# OPEN-SOURCE CFD ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DOMAIN UNSTEADY HEATING WITH NATURAL CONVECTION

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2 404 P. Sosnowski and J. Pozorski Themainaimoftheworkpresentedinthisarticlewastocreateanumerical solver for unsteady simulations of heating of an automotive headlight and to perform such a simulation. Natural convection and heat transfer inside automotive headlights are well understood[2]. Nowadays, the main attention is focused on improving the geometry of headlights using the available experimentalandsimulationtools.mostoftheworkinther&dsectoroftheautomotive industry is done with commercial software. At the same time, a great amount of effort has been put by the open-source community to develop reliable and accurate tools for CFD calculations. One of such projects is OpenFOAM which is an open-source C++ library. It has been applied and further developed in the present work. InSection2thebasictheoryusedinthepresentstudyandthemost important features of the created solver are introduced. In Section 3 open-source CFD tools: the OpenFOAM library as well as pre- and post-processing programs arepresented.insection4theprocessofcreationofthemainsolver,theactual calculation performed and the obtained results are described. 2. Physical problem considered This Section introduces physical aspects of the studied case with heat transfer[3]. It also presents the mathematical model and the most important features of the created solver Governing equations Firstly, the general equations and theory used in the work are introduced. Alltheequationscanbewrittenintheformofagenerictransportequation (further discretised using OpenFOAM) for variable ψ: (ρψ)+ (ρuψ)= (γ ψ)+s, (1) t whereρisdensity,uisthevelocityvector,γisthediffusioncoefficientands is the source term. Using this general formula, the mass conservation equation (ψ 1)canbewritten: ρ + (ρu)=0. (2) t Next,themomentumequation(ψ U)isrecalled: t (ρu)+ (ρuu)=µ 2 U p+b, (3) whereµisthedynamicviscosity,pisthepressureandbarethemassforces actingonaunitmassoffluid(inthefollowing:thebuoyancyforce).atlast,the energy equation is taken into account, which after several modifications can be written as the equation describing the behaviour of temperature(ψ T): T t + (UT)= κ 2 T+ S h, (4) ρc p ρc p whereκisthethermalconductivity,c p isthespecificheatands h istheheat generation rate per unit volume. tq413u-e/ I 2010 BOP s.c.,

3 Open-Source CFD Analysis of Multi-domain Unsteady Heating As in most numerical applications, the Eulerian discretisation scheme was appliedintheformofthefinitevolumemethod[1].thisinvolvedadivisionof the computational domain into small volumes(cells), writing a set of conservation equations for each cell and solving the resulting system of non-linear equations Multi-domain approach The studied case consisted of nine sub-domains(solid or fluid regions) which differed in physical properties. The selected solution algorithm was based on the assumption that each region was dealt with sequentially. The coupling between them was modelled by specific consistency conditions at the common boundaries (interfaces). Two physical models were required to simulate the conjugate heat transfer. For solid sub-domains, it was enough to consider the temperature field and its evolution in time. The following equation was solved: ρ s c p,s T s t = (κ s T s )+S s, (5) whereρ s wasthedensity,c p,s wasthespecificheat,t s wasthetemperature,κ s wastheconductioncoefficient,ands s wastheheatsourceinthesolidelement. In the fluid sub-domains, the flow of a viscous, thermodynamically perfect gas was considered. Also, the Boussinesq approximation was used to account for the natural convection effects. It assumes that the thermal properties of fluid do not greatly influence its density except for the buoyancy force term. This results in apossibilityofapproximatingitbyaconstant,ρ =ρ 0.Intheend,thedensityitself can be calculated by an independent relation, ρ = ρ(t). These relationships state that the difference in temperature can generate movement inside fluid domains. Thefinalsetofequationscouldbewrittenas: U f t ( µ + (U f U f ) T f t + (U ft f ) U f =0, (6) ) U f = ǫ(t f T 0 )g p, (7) ρ f ) =0, (8) ( κf ρ f c p,f T f whereu f isthevelocityofthefluid,µisthedynamicviscosity,ρ f isthedensity, ǫisthethermalexpansioncoefficient,t f isthefluidtemperature,t 0 isareference temperature,gisthegravitationalacceleration,pisthepressure,andκ f isthe thermal conductivity Coupling condition, boundary conditions In most multi-domain, conjugate heat transfer computations, solid and fluid domains are in contact. In the selected approach, each domain was solved separately at each time step. A difficulty appeared in the appropriate formulation of the consistency conditions at the solid-fluid interfaces, as well as the numerical implementation of these conditions to couple temperature fields in neighbouring regions. The main problem was due to significant differences in heat conduction coefficients of neighbouring regions(like air and glass). It appeared that(contrary tq413u-e/ I 2010 BOP s.c.,

