Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face"

Transcription

1 Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face 1A Question Forms 1.1 Yes-No Questions 1. If the first verb is an auxiliary verb, just move it in front of the Subject: You are coming. -> Are you coming? You will come. -> Will you come? 2. If first verb is the main verb: a. If the main verb is be, you can just move it to the front: You are sick. -> Are you sick? b. For all other verbs, the main verb cannot be moved in front. Insert do first: He loves you. -> He does love you. -> Does he love you? c. When you insert do, it takes on the primary tense of the original sentence: He loves you. -> Does he love you? He loved you. -> Did he love you? 1.2 Wh- Questions In a wh-question, the speaker asks the addressee about one of the elements of the clause. The formation of a wh-question can be seen in the following sequence, transforming a statement to a question: 1. If the Wh-element is the Subject, one just replaces it with a wh-word: Statement form John likes ice-cream? Intermediate forms - Question form Who likes ice-cream? (Change the subject for a wh-word) 2. If the Wh-element is not Subject, we need to move the wh-word to the front of the clause. Also, we move the first verb before the Subject (just as with yes-no questions): Statement form He is John. Intermediate forms He is who (Change one element for a wh-word) Question form Who is he? (Move the wh-word to the front, inverting the Subject and finite) 1

2 3. Where the first verb is the main verb (except be ), we need to change to a do form before moving the verb: Statement form She loves John. Intermediate forms She loves who (Change one element for a wh-word) She does love who (insert do ) Question form Who does she love? (Move the wh-word to the front, inverting the Subject and finite) 4. For questions about distance, instead of a single wh-word, we use a phrase: How long is the string? (The string is 5 metres long) 5. Where the wh-element is one of the premodifiers of a noun phrase, we move the whole noun phrase forward: How many apples did you buy? (I bought seven apples) Which car did you buy? (I bought that car) What color car did you buy? (I bought a green car) 1B Making Negatives The basic principles her are: 1. If the first verb is an auxiliary verb, a. Just add not after the auxiliary: I have been to London -> I have not been to London. b. In more informal language, you can contract: I have been to London -> I haven t been to London. will not -> won t am not -> aren t is not -> isn t etc. 2. If first verb is the main verb: d. If the main verb is be, you can add not after it: You are sick. -> You are not sick. e. be as main verb allows contraction: You are sick. -> You aren t sick. f. For all other verbs, we need to insert a do verb first: He loves you. -> He does not love you. g. The do verb can also be contracted: He loves you. -> He doesn t love you. 3. Note the placement of the negation in relation to the adverb in the following: I often eat out -> I don t often eat out. 4. Sometime we negate a sentence by negating the Subject: Everyone here likes me. > Not everyone here likes me OR No one here likes me. 1D Question Tags Question Tags (You like ice-cream, don t you?) When to use Question Tags: A way of asking a question, by making a statement and asking if the other person agrees. Form: STATEMENT +, + verb + pronoun +? Reverse polarity: If the statement is in the positive, the tag is in the negative: I saw him, didn t I? If the statement is in the negative, the tag is in the positive: You haven t seen him, have you? 2

3 Only use pronouns: Joan went to Bristol, didn t she? The Verb: If the first verb in the statement is an auxiliary, repeat it: You haven t seen him, have you? He is eating well, isn t he? You will be there, won t you? It was opened by you, wasn t it? If the first verb in the statement is a lexical verb, replace it with do : You like ice-cream, don t you? He went to Oxford, didn t he? With a statement starting with I think, often the verb in the projection is used: I think it is great, isn t it? I don t think he will come, will he? Responding to a question tag: Respond positively to a question of this kind with the opposite polarity: A: You went to Oxford, didn t you? B: Yes, I did. A: John is an idiot, isn t he? B: Yes, he is. Respond negatively to a question of this kind with the same polarity: A: You went to Oxford, didn t you? B: No, I didn t. A: John is an idiot, isn t he? B: No, he isn t. 2A Modal Verbs Ability can I can play piano. be able to I am able to play piano. Permission can You can leave after lunch. be allowed to You are allowed to leave after lunch. Obligation (necessary) - Strong must You must finish your homework. have to You have to finish your homework. - Weak be supposed to You are supposed to finish your homework. Advice (expected) should You should buy a new computer ought to You ought to check your more often. 2B, 3A Tenses 1.3 States and events Before starting on tenses, we should distinguish the following kinds of things that clauses express: 1. Event: something which happens, with a beginning, middle and end (e.g., playing tennis, eating something, bombing a city, etc.). Events can be: Happening: events that have no agent. E.g., it rained. Action: An event that has an Agent (someone does something) e.g., I played tennis, John ate an apple. Habitual action: some agent frequently performs an action: She plays tennis every Monday. 2. State: the continuation of properties of entities over some period of time (e.g., He is five-years old, She is beautiful, She loves John, He owns a car, etc.). Includes mental states: I feel sick, I know that! I hate this weather. 3

