim Thescissorsareoverthere Thenewsarewonderful!... 5 That saninterestinginformation Wherearemyluggage?... 7 Whentheytoldher,shefeltnothingbutjoy Weneedtobuysomenewfurnituresforthesittingroom Myunclehasaflockofsheepsonhisfarm Haveyougotatimetohelpme?

6 Unit 7 1 Language: the future tense / the future perfect tense Weusethefutureperfecttense(willhave+pastparticiple)tosaythatsomethingwillhavebeendone byacertaintimeinthefuture. Let stalkaboutthingsattheweekend,wheni llhaveseenthedoctor. (=I llhaveseenhimanytimebetweennowandtheweekend,eg,onthursday,orfriday). Weoftenuseby(by4o clock,byfriday),orbythen/bythetime(that)tosignifythelatesttimeby which something will have happened. ThebuilderswillhavefinishedthehousebyFriday(andmaybebeforethen). Bythetimeyouarriveheretomorrow,Iwillhavegone. Totalkaboutplansandintentions,weusethegoingtofuture. I mgoingtotalktohimtomorrow.(=i vealreadydecidedtotalktohim). Totalkaboutsomethingyouhavedecidedtodoatthemomentofspeaking,weuseI ll+verb. Janehasn theardthenews.i lltellher. To talk about personal arrangements, we often use the present continuous future. TheSmithsareleavingonFriday. I mseeinghernextweek. Whenwemakepredictions,weusewillorgoingto.Weusegoingtowhenthereisoutsideevidencefor a future situation. Don tworry,you llpasstheexam. Lookatthoseclouds,it sgoingtorain! Wecanusethefuturesimple(will/won t +verb)whentalkingaboutfuturefacts(notapersonal arrangement or prediction). Thetrainwillleaveat10.40pm. The Prime Minister will visit the hospital. Wecanusethepresentsimpletensetotalkabouteventswhicharepartofatimetable. WeflytoSpainonFridayandthenleaveforItalyonSunday. Complete the sentences with the correct future form, using the verb(s) in brackets. 1 Bynextweekendtheship (arrive)atitsdestination. 2 You retootiredtocook.i (cook)tonight. 3 You veworkedallnight.you (be)verytiredtomorrow. 4 We (have) dinner with our neighbours on Saturday. 5 Themeeting (takeplace)tomorrowatnine. 6 Bythetimetheboys (get)there,everyone (leave). 7 Theterm (start)on8thseptember. 8 Theparty..(end)bythetimewe.(get)there. 9 Ifyou..(notdo)somerevision,you.(notpass)theexam. 10 I (go)skiinginswitzerlandthisyear. 195

7 Unit 8 1 Language: I prefer / I d rather Whenwetalkaboutpreferencesingeneralweuseprefer,orprefer+(do)ing,orprefer+(do)ingto Ipreferdogstocats. Ipreferswimmingtorunning. Wecanalsouseprefer+to(do)ratherthan(to)(do). Iprefertowritelettersratherthan(to)use . Iprefertocookratherthan(to)eatout. Totalkaboutaparticularpreferencewecanusewouldprefer(not)+to(do). Wouldyoupreferteaorcoffee? I dprefercoffee. Wouldyouliketogoouttonight? I dprefernottogoout. I dprefertostayin. When talking about particular preferences, we can also use I d rather(not)(do). Shallwegobycar? I drathernotgobycar. I dratherwalk. When comparing particular preferences, we can use I d rather(do) than(do). I dratherwalkthandrive. Whenwewantsomebodytodosomething,wecansayI drather(you)(did). Doyouwanttodoit? No,I dratheryoudidit. Althoughweusethepast(did),wearereferringtothepresentortothefuture. Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. 1 Ilikepopmusicmorethanjazz. (prefer) 2 Can you tell him about it please? (rather) 3 Idon twanttodomyhomeworknow. (prefer) 4 Ilikespendingtimewithonefriendmorethanwithagroup. (prefer) 5 Idon twanttogotothetheatre.i dliketoseeamovie. (rather) 6 Idon twanttogobycar.i dliketowalk. (prefer) 7 IlikeEngland,butItalyismyfavouriteplaceforaholiday. (prefer) 8 Mozart was a great composer, but I like Beethoven s music better. (prefer) 9 I don t feel like going to the movies tonight. (rather) 10 I would prefer to go by car because it s more comfortable. (rather) 196

8 Unit 10 1 Language: to / so as to / in order to / so that Therearevariouswaystotalkaboutpurpose.Veryoften,weuseto.Thereisnonegativeformofthis. Ididittohelpyou. Wesatdowntoeat. Moreformally,weusesoas(not)to. I vestartedworkinglongerhourssoasto earn more money. Inorder(not)toisevenmoreformal. Hewrotealetterinordertoexplainwhyhe missed the meeting. Wecanalsousesothat+can/could/will/wouldn t. WeMUSTusethisstructurewhenthesubjectsofthetwoclausesaredifferent. MysisterwenttoChinasothatshecouldlearnChinese. or MysisterwenttoChinato/soastolearnChinese. I m speaking slowly so that she will understand. Ispokeslowlysothatshewouldunderstand. Lessformally,weusesowithoutthat. IwillarriveearlysoIcangetagoodseat. CompleteCompletethesentencesusingto/soas(not)to/inorderto/sothat. 1 Thestudentspaidthetopprice...theywouldgetgoodseats. 2 Hehadtostayuplate...completehishomeworkontime. 3 I vewritteneverythingdown...you llknowwhattodo. 4 Turnthemusicdown...disturbtheneighbours. 5 Youneedtofillintheform...enterthecompetition. 6 Youmustsignthecontract...makeitlegallyvalid. 7 Wewalkedslowly...thechildrencouldkeepupwithus. 8 I llsayitveryslowly...helphimunderstand. 9 Igotupveryearly...missthetrain. 10 Wewentbycar...grandmotherwouldn thavetowalkveryfar. 197

