RELATIVE CLAUSES PRACTICE

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1 RELATIVE CLAUSES PRACTICE I. INTRODUCTION CLAUSE: A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: An independent clause is a complete sentence. It contains the main subject and verb of a sentence. (It is also called "a main clause.") DEPENDENT CLAUSE: A dependent clause is not a complete sentence. It must be connected to an independent clause. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It describes, identifies, or gives further information about a noun. (An adjective clause is also called "a relative clause.") ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS: An adjective clause uses pronouns to connect the dependent clause to the independent clause. The adjective clause pronouns are who, whom, which, that, where, when, why and whose. (Adjective clause pronouns are also called "relative pronouns.") II. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE SUBJECT I thanked the woman. She helped me. (a) I thanked the woman who helped me. (b) I thanked the woman that helped me. The book is mine. It is on the table. (c) The book which is on the table is mine. (d) The book that is on the table is mine. (e) INCORRECT: The book is mine that is on the table. In (a): I thanked the woman = an independent clause; who helped me = an adjective clause. The adjective clause modifies the noun woman. In (a): who is the subject of the adjective clause. In (b): that is the subject of the adjective clause. Note: (a) and (b) have the same meaning. (c) and (d) have the same meaning. who = used for people which = used for things that = used for both people and things An adjective clause closely follows the noun it modifies. EXERCISE 1. Adjective clause pronouns used as subjects. 1. Do you know that woman? She is coming toward us

2 2. The people are getting wet. They are waiting for the bus in the rain 3. I come from a city. It is located in the southern part of the country. 4. The children receive a good education. They are attending that school 5. The scientists are making progress. They are researching the cause of cancer. 6. The fence is made of wood. It surrounds our house. 7. They live in a house. It was built in We have an apartment. It overlooks the park. III. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB The man was Mr. Jones. I saw him. (a) The man who(m) I saw was Mr. Jones. (b) The man that I saw was Mr. Jones. (c) The man Ø I saw was Mr. Jones. The movie wasn't very good. We saw it last night. (d) The movie which we saw last night wasn't very good. (e) The movie that we saw last night wasn't very good. (f) The movie Ø we saw last night wasn't very good. (g) INCORRECT: The man who(m) I saw him was Mr. Jones. The man that I saw him was Mr. Jones. The man I saw him was Mr. Jones. Notice in the examples: The adjective clause pronouns are placed at the beginning of the clause. In (a): who is usually used instead of whom, especially in speaking. Whom is generally used only in very formal English. In (c) and (f): An object pronoun is often omitted from an adjective clause. (A subject pronoun, however, may not be omitted.) who(m) = used for people which = used for things that = used for both people and things In (g): The pronoun him must be removed. It is unnecessary because who(m), that, or Ø functions as the object of the verb saw.

3 EXERCISE 2. Adjective clause pronouns used as the object of a verb. Directions: Combine the sentences, using the second sentence as an adjective clause. 1. The book was good. I read it. 2. I liked the woman. I met her at the party last night. 3. I liked the composition. You wrote it. 4. The people were very nice. We visited them yesterday. 5. The man is standing over there. Ann brought him to the party. IV. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION She is the woman. I told you about her. (a) She is the woman about whom I told you. (b) She is the woman who(m) I told you about. (c) She is the woman that I told you about. (d) She is the woman Ø I told you about. The music was good. We listened to it last night. (e) The music to which we listened last night was good. (f) The music which we listened to last night was good. (g) The music that we listened to last night was good. (h) The music Ø we listened to last night was good. INCORRECT: She is the woman about who I told you. INCORRECT: The music to that we listened last night was good. In very formal English, the preposition comes at the beginning of the adjective clause, as in (a) and (e). Usually, however, in everyday usage, the preposition comes after the subject and verb of the adjective clause, as in the other examples. Note: If the preposition comes at the beginning of the adjective clause, only whom or which may be used. A preposition is never immediately followed by that or who.*

4 EXERCISE 3. Adjective clause pronouns used as the object of a preposition. 1. The meeting was interesting. I went to it. 2. The man was very kind. I talked to him yesterday. 3. I must thank the people. I got a present from them. 4. The picture was beautiful. She was looking at it. 5. The man is standing over there. I was telling you about him. 6. I ran into a woman. I had gone to elementary school with her. 7. The topic was interesting. Omar talked about it. 8. The people were friendly. I spoke to them. V. USING WHOSE I know the man. His bicycle was stolen. (a) I know the man whose bicycle was stolen. The student writes well. I read her composition. (b) The student whose composition I read writes well. Mr. Catt has a painting. Its value is inestimable. Whose is used to show possession. It carries the same meaning as other possessive pronouns used as adjectives: his, her, its, and their. Like his, her, its, and their, whose is connected to a noun: his bicycle + whose bicycle her composition + whose composition Both whose and the noun it is connected to are placed at the beginning of the adjective clause. Whose cannot be omitted. Whose usually modifies people, but it may also be used to modify things, as in (c). (c) Mr. Can has a painting whose value is inestimable.