4 1.4 Talking about the past Talking about past events When talking about an event that happened before the time of speaking/writing: Context Tense to use Example By default: simple past I spilt my coffee. If you want to specify that the event still affects you at the time of speaking If you want to specify that the event was in progress when another event took place present perfect past-continuous I have spilt my coffee (so could you clean it up) I have eaten breakfast (I am still full) I was spilling my coffee (when she walked in) While playing tennis, I broke my arm. You can also use the Present Perfect Simple to say how often someone has done something so far in their lives (with the implication that they have not finished doing it): Scott has written 3 books (so far) We have built three houses this year. Where the period of time is closes, use the simple past: We built three houses last year. I wrote three books before I came here Talking about past states When talking about a state that existed in the past: Context Tense to use Example By default: simple past I was sick, I loved John, I knew that. If you want to specify that the state still affects you at the time of speaking present perfect I have been sick (so am still weak) I have been to London (it s one of my life experiences) Note: Past-continuous tense cannot be used with states (NOT: I was wanting to eat) Talking about past habitual actions For activities that you performed habitually (frequently) in the past (Spanish: solia) 1. Use the simple past with some indicator of repetition: I always ate in that restaurant (where always is an adjunct indicating repetition) 2. You can use the following adjuncts to indicate repettion: always/often/sometimes/frequently/on Mondays, every day, etc. 3. Alternatively, you can use the used to form. I used to eat in that restaurant. You do not need to provide an indication of repetition, but you can. I often used to eat in that bar. The negative is formed as follows: I didn t used to Talking about the present Talking about present events When talking about an event that is happening now. As the default, use the present continuous to talk about current happenings. This includes: Something that are happening right now I am doing my homework. 4

5 Something happening around now, but not John is writing a book. just at the moment Something changing over time Sales are growing quickly Use the present simple to talk about: Habits, daily routines I play tennis on Mondays. General statements that we think are true Water boils at 100 degrees. Americans eat more sugar Talking about present states When talking about a state that exists at the time of speaking: As the default, use the simple present, e.g, I have a car, I am sick, I love Mary. If you use the present continuous, it forces the state to be interpreted as activity, e.g., The kids are being good (they are behaving well); She is being sick (she is vomiting), etc. 1.6 Use of the Present Perfect for ongoing events As stated above, the Present perfect can be used to talk about a past event/state that still affects the present. This tense can also be used for current activities, as explained below: Specifying how long a current activity has been going on If talking about current events, states, habits, etc., and you want to specify for how long the activity/state has been going on, then we add the perfect tense: Type Normal Specifying how long Current event I am playing tennis. I have been playing tennis for 30 minutes. Current habit I play tennis on Mondays. I have played tennis on Mondays for 5 years. Current state I have a car I am sick. I know you are good. Note the two ways to specify the duration: I have had a car since I have been sick for 3 weeks. I have known you are good for a long time. I have lived here since 2005 I have lived here for 6 years. The combination of perfect tense with the Present Simple is called the Present Perfect Simple. The combination of perfect tense with the Present Continuous is called the Present Perfect Continuous Specifying that this is the first/second etc. time Use the Present Perfect Simple in sentences like the following: This is the first time that I have been here. This is the third time that I have eaten sushi. 2C Gradable and Strong Adjectives We can talk about two types of adjectives: Gradable adjectives tend to be on a continuum, so we can add intensifiers such as very, fairly, extremely or incredibly before them. Strong adjectives already represent an extreme, so they should not be intensified with words such as very (e.g., very dead does not make sense). These adjectives can be intensified by adverbs which are themselves extreme: completely, absolutely, utterly, and totally. really also works here. 5

6 Answers to exercise 8 exhausted: strong adjective so use absolutely or really difficult: gradable adjective so use very, etc. awful: strong adjective so use absolutely or really interested: gradable adjective so use very, etc. gorgeous: strong adjective so use absolutely or really cold: gradable adjective so use very, etc. 3B Comments on Exercise 6 1. The question says to use either the Present Perfect Continuous (have been running) or the Present Perfect Simple (have run). Any other tenses (e.g., simple present) are thus wrong. 2. The question also says to use the Present Perfect Continuous wherever possible. Thus, question five could have been: They have not played tennis for very long, but is wrong as you were asked to use the continuous if possible. 3. The main trick in this question is that activities can be in the continuous tense, but states cannot. Thus: I have been knowing my best friend... I have known my best friend... How long has your sister been being an actress. How long has your sister been an actress. 4. The other trick here is that when counting past achievements, use the present perfect simple: He has been writing 3 books so far. He has written 3 books so far. 5. Note that had is past tense, so is wrong in any of the questions. 6. Note the agreements between Subject and the Finite (first verb): I/you/they/we have he/she has This is true even when the Subject and Finite are in a different order: How long HAS your sister been... How long HAVE you been The correct spelling of write is as follows: I write / I wrote / I have written / I have been writing 6

Read this newspaper article and complete the tasks below.

Read this newspaper article and complete the tasks below. CHAPTER 6 The Present Perfect FORM 1 Examining Form Read this newspaper article and complete the tasks below. county: a geographical and political division within a state in the U.S. 1. There are five

More information

TKT Module 1: Describing language: Grammar Teacher s Notes

TKT Module 1: Describing language: Grammar Teacher s Notes TKT Module 1: Describing language: Grammar Teacher s Notes Description Participants will discover what is covered by the TKT Module 1 Part 1 syllabus area relating concepts and terminology for describing

More information

TOPIC 6: The Clause (continued...)