9 Unit 11 1 Language: ability and possibility - can / could / to be able to Canandtobeabletoarebothwaysoftalkingaboutabilityandpossibility. Icandrive(=Iamabletodrive.) Ican tdoit(=i mnotabletodoit.) Icanseeyoutomorrow(=Iwillbeabletoseeyoutomorrow.) Wecanalsousethenegativeformtobeunableto. Theyareunabletohelp. Can/cannot ismoreusualthantobeableto. Canhasonlytwoforms:can(presenttense)andcould/couldnot(pasttense). Youcanseethedoctornow. Thedoctorcouldnotseeyouyesterday.Hehadtoansweranemergencycall. Thismorning,Ihavebeenabletotalktothedoctor. (thereisnoequivalentformofcan) Whenwetalkaboutgeneralabilityinthepastweusecould.Was/wereabletoisalsopossible. Hecouldswim(=Hehadtheabilitytoswim.) BUT,whenwetalkaboutabilityinaparticularsituationweusewasableto,notcould. Luckilyhewasabletoswim,sohesurvivedwhentheboatsank. BecausehespokeEnglishhewasabletohelpher.(=Hemanagedtohelpher.) The negative couldn t is also possible. Hecouldn tswim,sohedrowned. Other ways of talking about ability: Hemanagedtoopenthedoor. Doyouknowhowtodothis? 1A Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. 1 They vemanagedtofindit. (able) 2 Wecan tgountilnextweek. (unable) 3 The child couldn t explain. (know) 4 Howwereyouabletopersuadethem? (manage) 5 Thearmywasnotabletostoptheinvasion. (couldn t) 1B Completethesentenceswithcouldorwas/wereableto. 1 Theydidn twanttodoitbuti...persuadethem. 2 WhenIwasyoungerI...runformiles. 3 Themenwerebadlywoundedbutthesurgeonssavethem. 4...completetheMarathonlastyear? 5 Myson...walkattheageoftenmonths. 198

10 Unit 12 1 Language: participle clauses Weuse ingclausestosaywhatsomebody/somethingisdoingorwasdoingataparticulartime. Who sthemanwhoistalkingtoyoursister? Who sthemantalkingtoyoursister? Thelightthatisflashingonandoffisanalarm. Thelightflashingonandoffisanalarm. Wecanalsouse ingclausestotalkaboutsomethingthathappensallthetime. Themotorwaythatpassesthetownhas. Themotorwaypassingthetownhas alotoftraffic. alotoftraffic. ThecarpetthathangsonthewallisfromIran. ThecarpethangingonthewallisfromIran. Weuse edclausestodothesamethingwiththepassive. Thecarwasparkedbadly.Thepolicetook Thecarparkedbadlywastakenawayby it away. the police. Themanwhowascaughtbythepoliceis Themancaughtbythepoliceisamurderer. amurderer. It sananimalthatisonlyfoundintropical It sananimalfoundonlyintropical countries. countries. Rewrite the sentences as one sentence using participle clauses. 1 It sanewbook.itwaswrittenbythreefamousjournalists. 2 Didyouseeanobject?Theobjectwasmovingveryfastacrossthesky. 3 Themapshowstheroute.Themapisonthetable. 4 Thepresentwasperfect.Itwasboughtformebymyparents. 5 Doyouknowthatwoman?Sheisstandinginthecorner. 6 Children are taught by these methods. The children often do better. 7 Themanissittingoppositeme.Hekeepssmilingatme. 8 Thepictureispaintedbyyoursister.Itisabsolutelyawful! 9 It saherb.it susedonlyincertainpartsofthecountry. 10 Thestarsshineinthesky.Theyhavebeenthereforbillionsofyears. 199

11 Unit 13 1 Language: reporting verbs When quoting direct speech, many different verbs are used. Here are some of the most common ones: exclaim cry laugh whisper scream shout murmur grunt Verbs used for quoting direct speech: Thatwaswrongofyou, heexclaimed. I m sorry, the girl whispered. The same verbs in reported speech: Heexclaimed(that)itwaswrongofher. The girl whispered(that) she was sorry. Other reporting verbs follow the rules of reported speech. We say: explain/complain/deny/admit/agree/promise/warn/demand/suggest/recommend+(that)+ verb. It sverydangerous, hesaid. Whydon tyoubuythecar,john? Isaid. Some reporting verbs are followed by to + verb. These verbs include: offer/promise/agree/refuse. I lllendyouthemoney, myfatheroffered. Other reporting verbs are followed by someone + to. These verbs include: invited/ persuade/ advise. Youshoulddiscussit, saidthedoctor. Hewarnedus(that)itwasverydangerous. Isuggested(that)Johnboughtthecar. Myfatherofferedtolendmethemoney. Thedoctoradvisedustodiscussit. TheverbsuggestcanbefollowedbyshouldORthesubjunctiveform,whichisthesameasthe present simple. Ring the company, my friend said. My friend suggested(that) we should ring the company. Myfriendsuggested(that)weringthe company. Note these structures: accuse someone of +(do)ing/ apologise for +(do)ing. Iknowyoustolethemoney,Simon! she cried. SheaccusedSimonofstealingthemoney. Rewrite the sentences as reported speech using verbs from the box. complain accuse grunt apologise deny advise admit invite suggest exclaim 1 Comeandstaytheweekend, Matthewsaidtome. 2 Thecustomersaid, Thefoodisn thot. 3 Alright,it strue,iborrowedthecar, said the boy. 4 Themansaid, I msosorryibehavedbadly. 5 Ididn tbreakthewindow, thechildsaid. 6 Myneighboursaid, Lockupyourhouse, 7 The teacher said, John, you re lying. 8 Youcouldbuyit, myfathersaidtome. 9 I hate school! exclaimed the girl. 10 Allright,I lldoit, hegrunted. 200