5 EXERCISE 4. Using WHOSE in adjective clauses. 1. I know a man. His last name is Goose. 2. I apologized to the woman. I spilled her coffee. 3. The man called the police. His wallet was stolen. 4. I met the woman. Her husband is the president of the corporation. 5. The professor is excellent. I am taking her course. 6. Mr. North teaches a class for students. Their native language is not English. 7. The people were nice. We visited their house. 8. I live in a dormitory. Its residents come from many countries. 9. I have to call the man. I accidentally picked up his umbrella after the meeting. 10. The man poured a glass of water on his face. His beard caught on VI. USING WHERE IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE The building is very old. He lives there (in that building). The building where he lives is very old. The building in which he lives is very old. The building which he lives in is very Where is used in an adjective clause to modify a place (city, country, room, house, etc.). If where is used, a preposition is NOT included in the adjective clause, as in (a). If where is not used, the preposition must be included, as in (b). old. The building that he lives in is very old. The building Ø he lives in is very old.

6 EXERCISE 5. Using WHERE in adjective clauses. Directions: Combine the sentences, using the second sentence as an adjective clause 1. The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation there (in that city). 2. That is the restaurant. I will meet you there (at that restaurant). 3. The town is small. I grew up there (in that town). 4. That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry there (in that drawer). VII. USING WHEN IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE I'll never forget the day. I met you then (on that day). (a) 1'11 never forget the day when I met you. (b) I'll never forget the day on which I met you. (c) I'll never forget the day that I met you. (d) I'll never forget the day Ø I met you. When is used in an adjective clause to modify a noun of time (year, day, time, century, etc.). The use of a preposition in an adjective clause that modifies a noun of time is somewhat different from that in other adjective clauses: a preposition is used preceding which, as in (b). Otherwise, the preposition is omitted. EXERCISE 6. Using WHEN in adjective clauses. Directions: Combine the sentences, using the second sentence as an adjective clause. 1. Monday is the day. We will come then (on that day). 2. 7:05 is the time. My plane arrives then (at that time). 3. July is the month. The weather is usually the hottest then (in that month).

7 is the year. The revolution took place then (in that year). EXERCISE 7. Combine the sentences using a relative clause 1. He wants to get a job. This job is rewarding enough. 2. The clerks are more than twenty-one years old. They work in Mr Jenkin s office. 3. The book is the best. I ve selected it. 4. The magazine is very expensive. You are reading it. 5. There is the man. We ve heard about him on the TV. 6. The letter had no stamp on it. We received it today. 7. The gate must be kept shut. You came through it. 8. The gentleman is my English teacher. You spoke to him on the street. 9. There s the gentleman. His car has been stolen. 10. The sound was like a shot. It woke me up. 11. The employee has just arrived. You cannot guess his age. 12. This is the job. You must do it. 13. Don t accept any of the suggestions. The manager makes them. 14. The architect has come from abroad. I most admire his works.

8 15. She always tells us stories about her school days. She was an excellent pupil. 16. Shlomo Artzi is a very popular singer. His songs are often played on the radio. 17. This is a dangerous type of shark. It can swim in fresh and salt water. 18. The police arrested the driver of the truck. He had ignored the red light. 19. Mama s is an Italian restaurant. I eat here at least once a month. 20. That artist was born in Israel. Her paintings are sold all over the world. 21. She has taught more than 5,000 students. Most of them say that she is an excellent teacher. 22. My sister lives in Florida. She is the manager of a museum gift shop. 23. Kibbutz offers courses in Environmental Studies. It was founded by an American youth group You send me a present. Thank you very much for it. 25. Romeo and Juliet were lovers. Their parents hated each other. 26. This is Mrs. Jones. Her son won the championship last year. 27. He was sitting on a chair. It suddenly collapsed. 28. This is the house. We often stay in this house on holidays I haven t decided on the day. I ll get married on that day.

9 30. The Houses of Parliament stand on the river Thames. They are a remarkable feature of London. 31. My cat is overweight. I give it only the best food. 32. His only worry is taxes. He has to pay them every year. 33. They took their children on holiday with them. They are still babies. 34. My French teacher is very friendly. He never gets angry with us. 35. Mrs. Wilson often complains about her neighbours. Their dog is always barking. 36. The Vatican is in Rome. It is an independent state. 37. I stopped at Maidstone. My sister has a shop there. 38. The train broke down again. It was already half an hour late. 39. John works as a tourist guide. He speaks French, German and Italian. 40. Tom had been driving all day. He was tired and wanted to stop.

10 41. Vincent Van Gogh is considered one of the world's greatest painters. His paintings were ignored in his own life time. 42. The Olympic snowboarding event was exciting. Many people watched it on TV. 43. He was sitting in a chair. It suddenly collapsed. 44. This is the house. We often stay in this house in the summer. 45. I ll show you the second hand bookshop. You can find valuable books in this shop. 46. There is a No Parking sign. I do not take notice of it. 47. James Larson is in a difficult situation. His father has just died. 48. My dressmaker went to Paris last year. Her models are highly paid. 49. A man brought in a small girl. Her hand had been cut. 50. The reasons are basic grammatical ones. I m scolded by the teacher for these reasons. 51. I haven t not decided the day. I ll get married on that day. 52. Olga wrote on a topic. She knew nothing about it. 53. The candidate didn't win the election. I voted for her. 54. This is the book. I was telling you about it.

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