TOPIC 6: The Clause (continued...) TOPIC 6: The Clause (continued...) Types of Clause (iii): Function Classes In traditional grammar, clauses are often identified on the basis of the function they serve: 1. Adverbial Clause: a clause which

More information

Advanced Conditionals Explained. Real Conditionals

Advanced Conditionals Explained. Real Conditionals Advanced Conditionals Explained A conditional is made up of two parts: the if-clause and the main clause. We can put either one first and it doesn t change the meaning. We usually use a comma if we put

More information

Grammar Challenge So & such Practice

Grammar Challenge So & such Practice So & such Practice BBC Learning English so & such Exercise 1: Match the beginnings of the sentences to the correct endings. 1. The weather was so. a. I only answered 3 questions. 2. It was such a cold

More information

Grammar & exercises NA englishpage.com

Grammar & exercises NA englishpage.com FORM [has/have + been + present participle] * You have been waiting here for two hours. * Have you been waiting here for two hours? * You have not been waiting here for two hours. USE 1 Duration from the

More information

English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items

English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items In this unit we will finish our look at English grammar. Please be aware that you will have only covered the essential basic grammar that is commonly taught

More information

Understanding Complex Sentences

Understanding Complex Sentences Understanding Complex Sentences A clause : a group of related words that contains a subject and a verb CLAUSES MAIN CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE DJECTIVE CLAUSE NOUN CLAUSE ADVERBIAL CLAUSE Understanding

More information

Language at work To be Possessives

Language at work To be Possessives Unit 1 Language at work To be Possessives To be Positive: I am / m a receptionist. You / We / They are / re Polish. He / She / It is / s from Brazil. Negative: I am not / m not a team leader. You / We

More information

ENGLISH GRAMMAR Elementary

ENGLISH GRAMMAR Elementary ENGLISH GRAMMAR Elementary A cura di NADIA TOSI Centro IDA ITE Enrico Tosi Busto Arsizio CONTENTS DEFINITE ARTICLES 3 INDEFINITE ARTICLES 3 PERSONAL PRONOUNS SUBJECTS 4 PLURALS. 5 POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

More information

How to form the Present Perfect

How to form the Present Perfect The present perfect verb tense is a little difficult in English it is used in several different ways, and there are lots of rules to remember. This lesson will teach you everything you ever wanted to know

More information

English auxiliary verbs

English auxiliary verbs 1. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs serve grammatical functions, for this reason they are said to belong to the functional category of words. The main auxiliary verbs in English are DO, BE and HAVE. Others,

More information

Modal Verbs. Modal verbs for BSL are Can, Must, Should, Want (these are productive requirements)

Modal Verbs. Modal verbs for BSL are Can, Must, Should, Want (these are productive requirements) Modal Verbs Modal verbs for BSL are Can, Must, Should, Want (these are productive requirements) What is a model verb? http://www.englishbaby.com/lessons/3364/member_submitted/what_are _modal_verbs What

More information

Kangourou Italia - British Institutes Gara del 2 marzo 2010 Categoria Wallaby Per studenti della classe terza della Scuola Secondaria di Primo Grado

Kangourou Italia - British Institutes Gara del 2 marzo 2010 Categoria Wallaby Per studenti della classe terza della Scuola Secondaria di Primo Grado Testi_Kang_10ENG.qxp 8-01-2010 22:38 Pagina 10 Kangourou Italia - British Institutes Gara del 2 marzo 2010 Categoria Per studenti della classe terza della Scuola Secondaria di Primo Grado Choose the correct

More information

ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test. Answers and Explanations

ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test. Answers and Explanations ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test Answers and Explanations The ESL Language Use test measures your proficiency in using correct grammar in English sentences. There are five content areas measured on this

More information

Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced

Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced Name I. Grammar / Vocabulary II. Reading Comprehension III. Writing Sample IV. Conversation / Interview Directions for the Tutor: Allow the participant

More information

Refer to: Present & future If-clause Main clause. ZERO Present + Present. If you can meet me at the car, that s easiest for me.

Refer to: Present & future If-clause Main clause. ZERO Present + Present. If you can meet me at the car, that s easiest for me. 1 CONDITIONALS Refer to: Present & future If-clause Main clause ZERO Present + Present If you press this button, the engine stops. If you can meet me at the car, that s easiest for me. Present + If you

More information

1 Time. 5 Answer the questions about yourself. Lesson 1: Time in your life. Listening 1

1 Time. 5 Answer the questions about yourself. Lesson 1: Time in your life. Listening 1 Time Listening Lesson : Time in your life. Listen to the information about Linda and Huseyin. Are the sentences true or false? True False Linda likes the early morning. She usually checks her emails when

More information

Kaufmännische Berufsmatura im Kanton Zürich Aufnahmeprüfung 2009 Englisch Serie 2 K E Y - K E Y - K E Y 100 MARKS

Kaufmännische Berufsmatura im Kanton Zürich Aufnahmeprüfung 2009 Englisch Serie 2 K E Y - K E Y - K E Y 100 MARKS K E Y - K E Y - K E Y 100 MARKS TASK 1 ( Jamaica appoints whizz kid to top job ) (two marks) T F DS T F DS T F DS 1. 0 0 5. 0 0 9. 0 0 2. 0 0 6. 0 0 10. 0 0 3. 0 0 7. 0 0 4. 0 0 8. 0 0 20 marks TASK 2