12 Unit 14 1 Language: the gerund and the infinitive Thegerund(verb+-ing)canbeusedasanoun,egasthesubjectofasentence. Swimming is very enjoyable. Watching television is entertaining. However,whenanounhasasimilarmeaningtoagerund,weusuallyusethenoun. Workhastobedone. NOTWorkinghastobedone. Theinfinitivecanalsobeusedasthesubjectofasentence,butitisveryformalandnolongerused much.wemoreoftenuseit+adjective+to. Togotobedearlyishealthy. To eat in restaurants is expensive. Look at these different forms of the infinitive: to(do)=ordinaryinfinitive notto(do)=negativeinfinitive tobe(do)ing=progressiveinfinitive tohave(done)=perfectinfinitive (not)tobe(done)=passiveinfinitive tohavebeen(done)=perfectpassiveinfinitive It shealthytogotobedearly. It s expensive to eat in restaurants. Examples of their use: I msogladtoseeyou. I mgladnottostudytoday. It sgreattobetalkingtoyou. I mhappytohavefinishedmyexams. I dliketobeincludedintheplans. Sheoughtnottohavebeentold. Certain adjectives can be followed by of + the infinitive: nice kind polite rude silly good generous stupid It sniceofyoutovisittheoldlady. Itwasrudeofhimtosayyoucan tcomewithus. Butwesay: kind/polite/generous/good/generous/rude/nicetosomeone: Heisverynicetotheoldlady. Hewasveryrudetoyou. Pleasebekindtothem. Rewrite the sentences as shown using either the gerund or an infinitive form. Sometimes both are possible. 1 Itwaswrongofhimtodothat. Heought 2 Ithinkthegatehasbeenmended. Thegateseems 3 Itcanberiskytoinvestinthestockmarket....canberisky. 4 I stupidly forgot my passport. Itwas 5 Itcanbedangeroustoskioff-piste,butmanypeopleloveit....dangerousbutmanypeopleloveit. 6 Istakingvitaminpillssometimesagoodidea? Isitagoodidea...? 7 Someone should clean the kitchen. Thekitchenneeds 8 Tomeetyouagainiswonderful. It s 9 I m delighted I m working here. I mdelighted 10 Ican tseeitanywhere. It s 201

13 Unit 15 1 Language: verbs followed by gerund or infinitive Someverbscanbefollowedbythegerund(verb+ing)ortheinfinitive,butwithachangeofmeaningin eachcase.theseverbsinclude:toremember/toregret/togoon/totry/tostop/tomean. Irememberphoninghim.(=ItelephonedhimandIrememberthatIdidthis.) Youmustremembertophonehim.(=Thisissomethingyoumustdo.) Iregrettosay/tellyou/informyouthatIamleaving.(=Iamsorry,butImusttellyouthat ) Iregretnottellingthetruth.(=IdidnottellthetruthandnowIamsorryIdidthis.) Thestudentswentontalkingwhentheteachercamein.(=Thestudentscontinuedtalkingwhen the teacher came in). The class discussed unemployment and then went on to discuss the economy. (= First the class discussed unemployment and then it did something else.) IwantedtostopsmokingsoItriedtosmokelesseachday.(=Itwasdifficulttodothis.) IwantedtostopsmokingsoItriedvisitingahypnotist.(=Iusedthemethodofhypnotism). I vestoppedlookinginshopwindows.(=idon tlookinshopwindowsanymore.) Sarahwaswalkinghomebutstoppedtolookinashopwindow.(=Shestoppedinordertolook ) Ididn tmeantoupsethim.(=ididn tintendtoupsethim). Idon twanttotellhimifitmeansupsettinghim. (=iftheresultisthathewillbeupset.) Puttheverbsinbracketsineitherthegerundortheinfinitiveform. 1 Istopped(talk)...becauseIcouldseenoonewaslistening. 2 Johnstoodupangrilyandleftthedinnertablebuteveryonewenton(eat) 3 Beforeyouleaveonholiday,remember(give)...ourneighbourthehousekey. 4 Didyoumean(tell)...himtheanswer? 5 Theboytried(climb)...thewallbutitwastoohigh. 6 Doyouremember(meet)...theWatsonfamilylastyear? 7 ItwasamistakeandIregret(do)...it. 8 Idon tremember(see)...himattheparty. 9 Ifwedecidetogo,itwillmean(leave)...veryearly. 10 Thecompanydidbadlyatfirstbutwenton(do)...verywell. 202

14 Unit 17 1 Language: It is said that... / He is said to... Weusethephrase: Theysay/believe /think(that) +verbtotalkaboutgeneralopinion. Theysay(that)thePrimeMinisterhaslosthisparty ssupport. They think(that) the climate is getting warmer. Tosaythesamethingmoreformally,weusethephrase: Itissaid/thought/believed/known/feared/whispered(that) +verb. Itissaid(that)theactorhaslefthiswifeandfamily. It is thought(that) the Antarctic glaciers are melting. The infinitive is used in the following very formal structure to talk about general opinion. Notice that the infinitive form corresponds to the tense in the first sentence. For example: the past tense Theterroristshaveleftthecountry. For example: future tenses ThePrimeMinisterwillretiresoon. Here are some more examples: Thesingerremainssilentbeforea performance. Theworkershavenotbeentold. the perfect infinitive Theterroristsaresaidtohaveleftthecountry. progressive infinitive ThePrimeMinisterisknowntoberetiring soon. Thesingerissaidtoremainsilentbefore a performance. Theworkersarenotthoughttohave been told. Rewrite the sentences using the phrases in brackets. 1 Thecouncilwillbuildanewroadroundthetown. (Theysay) 2 Hedoesnotalwaystellthetruth. (Itisknown) 3 The economy is deteriorating. (It is feared) 4 TheactorwillstarinafilmaboutHitler. (isbelievedto) 5 The bears have left the region. (are thought to) 6 The author s new book has been completed. (is said to) 7 Theclimberhasbeenlostinthesnowstorm (Itisthought) 8 Thenewgroupplaysverypopularmusic. (isknownto) 9 Itisverydangeroustogohikingaloneonthismountain. (Theysay) 10 Thescientistisworkingonanewinvention. (isknownto) 2BMyscore: outof10 203