More information

Quick and Handy Grammar Review: Adverb Clauses 2. Time words and phrases chart 2-3

Quick and Handy Grammar Review: Adverb Clauses 2. Time words and phrases chart 2-3 Table of Contents Quick and Handy Grammar Review: Adverb Clauses 2 Time words and phrases chart 2-3 Exercise 1: Error Correction. Correct the errors in the sentences. 4 Exercise 2: Insert the correct adverb

More information

THE ENGLISH SENTENCE

THE ENGLISH SENTENCE THE ENGLISH SENTENCE (Materials based on: Huddleston, R. & Pullum, G.K. (Eds.)., 2002. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. London: CUP and Greenbaum, S., & Quirk, R. 1990. A Student's Grammar

More information

Handouts for Conversation Partners: Grammar

Handouts for Conversation Partners: Grammar Handouts for Conversation Partners: Grammar Contents A Cheat Sheet on the Tenses in English... 2 Conditionals... 3 Past Participles... 5 Present Perfect Tense... 6 Present Perfect Continuous... 6 Past

More information

Ling 201 Syntax 1. Jirka Hana April 10, 2006

Ling 201 Syntax 1. Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Overview of topics What is Syntax? Word Classes What to remember and understand: Ling 201 Syntax 1 Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Syntax, difference between syntax and semantics, open/closed class words, all

More information

ENGLISH DIAGNOSTIC TEST

ENGLISH DIAGNOSTIC TEST ENGLISH DIAGNOSTIC TEST Please answer the following questions without spending too long considering your answers. The test multiple choice based and is there for diagnostic purposes to assess your present

More information

Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features

Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features Textual features relevant to the second objective of Dimension 2 are described below. These are features that teachers may like to draw on to further

More information

Early Morphological Development

Early Morphological Development Early Morphological Development Morphology is the aspect of language concerned with the rules governing change in word meaning. Morphological development is analyzed by computing a child s Mean Length

More information

Sentence Blocks. Sentence Focus Activity. Contents

Sentence Blocks. Sentence Focus Activity. Contents Sentence Focus Activity Sentence Blocks Contents Instructions 2.1 Activity Template (Blank) 2.7 Sentence Blocks Q & A 2.8 Sentence Blocks Six Great Tips for Students 2.9 Designed specifically for the Talk

More information

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing 2 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Unit 4 Infinitive Phrases Review Units 1 and 2 introduced some of the building blocks of sentences, including noun phrases

More information

Pre-associate Degree ENGL2003EF Foundations in English (2010/S1A) Re-do Coursework Name: Student No.: Class: Total marks: /100

Pre-associate Degree ENGL2003EF Foundations in English (2010/S1A) Re-do Coursework Name: Student No.: Class: Total marks: /100 Pre-associate Degree ENGL2003EF Foundations in English (2010/S1A) Re-do Coursework Name: Student No.: Class: Total marks: /100 ** Due 18-March-2011, Friday 1pm to 4pm at OCLC Level 3 (submit to Zoe MAK)

More information

Simple present/present continuous

Simple present/present continuous Grammar explanations PROGRESS 4 Unit 1 Simple present/present continuous Here are some more ways we use the simple present: 1 To give instructions/directions First, you boil some water and then you add

More information

ARQUIDIOCESIS DE CALI FUNDACIÓN EDUCATIVA SANTA ISABEL DE HUNGRIA FUNDACIÓN EDUCATIVA ALBERTO URIBE URDANETA COORDINACIÓN AREA DE INGLÉS

ARQUIDIOCESIS DE CALI FUNDACIÓN EDUCATIVA SANTA ISABEL DE HUNGRIA FUNDACIÓN EDUCATIVA ALBERTO URIBE URDANETA COORDINACIÓN AREA DE INGLÉS ARQUIDIOCESIS DE CALI FUNDACIÓN EDUCATIVA SANTA ISABEL DE HUNGRIA FUNDACIÓN EDUCATIVA ALBERTO URIBE URDANETA COORDINACIÓN AREA DE INGLÉS FUNDACIONES EDUCATIVAS ARQUIDIOCESANAS CALI, EQUIPO COORDINACIÓN

More information

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns.

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns. English Parts of speech Parts of Speech There are eight parts of speech. Here are some of their highlights. Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Articles Verbs Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Click on any of the

More information

1) The subject. The man walked down the street. 2) A participle (word ending in ing or ed) Walking up the street, he tripped.

1) The subject. The man walked down the street. 2) A participle (word ending in ing or ed) Walking up the street, he tripped. 1) The subject The man walked down the street. 2) A participle (word ending in ing or ed) Walking up the street, he tripped. Worried about tripping, he bumped into his wife. 3) A connective As she walked,

More information

openmind 1 Practice Online

openmind 1 Practice Online Macmillan Practice Online is the easy way to get all the benefits of online learning and with over 100 courses to choose from, covering all competence levels and ranging from business English to exam practice

More information

Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes

Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes Sentences are classified as simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. This designation is based on the clauses used to create the sentence. Clauses: Every clause

More information

Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs

Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs Use the following six guidelines to help you determine if a word or group of words is a verb. 1. A complete verb tells time by changing form. This is the number

More information

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES Universidad de Los Andes Facultad de Humanidades y Educación Escuela de Idiomas Modernos NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES In English, as in many other languages in the world, individual words

More information

ESSENTIAL GRAMMAR GUIDE FOR YOUR TEFL CLASSES

ESSENTIAL GRAMMAR GUIDE FOR YOUR TEFL CLASSES ESSENTIAL GRAMMAR GUIDE FOR YOUR TEFL CLASSES Your invaluable classroom guide for teaching English grammar to a TEFL class. Check your understanding of grammar and look at ways in which the topics can

More information

Conditional Sentences Third Condition (Past Time - Unreal/ Contrary to Fact)

Conditional Sentences Third Condition (Past Time - Unreal/ Contrary to Fact) Conditional Sentences Third Condition (Past Time - Unreal/ Contrary to Fact) Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the verbs provided. Ex. Annie failed her history test, but if she

More information

FLST08-09 Linguistic Foundations. Exercise of week 1 of Linguistic Foundations ( ) Ambiguity

FLST08-09 Linguistic Foundations. Exercise of week 1 of Linguistic Foundations ( ) Ambiguity FLST08-09 Linguistic Foundations Exercise of week 1 of Linguistic Foundations (31.10.2008) Ambiguity Ambiguity is the quality or state of being ambiguous. When a sentence is ambiguous, it has two or more

More information

EVERYDAY ENGLISH GRAMMAR

EVERYDAY ENGLISH GRAMMAR EVERYDAY ENGLISH GRAMMAR by Steven Collins A Self-Study Course in Essential English Constructions Upper-Intermediate and Advanced ISBN 0-9528358-6-X 978-0-9528358-6-8 www.everydayenglishbooks.com MONTSERRAT

More information

NAP. Narrative Assessment Protocol. C Gosse. Laura M Justice. Khara Pence. Ryan Bowles. Carolyn Gosse

NAP. Narrative Assessment Protocol. C Gosse. Laura M Justice. Khara Pence. Ryan Bowles. Carolyn Gosse NAP Narrative Assessment Protocol Laura M Justice Khara Pence Ryan Bowles Carolyn Gosse C Gosse NAP Elicitation Directions 1. Introduce the task: Show the cover of the book to the child. Say: We are going

More information

1. The more idioms you know how to use correctly, the more natural your speech will sound

1. The more idioms you know how to use correctly, the more natural your speech will sound What are idioms? Idioms are words, phrases, or expressions which are often grammatically strange and are not meant to be understood literally. Idioms are a very important part of any language, so learning

More information

Unit 18: Present Perfect Tense vs. Past Tense

Unit 18: Present Perfect Tense vs. Past Tense Unit 18: Present Perfect Tense vs. Past Tense THE PROBLEMS She has lived there last year. They didn t call yet. Exercise 1: 1) Circle the verbs (auxiliary verbs, main verbs and past participles). 2) Write

More information

Level 1 Teacher s Manual

Level 1 Teacher s Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS Lesson Study Skills Unit Page 1 STUDY SKILLS. Introduce study skills. Use a Quigley story to discuss study skills. 1 2 STUDY SKILLS. Introduce getting organized. Use a Quigley story to

More information

English for Life. E l e m e n t a r y. Lessons 1 4 Checklist Getting Started. Student s Book 3 Date. Workbook. MultiROM. Test 1 4

English for Life. E l e m e n t a r y. Lessons 1 4 Checklist Getting Started. Student s Book 3 Date. Workbook. MultiROM. Test 1 4 Lessons 1 4 Checklist Getting Started Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 What do you do? The alphabet Posession Introducing yourself Classroom language Plurals: regular and irregular this / that Useful

More information

In a statement, a one-word frequency adverb usually comes after the verb be but before other verbs. In a question, it usually comes after the subject.

In a statement, a one-word frequency adverb usually comes after the verb be but before other verbs. In a question, it usually comes after the subject. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE: ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY In a statement, a one-word frequency adverb usually comes after the verb be but before other verbs. In a question, it usually comes after the subject. Adverbs

More information

are used to show how a text fits

are used to show how a text fits Glossary of terms: Term Definition Example active voice An active verb has its usual pattern of subject and object (in contrast to the passive voice). Active The school arranged a visit. Passive: adverbs

More information

Articles Definite Article: the Pronunciation(!): the chair, the apple

Articles Definite Article: the Pronunciation(!): the chair, the apple Articles Definite Article: the Pronunciation(!): the chair, the apple Indefinite Article: a, an a chair, an apple Some special rules of using articles: 1. Names of streets, squares, etc. do not have articles:

More information

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Continuous Tense * Past Perfect Continuous Tense *What is past perfect continuous tense? * Tense that is used to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. *Formula Past perfect

More information

7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense

7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense Chapter 7 Verb Usage 211 7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense The emphatic tenses of a verb are used to add emphasis. In addition, the emphatic tense can be used with the word not in negative sentences and to form

More information

Nouns are naming words - they are used to name a person, place or thing.