15 Unit 18 1 Language: to have / get something done / its time we... We use the structure: to have something(done) to talk about an arrangement in which somebody else does something for us. Ihadthecarrepaired.(=Someonerepairedthecarforme.) I mgoingtohavemyhaircut.(=someonewillcutmyhair.) Wecanalsousethestructuretotalkaboutanexperiencethathappenstous. Ihadmywatchstolenlastweek.(=Someonestolemywatchlastweek.) Wecanusethesamestructurebutwiththewordget:togetsomething(done).Itisslightlymore informal. Wemustgetthecarpetcleaned. Imustgetmyhaircut. Weusethestructure:It stimewe(left)tosaythatitistherighttimeforsomethingtohappen. Althoughweusethepasttense,wearetalkingaboutthepresentorthefuture. It stimesomeonetoldherthetruth. It stimeyoulefthome,youngman! Wecanalsosay:It stimeforsomeoneto(do)something. It stimeforhertogivehimtherealstory. It stimeforustoleavetheparty. Rewrite the sentences using either the structure to have/ get something(done) or the structure It s time 1 Ithinkweshouldasksomeonetoredecoratethehouse. 2 Heoughttoreturntowork. 3 Whyhasn tshegotupyet? 4 Someonestoleourcarlastmonth. 5 Weneedtoinstallanewkitchen. 6 Iloveitwhensomeonemanicuresmynails. 7 Weshouldtellhimwhatreallyhappenedtohisfather. 8 Thecomputerwasupgradedforme. 9 Iinjuredmylegplayingfootballlastweek. 10 Myhair stoolong,imustgetitcut. 204

Elementary (A1) Group Course

Elementary (A1) Group Course COURSE DETAILS Elementary (A1) Group Course 45 hours Two 90-minute lessons per week Study Centre/homework 2 hours per week (recommended minimum) A1(Elementary) min 6 max 8 people Price per person 650,00

More information

Adjectives/adverbs When do you use careless and when do you use carelessly?

Adjectives/adverbs When do you use careless and when do you use carelessly? To work on grammar and vocabulary at school and at home you can use: http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en Adjectives/adverbs When do you use careless and when do you use carelessly? He is a careless driver

More information

Verb Lists: Infinitives and Gerunds Principles of Composition

Verb Lists: Infinitives and Gerunds Principles of Composition Verb Lists: Infinitives and Gerunds Principles of Composition Verbs Followed by an Infinitive agree aim appear arrange ask attempt be able beg begin care choose condescend consent continue dare decide

More information

Nouns are naming words - they are used to name a person, place or thing.

Nouns are naming words - they are used to name a person, place or thing. Adjectives Adjectives are describing words - they tell you more about nouns. Nouns are naming words - they are used to name a person, place or thing. Adjectives tell you more about the noun. Using adjectives

More information

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns.

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns. English Parts of speech Parts of Speech There are eight parts of speech. Here are some of their highlights. Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Articles Verbs Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Click on any of the

More information

Punctuation and Grammar

Punctuation and Grammar Supporting Your Child at Home Punctuation and Grammar Years 3 and 4 Launde Primary School By the end of Year 3 most children should know How to express time place and cause using conjunctions (eg when

More information

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing 2 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Unit 4 Infinitive Phrases Review Units 1 and 2 introduced some of the building blocks of sentences, including noun phrases

More information

word phrase clause - while he was studying chemistry - the man standing over there - space Clause

word phrase clause - while he was studying chemistry - the man standing over there - space Clause word phrase clause - while he was studying chemistry - the man standing over there - space Clause -Where she went is none of your business. -An antecedent is a word to which a pronoun refers. - The man

More information

PURPOSE to give to keep in order to in order not to n o r o d r e d r r to in order not to so as to so as not to so as to so as not to

PURPOSE to give to keep in order to in order not to n o r o d r e d r r to in order not to so as to so as not to so as to so as not to to express PURPOSE (to answer "Why...?"): He bought some flowers to give to his wife. He locked the door to keep everyone out. We sometimes say in order to or in order not to: We set off early in order

More information

TOEIC Grammar Guide - Verb Tense. Verb Tense

TOEIC Grammar Guide - Verb Tense. Verb Tense TOEIC Grammar Guide - Verb Verb Introduction Every sentence has a subject and a main verb. Verbs describe what the subject is doing. To be able to show exactly what the subject does at any time, verbs

More information

Using a Dictionary for Help with GERUNDS and INFINITIVES

Using a Dictionary for Help with GERUNDS and INFINITIVES Learning Centre Using a Dictionary for Help with GERUNDS and INFINITIVES Writing sentences in English that sound right to most English speakers requires more than using grammar rules correctly. Choosing

More information

Grammar Challenge So & such Practice

Grammar Challenge So & such Practice So & such Practice BBC Learning English so & such Exercise 1: Match the beginnings of the sentences to the correct endings. 1. The weather was so. a. I only answered 3 questions. 2. It was such a cold

More information

Pre-associate Degree ENGL2003EF Foundations in English (2010/S1A) Re-do Coursework Name: Student No.: Class: Total marks: /100

Pre-associate Degree ENGL2003EF Foundations in English (2010/S1A) Re-do Coursework Name: Student No.: Class: Total marks: /100 Pre-associate Degree ENGL2003EF Foundations in English (2010/S1A) Re-do Coursework Name: Student No.: Class: Total marks: /100 ** Due 18-March-2011, Friday 1pm to 4pm at OCLC Level 3 (submit to Zoe MAK)

More information

Reporting verbs. The most important basic aspects of reported speech that you have to remember are:

Reporting verbs. The most important basic aspects of reported speech that you have to remember are: Reporting verbs Summary The most important basic aspects of reported speech that you have to remember are: changes in verb tenses "I'm going home" He said he was going home changes in expressions of time

More information

Getting together. Present simple 1. New Year in Vietnam. Reading: Everybody s birthday. Word focus: Special occasions

Getting together. Present simple 1. New Year in Vietnam. Reading: Everybody s birthday. Word focus: Special occasions 2 A Present simple 1 B Present simple: questions C Communication strategies Showing interest D Interaction Are you a people person? Getting together Present simple 1 Word focus: Special occasions 1 Work

More information

Excellence in Business Communication, 12e (Thill/Bovee) Chapter 17 Handbook of Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage

Excellence in Business Communication, 12e (Thill/Bovee) Chapter 17 Handbook of Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Excellence in Business Communication, 12e (Thill/Bovee) Chapter 17 Handbook of Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 1) Which of the following is a demonstrative pronoun? A) he B) this C) who D) anyone E) either

More information

Non-finite forms of the verb. Lecture 13

Non-finite forms of the verb. Lecture 13 Non-finite forms of the verb Lecture 13 The verb is a grammatical class of words It denotes situations and establishes the relation between the situation reported and the extralinguistic reality. Therefore

More information

1. The more idioms you know how to use correctly, the more natural your speech will sound

1. The more idioms you know how to use correctly, the more natural your speech will sound What are idioms? Idioms are words, phrases, or expressions which are often grammatically strange and are not meant to be understood literally. Idioms are a very important part of any language, so learning

More information

A sentence is made up of three parts.

A sentence is made up of three parts. Notes and Exercises A sentence is made up of three parts. SUBJECT: What or whom the sentence is about. VERB: What the subject did or is. The REST: Everything else in the sentence. EXAMPLES Rachel talks

More information

TKT Module 1: Describing language: Grammar Teacher s Notes

TKT Module 1: Describing language: Grammar Teacher s Notes TKT Module 1: Describing language: Grammar Teacher s Notes Description Participants will discover what is covered by the TKT Module 1 Part 1 syllabus area relating concepts and terminology for describing

More information

Handouts for Conversation Partners: Grammar

Handouts for Conversation Partners: Grammar Handouts for Conversation Partners: Grammar Contents A Cheat Sheet on the Tenses in English... 2 Conditionals... 3 Past Participles... 5 Present Perfect Tense... 6 Present Perfect Continuous... 6 Past

More information

Independent and Dependent Clauses

Independent and Dependent Clauses Independent and Dependent Clauses Definition A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. There are two kinds of clauses: 1. An independent clause is a complete thought, a sentence.

More information

Ropsley C of E Primary School Progression of objectives to be covered for Punctuation and Grammar

Ropsley C of E Primary School Progression of objectives to be covered for Punctuation and Grammar Ropsley C of E Primary School Progression of objectives to be covered for Punctuation and Grammar Year Autumn 1 Autumn 2 Spring 1 Spring 2 Summer 1 Summer 2 Year 1 To leave spaces between To leave spaces

More information

Basic Spelling Rules: Learn the four basic spelling rules and techniques for studying hard-to-spell words. Practice spelling from dictation.

Basic Spelling Rules: Learn the four basic spelling rules and techniques for studying hard-to-spell words. Practice spelling from dictation. CLAD Grammar & Writing Workshops Adjective Clauses This workshop includes: review of the rules for choice of adjective pronouns oral practice sentence combining practice practice correcting errors in adjective

More information

Dealing with problems and complaints

Dealing with problems and complaints 47 6 Dealing with problems and complaints STARTER Look at this list of things that customers complain about. Which three things annoy you the most as a customer? Compare your answers with a partner. a

More information

Year 1: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Word

Year 1: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Word Year 1: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Regular plural noun suffixes s or es [for example, dog, dogs; wish, wishes], including the effects of these suffixes on the meaning of

More information

ELT Grammar Text. Chapter 1 Parts of Speech

ELT Grammar Text. Chapter 1 Parts of Speech ELT Grammar Text Chapter 1 Parts of Speech There are eight word classes in English, sometimes called parts of speech. Here is a list with some examples from the passage above. Word class Verb: Noun: Adjective:

More information

Read this newspaper article and complete the tasks below.

Read this newspaper article and complete the tasks below. CHAPTER 6 The Present Perfect FORM 1 Examining Form Read this newspaper article and complete the tasks below. county: a geographical and political division within a state in the U.S. 1. There are five

More information

1. Why do we use adjective clauses?

1. Why do we use adjective clauses? ADJECTIVE CLAUSES 1. Why do we use adjective clauses? to give more information about a noun or noun phrase I saw the movie. ( Which one??? ) to give more specific information about a noun or noun phrase

More information

REPORTED SPEECH. Reported speech is used to retell or report what other person has actually said. It is a very usual function in everyday language.

REPORTED SPEECH. Reported speech is used to retell or report what other person has actually said. It is a very usual function in everyday language. REPORTED SPEECH USE Reported speech is used to retell or report what other person has actually said. It is a very usual function in everyday language. STRUCTURE Formal aspects We can find different ways

More information

The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.

The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma. Lesson 3. Topic Great Britain Grammar material: Conditionals. Grammar: IF Clause Type 1 Form if + Simple Present, will-future Example: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation. The main clause

More information

Refer to: Present & future If-clause Main clause. ZERO Present + Present. If you can meet me at the car, that s easiest for me.

Refer to: Present & future If-clause Main clause. ZERO Present + Present. If you can meet me at the car, that s easiest for me. 1 CONDITIONALS Refer to: Present & future If-clause Main clause ZERO Present + Present If you press this button, the engine stops. If you can meet me at the car, that s easiest for me. Present + If you

More information

Subject or object Relative clauses give extra information about a noun in the main clause. Relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun (who,

Subject or object Relative clauses give extra information about a noun in the main clause. Relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun (who, Relative Clauses Subject or object Relative clauses give extra information about a noun in the main clause. Relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun (who, which, that, whom, whose). The relative

More information

Adjective Clauses transcript

Adjective Clauses transcript Adjective Clauses transcript So, adjective clauses. How many of you know what adjective clauses are? Raise your hand if you know. We have one person. Sandra is the only one who knows what adjective clauses

More information

Infinitive or ing-form?

Infinitive or ing-form? Infinitive or ing-form? Stefan M. Moser 7 May 2012 Version 1.6 In English, when one verb follows another, the second verb can either be the -ing form or the to infinitive. It depends on the first verb.