Nouns are naming words - they are used to name a person, place or thing. Adjectives Adjectives are describing words - they tell you more about nouns. Nouns are naming words - they are used to name a person, place or thing. Adjectives tell you more about the noun. Using adjectives

More information

Lesson 6. Adverbs. carefully slowly. quickly

Lesson 6. Adverbs. carefully slowly. quickly Lesson 6 Adverbs quickly carefully slowly ! Adverbs describe how, when, or where someone does something. There are different types of adverbs. adverbs of manner adverbs of frequency adverbs of time adverbs

More information

Straightforward Pre-intermediate Practice Online

Straightforward Pre-intermediate Practice Online Macmillan Practice Online is the easy way to get all the benefits of online learning and with over 100 courses to choose from, covering all competence levels and ranging from business English to exam practice

More information

English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation

English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation The grammar of our first language is learnt naturally and implicitly through interactions with other speakers and from reading. Explicit knowledge

More information

Nombre: SIMPLE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE. Subjet + verb (3 sing +s, or es) NEGATIVE. Subjet + do/does + not+ verb INTERROGATIVE. Do /Does + Subjet + verb?

Nombre: SIMPLE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE. Subjet + verb (3 sing +s, or es) NEGATIVE. Subjet + do/does + not+ verb INTERROGATIVE. Do /Does + Subjet + verb? SIMPLE PRESENT Affirmative Negative Interrogative I play. You eat. He reads. She sleeps. It runs. We speak. You work. They study. I don t play. You don t eat. He doesn t read. She doesn t sleep. It doesn

More information

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus Lesson Overview of Lesson Plan Numbers 1&2 Introduction to Cambridge KET Handing Over of GMAT.cz KET General Preparation Package Introduce Methodology for Vocabulary Log Introduce Methodology for Grammar

More information

Placement Test. It is designed to enable us to place you in a class at the right level for you.

Placement Test. It is designed to enable us to place you in a class at the right level for you. Placement Test Date / / Name Nationality This placement test contains 50 multiple-choice questions for you to answer, and 3 writing questions. Please write a few sentences for each writing question. It

More information

Tenses ENGLISH GRAMMAR, TENSES. The English Tense System

Tenses ENGLISH GRAMMAR, TENSES. The English Tense System Tenses The English Tense System The links below are to lessons for each of the 12 basic tenses. In each lesson we look at two aspects of the tense: Structure: How do we make the tense? Use: When and why

More information

Present Perfect Story 1

Present Perfect Story 1 Present Perfect Story 1, Page 1 Present Perfect Story 1 By Really Learn English Visit the Present Perfect Section for More Resources Who are they? What have they done? What has happened? Linda has just

More information

PARAGRAPH ORGANIZATION 1 Worksheet 1: What is an introductory paragraph?

PARAGRAPH ORGANIZATION 1 Worksheet 1: What is an introductory paragraph? PARAGRAPH ORGANIZATION 1 Worksheet 1: What is an introductory paragraph? Read the paragraph. This is the introductory paragraph for an essay. What is the title of the essay? a The oldest person in your

More information

For students in grades 6-12, the EASY Series is correlated to the national TESOL standards and most state standards.

For students in grades 6-12, the EASY Series is correlated to the national TESOL standards and most state standards. EASY, the ESL Series provides a full interactive ESL curriculum for teenagers and adults from Newcomer through intermediate alphabet basics through to job readiness and employability skills. EASY Courses

More information

Straightforward Intermediate Practice Online

Straightforward Intermediate Practice Online Macmillan Practice Online is the easy way to get all the benefits of online learning and with over 100 courses to choose from, covering all competence levels and ranging from business English to exam practice

More information

Active and Passive Voice

Active and Passive Voice GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS and Voice Voice refers to the form of a verb that indicates when a grammatical subject performs the action or is the receiver of the action. When a sentence is written in the active

More information

Entry test B1. Grammar Vocabulary Communication. Test di ingresso - classe III. Nome e cognome... Classe... Data...

Entry test B1. Grammar Vocabulary Communication. Test di ingresso - classe III. Nome e cognome... Classe... Data... Test di ingresso - classe III Entry test B1 Grammar Vocabulary Communication Nome e cognome... Classe.........................................................................................................................................................................................

More information

B.A. ENGLISH ENTRANCE TEST

B.A. ENGLISH ENTRANCE TEST B.A. ENGLISH ENTRANCE TEST Time allowed: 60 min Total marks for the test: 100 Marking scheme: 1 mark for each correct answer In each multiple choice question, only one of the four answers is correct. Choose

More information

Unit 1. Language at work Present simple and continuous. Present simple. Present continuous

Unit 1. Language at work Present simple and continuous. Present simple. Present continuous Unit 1 Language at work Present simple and continuous Present simple Use the present simple 1 to talk about routines I usually arrive at work at about 8.30. 2 to talk about things we think of as permanent

More information

MODALVERBS: STRUCTURE& USE

MODALVERBS: STRUCTURE& USE MODALVERBS: STRUCTURE& USE What are modal verbs? Can Could May Might Must Shall Should Ought to Will Would They are Auxiliary verbsthat provide additional and specific meaning to the main verb of the sentence

More information

Parts of Speech. Skills Team, University of Hull

Parts of Speech. Skills Team, University of Hull Parts of Speech Skills Team, University of Hull Language comes before grammar, which is only an attempt to describe a language. Knowing the grammar of a language does not mean you can speak or write it

More information

Correlation: ELLIS. English language Learning and Instruction System. and the TOEFL. Test Of English as a Foreign Language

Correlation: ELLIS. English language Learning and Instruction System. and the TOEFL. Test Of English as a Foreign Language Correlation: English language Learning and Instruction System and the TOEFL Test Of English as a Foreign Language Structure (Grammar) A major aspect of the ability to succeed on the TOEFL examination is

More information

Rubrics & Checklists

Rubrics & Checklists Rubrics & Checklists fulfilling Common Core s for Fifth Grade Informative Writing Self-evaluation that's easy to use and comprehend Scoring that's based on Common Core expectations Checklists that lead

More information

English Grammar in Use A reference

English Grammar in Use A reference English Grammar in Use A reference and practice book for intermediate students of English THIRD EDITION cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

More information

Final Exam Grammar Review. 5. Explain the difference between a proper noun and a common noun.

Final Exam Grammar Review. 5. Explain the difference between a proper noun and a common noun. Final Exam Grammar Review Nouns 1. Definition of a noun: person, place, thing, or idea 2. Give four examples of nouns: 1. teacher 2. lesson 3. classroom 4. hope 3. Definition of compound noun: two nouns

More information

ESP MARKETING TEACHER S NOTES

ESP MARKETING TEACHER S NOTES Teacher s notes: Level 2 (Upper Intermediate Advanced) ESP MARKETING TEACHER S NOTES Worksheet A Pre-reading 1: Discussion Get students to discuss ideas as a class or in groups and then note their suggestions

More information

Non-nominal Which-Relatives

Non-nominal Which-Relatives Non-nominal Which-Relatives Doug Arnold, Robert D. Borsley University of Essex The properties of non-restrictive relatives All non-restrictive relative clauses include a wh-word. There are no that or zero

More information

Vocabulary Match the phrasal verbs in column A with their definitions in column B.

Vocabulary Match the phrasal verbs in column A with their definitions in column B. LESSSON D1 Starting and Ending a Conversation I. WARM-UP Vocabulary Match the phrasal verbs in column A with their definitions in column B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A get through get back put through hold on hang

More information

SPaG Workshop for Year 5 & 6 Parents & Carers

SPaG Workshop for Year 5 & 6 Parents & Carers SPaG Workshop for Year 5 & 6 Parents & Carers Thursday 10 th March 2016 at 6pm Please sign in next to your child s name on the class registers at the front of the hall. Take a white board and pen to use

More information

SYNTAX. Syntax the study of the system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation.

SYNTAX. Syntax the study of the system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation. SYNTAX Syntax the study of the system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation. 1) Syntactic categories lexical: - words that have meaning (semantic content) - words that can be inflected

More information

LESSON PROGRAMME INTERMEDIATE B1 OPEN ALL LANGUAGES

LESSON PROGRAMME INTERMEDIATE B1 OPEN ALL LANGUAGES 2016 LESSON PROGRAMME INTERMEDIATE B1 OPEN ALL LANGUAGES CONTENTS GRAMMAR LESSONS... 4 PRESENT AND PAST... 4 LESSON 9 A2/B1=> PRESENT & PAST REVIEW... 4 LESSON 10 B1/B2=> NARRATIVE... 4 ARTICLES, NOUNS,

More information

Nombre: I am not playing. You are not (you aren t) eating. He is not (He isn t) reading. She is not (She isn t) sleeping.

Nombre: I am not playing. You are not (you aren t) eating. He is not (He isn t) reading. She is not (She isn t) sleeping. PRESENT CONTINUOUS Affirmative Negative Interrogative I am (I m) playing. You are (you re) eating He is (He s) reading. She is (She s) sleeping. It is (It s) running. We are (we re) speaking. You are (you

More information

Pupil SPAG Card 1. Terminology for pupils. I Can Date Word

Pupil SPAG Card 1. Terminology for pupils. I Can Date Word Pupil SPAG Card 1 1 I know about regular plural noun endings s or es and what they mean (for example, dog, dogs; wish, wishes) 2 I know the regular endings that can be added to verbs (e.g. helping, helped,

More information

SIMPLE PRESENT FORM. USE 1 Repeated Actions. [VERB] + s/es in third person. Examples:

SIMPLE PRESENT FORM. USE 1 Repeated Actions. [VERB] + s/es in third person. Examples: SIMPLE PRESENT FORM [VERB] + s/es in third person 0. You speak English. 0. Do you speak English? 0. You do not speak English. Complete List of Simple Present Forms USE 1 Repeated Actions Use the Simple

More information

Monday Simple Sentence

Monday Simple Sentence Monday Simple Sentence Definition: A simple sentence is exactly what it sounds like, simple. It has a tensed verb (past or present), a subject, and expresses a complete thought. A simple sentence is also

More information

According to the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges, in the Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge, animals are divided

According to the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges, in the Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge, animals are divided Categories Categories According to the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges, in the Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge, animals are divided into 1 2 Categories those that belong to the Emperor embalmed

More information

How was your trip to San Francisco?