More information

7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense

7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense Chapter 7 Verb Usage 211 7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense The emphatic tenses of a verb are used to add emphasis. In addition, the emphatic tense can be used with the word not in negative sentences and to form

More information

Year 1 Punctuation and Grammar Expectations

Year 1 Punctuation and Grammar Expectations Year 1 and Grammar Expectations I can make a noun plural by adding a suffix e.g. dog dogs, wish wishes. I can add a suffix to a verb where I don t need to change the root word e.g. helping, helped, helper.

More information

Quick and Handy Grammar Review: Adverb Clauses 2. Time words and phrases chart 2-3

Quick and Handy Grammar Review: Adverb Clauses 2. Time words and phrases chart 2-3 Table of Contents Quick and Handy Grammar Review: Adverb Clauses 2 Time words and phrases chart 2-3 Exercise 1: Error Correction. Correct the errors in the sentences. 4 Exercise 2: Insert the correct adverb

More information

Compound Sentence Construction (Coordination)

Compound Sentence Construction (Coordination) Compound Sentence Construction (Coordination) A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses. Independent clauses can stand on their own as complete sentences. They contain a subject (noun

More information

BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Vocabulary Reporting verbs

BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Vocabulary Reporting verbs BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Vocabulary Reporting verbs This is not a word-for-word transcript Hello! Welcome to 6 Minute Vocabulary with me, and me,. In this programme, we re looking at reporting verbs.

More information

English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items

English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items In this unit we will finish our look at English grammar. Please be aware that you will have only covered the essential basic grammar that is commonly taught

More information

Cambridge Secondary 1 English as a Second Language Curriculum Framework

Cambridge Secondary 1 English as a Second Language Curriculum Framework Cambridge Secondary 1 English as a Second Language Curriculum Framework Contents Introduction Stage 7...2 Stage 8...6 Stage 9... 10 Welcome to the Cambridge Secondary 1 English as a Second Language curriculum

More information

NEW NATIONAL CURRICULUM. SUBJECT AREA: Writing

NEW NATIONAL CURRICULUM. SUBJECT AREA: Writing NEW NATIONAL CURRICULUM SUBJECT AREA: Writing End of year expectations: Year 1 Write sentences by: saying out loud what they are going to write about composing a sentence orally before writing it sequencing

More information

INGLÉS NIVEL INTERMEDIO B1

INGLÉS NIVEL INTERMEDIO B1 INGLÉS NIVEL INTERMEDIO B1 1 Language Objectives_Unit 1 1.1 Vocabulary to do with housework 1.2 What do you use to do the following jobs 1.3 Complete the sentences with an appropriate verb 1.4 Question

More information

How to form the Present Perfect

How to form the Present Perfect The present perfect verb tense is a little difficult in English it is used in several different ways, and there are lots of rules to remember. This lesson will teach you everything you ever wanted to know

More information

The Zero Conditional

The Zero Conditional The Zero Conditional We can make a zero conditional sentence with two present simple verbs (one in the 'if clause' and one in the 'main clause'): If + present simple,... present simple. This conditional

More information

Grammar and the New Curriculum Statutory requirements in KS1 and KS2

Grammar and the New Curriculum Statutory requirements in KS1 and KS2 Grammar and the New Curriculum 2014 Statutory requirements in KS1 and KS2 Technical vocabulary Year 1: Detail of content to be introduced letter, capital letter word, singular, plural, sentence punctuation,

More information

Pupil SPAG Card 1. Terminology for pupils. I Can Date Word

Pupil SPAG Card 1. Terminology for pupils. I Can Date Word Pupil SPAG Card 1 1 I know about regular plural noun endings s or es and what they mean (for example, dog, dogs; wish, wishes) 2 I know the regular endings that can be added to verbs (e.g. helping, helped,

More information

Summary of Basic Grammar

Summary of Basic Grammar Page 1 of 8 Summary of Basic Grammar Prepared by Marjorie D. Lewis Part of Speech Noun = naming words Forms that can function as nouns: Common noun: names a thing (house), person (man), or concept (love)

More information

My Oxford English. Module 4B Contents and Objectives

My Oxford English. Module 4B Contents and Objectives My Oxford English Module 4B Contents and Objectives OBJECTIVES Module 4B of My Oxford English allows students to hold a fluent conversation, understand in detail what is being said in standard English,

More information

Present continuous tense

Present continuous tense Present continuous tense For actions happening now. When we want to talk about an action that is happening now or at this time (and is unfinished), we use the present continuous tense. We also use this

More information

VERBALS - Review. Infinitives

VERBALS - Review. Infinitives VERBALS - Review Infinitives 1. Infinitives consist of to + a verb, e.g., to run. 2. Infinitives can function as nouns, adjectives or adverbs. 3. Infinitives can join together with modifiers, objects and

More information

National Quali cations EXEMPLAR PAPER ONLY

National Quali cations EXEMPLAR PAPER ONLY H National Quali cations EXEMPLAR PAPER ONLY EP42/H/02 Mark Spanish Directed Writing FOR OFFICIAL USE Date Not applicable Duration 1 hour and 40 minutes *EP42H02* Fill in these boxes and read what is printed

More information

Common Mistakes. Tips that help improve quality

Common Mistakes. Tips that help improve quality Common Mistakes Tips that help improve quality 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. APOSTROPHES Apostrophes showing possession Apostrophes showing omission It s or its? 2. COLLOCATIONS 3. COLONS VS. SEMICOLONS 4. COMMAS

More information

Hi-tech. Language focus. First conditional. Second conditional. eat. 'd give / wouldn t

Hi-tech. Language focus. First conditional. Second conditional. eat. 'd give / wouldn t 9 Hi-tech Language focus First conditional 1a Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. Use the Present Simple or will + infinitive. eat 1 If you (eat) cheese late at night,

More information

Ling 201 Syntax 1. Jirka Hana April 10, 2006

Ling 201 Syntax 1. Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Overview of topics What is Syntax? Word Classes What to remember and understand: Ling 201 Syntax 1 Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Syntax, difference between syntax and semantics, open/closed class words, all

More information

Conditional Sentences Third Condition (Past Time - Unreal/ Contrary to Fact)

Conditional Sentences Third Condition (Past Time - Unreal/ Contrary to Fact) Conditional Sentences Third Condition (Past Time - Unreal/ Contrary to Fact) Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the verbs provided. Ex. Annie failed her history test, but if she

More information

Getting a Sense of the Sentence

Getting a Sense of the Sentence Getting a Sense of the Sentence The purpose of this handout is to give you a brief overview of what a correct sentence is and how to write different types of correct sentences. Definition of a Correct

More information

Saved by the Bell: Bellwork Weeks #1-2

Saved by the Bell: Bellwork Weeks #1-2 Saved by the Bell: Bellwork Weeks #1-2 Each week, we will use the first minutes of class to review rules of grammar and usage, sentence structure, and punctuation. My goal is that these bellwork sessions

More information

Abbreviation: A shortened form of a word. Abbreviations begin with a capital letter and end with a period. Example: Dr. is an abbreviation for Doctor.