How was your trip to San Francisco? 1 CULTURE More than two million people visit San Francisco every year. San Francisco is famous for its shops, its restaurants, its beautiful old buildings, and its cable cars. San Francisco s Chinatown

More information

CEFR Level A1 Level A1 Global Listening Reading Spoken Interaction Spoken Production Writing

CEFR Level A1 Level A1 Global Listening Reading Spoken Interaction Spoken Production Writing CEFR Level A1 Level A1 is the lowest level of generative language use - the point at which the learner can interact in a simple way, ask and answer simple questions about themselves, where they live, people

More information

Lesson Share TEACHER S NOTES. Socializing by Gary Jones. Procedure

Lesson Share TEACHER S NOTES. Socializing by Gary Jones. Procedure Lesson Share TEACHER S NOTES Socializing by Gary Jones Age: Level: Time: Aim: Adults Upper intermediate 90 mins To practise making small talk; to learn lexis for active listening Key skills: Speaking Materials:

More information

1. This question paper consists of TWO sections: QUESTION 1: Comprehension (20) QUESTION 2: Language (10) QUESTION 3: Multiple Choice Questions (50)

1. This question paper consists of TWO sections: QUESTION 1: Comprehension (20) QUESTION 2: Language (10) QUESTION 3: Multiple Choice Questions (50) CAMI Education (Pty) Ltd Reg. No. 1996/017609/07 CAMI House Fir Drive, Northcliff P.O. Box 1260 CRESTA, 2118 Tel: +27 (11) 476-2020 Fax : 086 601 4400 web: www.camiweb.com e-mail: info@camiweb.com ENGLISH

More information

Adult Ed ESL Standards

Adult Ed ESL Standards Adult Ed ESL Standards Correlation to For more information, please contact your local ESL Specialist: Level Two www.cambridge.org/chicagoventures Please note that the Chicago Ventures correlations to the

More information

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection 1 GRAMMAR Eight Parts of Speech Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection Noun Name or classify persons, places, things, and concepts 1. Proper Nouns: Name particular people,

More information

A) COMPLETE THE SENTENCES WITH THE VERBS BELOW IN THE CORRECT FORM. (10x1)

A) COMPLETE THE SENTENCES WITH THE VERBS BELOW IN THE CORRECT FORM. (10x1) NAME: CLASS: DATE:../12/2010 NUMBER: A) COMPLETE THE SENTENCES WITH THE VERBS BELOW IN THE CORRECT FORM. (10x1) arrive - finish - go - have - leave - start - watch - work Mr Parker (1)... breakfast at

More information

Auxiliary Verbs. Unit 6

Auxiliary Verbs. Unit 6 Unit 6 Auxiliary Verbs You have already encountered three auxiliary (or helping) verbs: be, do, and have. They are conjugated and used with another verb to change that verb's meaning or tense: I go I am

More information

Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS

Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS Objetivos de Habilidades: inglés El objetivo de la prueba es comprobar que el alumno ha adquirido un nivel B1 (dentro

More information

The Academic Language of Tests

The Academic Language of Tests Teaching Your Secondary English Language Learners The Academic Language of Tests Focusing on English Language Arts Contents I. Introduction...1 II. Teaching the Language of the Reading-Objective Questions...3

More information

IN A SMALL PART OF THE CITY WEST OF

IN A SMALL PART OF THE CITY WEST OF p T h e L a s t L e a f IN A SMALL PART OF THE CITY WEST OF Washington Square, the streets have gone wild. They turn in different directions. They are broken into small pieces called places. One street

More information

Task 3 Reading into Writing: Strict or Relaxed Parents?

Task 3 Reading into Writing: Strict or Relaxed Parents? Task 3 Reading into Writing: Strict or Relaxed Parents? Reading & Writing At a glance Level: ISE I Focus: Task 3 Reading into writing Aims: To read information on a topic, write opinions and give advice

More information

The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde

The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Step Three B1.2 READING & TRAINING Robert Louis Stevenson The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde audio CD PART TWO The Search for Mr Hyde Mr Utterson was unhappy after his walk with Richard Enfield.

More information

LESSON PROGRAMME UPPER-INTERMEDIATE B2 OPEN ALL LANGUAGES

LESSON PROGRAMME UPPER-INTERMEDIATE B2 OPEN ALL LANGUAGES 2016 LESSON PROGRAMME UPPER-INTERMEDIATE B2 OPEN ALL LANGUAGES CONTENTS PRESENT AND PAST... 4 LESSON 10 B1/B2=> NARRATIVE... 4 ARTICLES, NOUNS, PRONOUNS & DETERMINERS... 4 LESSON 15 B1/B2=> ABSTRACT NOUNS...

More information

Year 3 Grammar Guide. For Children and Parents MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL

Year 3 Grammar Guide. For Children and Parents MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL Year 3 Grammar Guide For Children and Parents A guide to the key grammar skills and understanding that your child will be learning this year with examples and practice questions

More information

Past Simple (regular verbs)

Past Simple (regular verbs) Past Simple (regular verbs) Write the Past Simple form of the verbs below in the correct column. repeat worry finish start phone call miss enjoy visit marry listen cry play hate wash climb live arrive

More information