Abbreviation: A shortened form of a word. Abbreviations begin with a capital letter and end with a period. Example: Dr. is an abbreviation for Doctor. Abbreviation: A shortened form of a word. Abbreviations begin with a capital letter and end with a period. Example: Dr. is an abbreviation for Doctor. Action verb: A verb that describes an action. The

More information

ENGLISH FILE Intermediate

ENGLISH FILE Intermediate 8 Grammar, Vocabulary, and Pronunciation A GRAMMAR 1 Complete the sentences using reported speech. Example: Do you want to go or not? He asked me if / whether I wanted to go. 1 We re having a sale next

More information

銘 傳 大 學 九 十 一 學 年 度 轉 學 生 招 生 考 試 八 月 四 日 第 四 節 應 英 轉 三 英 文 聽 力 試 題

銘 傳 大 學 九 十 一 學 年 度 轉 學 生 招 生 考 試 八 月 四 日 第 四 節 應 英 轉 三 英 文 聽 力 試 題 銘 傳 大 學 九 十 一 學 年 度 轉 學 生 招 生 考 試 八 月 四 日 第 四 節 應 英 轉 三 英 文 聽 力 試 題 Part A Medium Dialogue Dialogue 1. 1. a. in the night market b. in a supermarket c. in a 7-11 d. in an electronics store 2. a. She is

More information

Articles Definite Article: the Pronunciation(!): the chair, the apple

Articles Definite Article: the Pronunciation(!): the chair, the apple Articles Definite Article: the Pronunciation(!): the chair, the apple Indefinite Article: a, an a chair, an apple Some special rules of using articles: 1. Names of streets, squares, etc. do not have articles:

More information

Course Objectives, Student Learning Outcomes, and Promotion Requirements

Course Objectives, Student Learning Outcomes, and Promotion Requirements Grammar 10 Objectives to teach: Simple present tense Be and have in the present tense Singular/plural forms of regular nouns Parts of speech Question formation of tenses taught Grammar 10 Student Learning

More information

Common Core Reading Standards for Grade 1

Common Core Reading Standards for Grade 1 Common Core Reading Standards for Grade 1 The box on the left lists the standards teachers are using, and the box on the right is what you can do at home to support what children are learning in the classroom.

More information

ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test. Answers and Explanations

ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test. Answers and Explanations ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test Answers and Explanations The ESL Language Use test measures your proficiency in using correct grammar in English sentences. There are five content areas measured on this

More information

Core English: Grammar II Essentials Course Guide

Core English: Grammar II Essentials Course Guide Introduction... 2 Unit 1: Sentence Development Lesson 1.1: Making a Complete Sentence... 2 Lesson 1.2: Nouns and Verbs... 3 Lesson 1.3: Four Kinds of Sentences... 3 Lesson 1.4: Use of Capitals... 4 Lesson

More information

Task: Complete the sentences below using the correct word don t or doesn t.

Task: Complete the sentences below using the correct word don t or doesn t. or When we use don t or doesn t we use an apostrophe to omit the letter o. Without the apostrophe we have two separate words: Do not This seems simple enough but we often put the wrong word into our writing

More information

S OAPY MOVED RESTLESSLY ON HIS SEAT

S OAPY MOVED RESTLESSLY ON HIS SEAT T h e C o p a n d t h e A n t h e m p The Cop and the Anthem S OAPY MOVED RESTLESSLY ON HIS SEAT in Madison Square. There are certain signs to show that winter is coming. Birds begin to fly south. Women

More information

EGPS (ENGLISH, GRAMMAR, PUNCTUATION AND SPELLING) Town Farm Primary School

EGPS (ENGLISH, GRAMMAR, PUNCTUATION AND SPELLING) Town Farm Primary School EGPS (ENGLISH, GRAMMAR, PUNCTUATION AND SPELLING) Town Farm Primary School AIMS OF THE SESSION To talk about the new EGPS curriculum and expectations and provide information on the topic. To look at the

More information

VERBALS - Participles

VERBALS - Participles VERBALS - Participles A. A participle is a verb form used as an adjective. 1. Active participles end in ing. the howling dog (a dog that is howling). the screaming child (a child that is screaming). 2.

More information

Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced

Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced Name I. Grammar / Vocabulary II. Reading Comprehension III. Writing Sample IV. Conversation / Interview Directions for the Tutor: Allow the participant

More information

English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation

English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation The grammar of our first language is learnt naturally and implicitly through interactions with other speakers and from reading. Explicit knowledge

More information

ESL Sentence Structure

ESL Sentence Structure ESL Sentence Structure Here are some suggestions for ESL students regarding sentence structure in English: Use a linking verb between a subject and complement. For example: I am ready for the trip. Jennifer

More information

Key skills End of year 1 - Expectations in Writing

Key skills End of year 1 - Expectations in Writing End of year 1 - Expectations in Writing I can spell my word list accurately. I can spell some unusual words correctly. I can spell the days of the week. I know the names of all the letters of the alphabet

More information

Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face

Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face 1A Question Forms 1.1 Yes-No Questions 1. If the first verb is an auxiliary verb, just move it in front of the Subject:

More information

Straightforward Advanced CEF Checklists

Straightforward Advanced CEF Checklists Straightforward Advanced CEF Checklists Choose from 0 5 for each statement to express how well you can carry out the following skills practised in Straightforward Advanced. 0 = I can t do this at all.

More information

LISTEN AND CONSIDER. Let s think about it. Listen and do Language in context. Writing. make a speech

LISTEN AND CONSIDER. Let s think about it. Listen and do Language in context. Writing. make a speech LISTEN AND CONSIDER In this part you will learn to: express certainty express probably with likely that, probable that express possibility and remote possibility with may/ can, might/could use the gerund

More information

Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS

Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS Objetivos de Habilidades: inglés El objetivo de la prueba es comprobar que el alumno ha adquirido un nivel B1 (dentro

More information

What do these words mean? Use it can or it can t (and a dictionary if necessary)!

What do these words mean? Use it can or it can t (and a dictionary if necessary)! What do these words mean? Use it can or it can t (and a dictionary if necessary)! If something is. 1. washable, it can be washed. 2. unbreakable, it can t... 3. edible, it... 4. unusable, it... 5. invisible,

More information

Business School. Is grammar only a problem for non-english speaking background students?

Business School. Is grammar only a problem for non-english speaking background students? Business School Editing your writing for grammar mistakes Editing Your Writing for Grammar Mistakes Does grammar matter? In most assignment guidelines given in the Business School, assessment criteria

More information

Glossary. apostrophe. abbreviation

Glossary.  apostrophe. abbreviation [ Glossary a abbreviation An abbreviation is a shortened form of phrase or word. apostrophe An apostrophe has two uses: to show that two words have been shortened to make one (called a contraction ) and

More information

Building Blocks of Grammar

Building Blocks of Grammar TEACHING & LEARNING TOOLKIT Building Blocks of Grammar Parts of Speech and Grammatical Categories Produced by Central Michigan University s Quality Initiative and Center for Excellence in Teaching and

More information

Connectedness and the Emotional Bank Account

Connectedness and the Emotional Bank Account Connectedness and the Emotional Bank Account Directions This is a self-guided activity that can be completed by parents, teens or both. It contains five parts and should take about 45 minutes to complete.

More information

RULE Modifiers should be placed as near as possible to the words they modify in order to keep the meaning clear.

RULE Modifiers should be placed as near as possible to the words they modify in order to keep the meaning clear. RULE Modifiers should be placed as near as possible to the words they modify in order to keep the meaning clear. WRITE Start with each of the following plain sentences and revise them, using various modifiers

More information

Gerund and Infinitive Worksheet

Gerund and Infinitive Worksheet Gerund and Infinitive Worksheet In this printable worksheet, the rules for using gerunds and infinitives will be explained in detail. The explanation will be followed by two practice activities with these

More information

Verbals. Gerunds Infinitives Participles

Verbals. Gerunds Infinitives Participles Verbals Gerunds Infinitives Participles Gerunds A Gerund is a verbal that ends in ing and functions as a noun (S, SC, DO, APP, OP). Gerund as subject: Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences.

More information

Advanced Conditionals Explained. Real Conditionals

Advanced Conditionals Explained. Real Conditionals Advanced Conditionals Explained A conditional is made up of two parts: the if-clause and the main clause. We can put either one first and it doesn t change the meaning. We usually use a comma if we put

More information

English Grammar. A Short Guide. Graham Tulloch

English Grammar. A Short Guide. Graham Tulloch English Grammar A Short Guide Graham Tulloch This book was prepared in the English Discipline of the Flinders University of South Australia and printed by Flinders Press. 1990 Graham Tulloch FURTHER READING

More information

For the Grammar Nazi in you. Grammar 101

For the Grammar Nazi in you. Grammar 101 For the Grammar Nazi in you Grammar 101 A Sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. has two basic parts: a subject and a predicate The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about

More information

Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs

Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs Use the following six guidelines to help you determine if a word or group of words is a verb. 1. A complete verb tells time by changing form. This is the number

More information

1 English Short Stories for Beginners,

1 English Short Stories for Beginners, 1 English Short Stories for Beginners, www.really-learn-english.com Thanks for downloading the English Short Stories booklet. It includes the first 2 chapters of the English Short Stories Book and Workbook.

More information

Punctuation. A question mark is used at the end of an interrogative sentence

Punctuation. A question mark is used at the end of an interrogative sentence Punctuation Full stop In writing, we mark sentences by using a capital letter at the beginning, and a full stop (or question mark or exclamation mark) at the end. The big dog was barking. Question mark

More information

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus Lesson Overview of Lesson Plan Numbers 1&2 Introduction to Cambridge KET Handing Over of GMAT.cz KET General Preparation Package Introduce Methodology for Vocabulary Log Introduce Methodology for Grammar

More information

BBC Learning English Grammar Challenge Verb, object, 'to' + infinitive

BBC Learning English Grammar Challenge Verb, object, 'to' + infinitive BBC Learning English Grammar Challenge Verb, object, 'to' + infinitive Practice activities Exercise 1: Read the first sentence, and choose the most suitable verb to complete the second sentence. 1. "Ellie,

More information

Family Law. Lesson: Family Violence. CLB 5-6 Instructional Package

Family Law. Lesson: Family Violence. CLB 5-6 Instructional Package Lesson: Family Violence CLB 5-6 Instructional Package Family Law: Family Violence (CLB 5-6) CLB Outcomes CLB 5-III: Getting Things Done CLB 6-IV: Comprehending Information CLB5-II: Reproducing Information

More information

Straightforward Pre-intermediate Practice Online

Straightforward Pre-intermediate Practice Online Macmillan Practice Online is the easy way to get all the benefits of online learning and with over 100 courses to choose from, covering all competence levels and ranging from business English to exam practice

More information

Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar Policy

Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar Policy Our vision Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar Policy At St. Michael and St. John s R.C, we aim for all our children to become good writers and good at using Standard English. This includes becoming good

More information

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection 1 GRAMMAR Eight Parts of Speech Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection Noun Name or classify persons, places, things, and concepts 1. Proper Nouns: Name particular people,

More information