4 406 P. Sosnowski and J. Pozorski tothefirstidea)itwasnotenoughtocopythetemperaturevaluefromthenextto-interface cell centre to the boundary of a studied region. It was necessary to createacouplingconditionwhichwasbasedonmatchingtheheatfluxesatboth sides of the interface. The formula developed during the studies of the problem could be written as: T int = T ownλ own D nei +T nei λ nei D own λ own D nei +λ nei D own, (9) wheret int isthemodelledtemperatureattheinterface,t own isthetemperature insidethestudiedregion scellsnexttotheinterface,t nei isthetemperatureinside thenext-to-interfacecellsintheneighbourregion;λ own andλ nei arethermal conductioncoefficients,d own andd nei arethedistancesbetweencellcentres andtheinterface.ascanbeseen,thetemperatureattheinterfacewasnot only dependent on the temperature of connected regions and their conduction properties, but also on the distance between the interface and the centres of the next-to-interface cells. Although this condition proved itself to work and to provide a convergent solution, it resulted in significant dependency of the temperature distribution on the mesh structure close to the interface. These effects will be described later on in the paper. Another aspect of the studied case was the external boundary condition. In the presented simulation it was assumed that the whole case was situated inside a container(thermostat) which could absorb pre-defined amounts of heat Numerical and computational improvements In problems concerning heat transfer from a specific source, regions which arefarawayfromtheheatsourcearenotaffectedbythetemperatureriseatthe beginning of the simulation. Therefore, the program does not have to compute those regions(sub-domains). The created solver has been provided with such a functionality. A particular region(sub-domain) starts to be computed when at least one of the following conditions becomes true: thereisaheatsourceintheregion; thereisaflowsourceintheregion(e.g.,inflow,movingwall,etc.); there is a pressure or temperature gradient inside the region; temperature at the boundary differs from the temperature inside the region. The presented feature allows us to save computational resources during the initial phase of the simulation. Anotherspecificabilityofthesolveristhewayithandlesthematerial properties.forexample,thedensityofasolidorfluidmaychangewiththe rising temperature. The nature of those changes can be described by a pre-defined function or by interpolation from experimental data. The solver has been extended to have the possibility to modify the properties in both ways. The material properties can be inserted as a polynomial function or by a set of experimental data which is to be interpolated. tq413u-e/ I 2010 BOP s.c.,

5 Open-Source CFD Analysis of Multi-domain Unsteady Heating Open-source CFD software This section is dedicated to introducing the implementation of algorithms used in computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer. The commercial market for such programs is very large. The available products provide accurate and reliable tools. On the other hand, two main flaws of such solutions are noticed. The first one is the price of commercial programs. A great complexity and variety offunctionalitiesreflectthecostofsuchatool.atthesametime,itoften happensthatmostfunctionsofferedbysuchaproductarenotused.thesecond main problem is that the source code of commercial applications is not available. Engineers working with such programs cannot include their own modifications. This prevents them from implementing newly developed algorithms. Usually, if anewfunctionalityistobeincludedintoacommercialcode,ithastobepurchased from the developer. And once again the money problem is encountered. These flaws are not present if the developing team uses open-source codes. Studies done for this paper were performed with OpenFOAM(Open Field Operation And Manipulation) software[4, 5] which is released under the Lesser General Public License(LGPL) Open-source pre- and post-processing The open-source community have created many professional, free tools for working in all phases of numerical analysis of field problems: pre-processing, solving and post-processing. Some of them, used for the present purpose, are presented in this paper OpenFOAM pre-processing The first contact with OpenFOAM always involves working with provided preprocessing tools: blockmesh and snappyhex. The first tool allows to create simple geometries and structural grids. Unfortunately, it lacks a graphical interface, and allinputisdonebycreatingaspecificfilecalledblockmeshdict.itishelpfulto getfamiliarwithblockmeshsincewithitcomestheknowledgeonhowthedata andthemesharetakencareofinopenfoam.ontheotherhand,whilepreparing complex or unstructured grids, blockmesh proves to be insufficient. The second mentioned tool, snappyhex, is a mesh generating program. It makes it possible to create a hexagonal, unstructured mesh using STL formatted geometry files as input Pre-processor CalculiX Next, an open-source pre-processing tool that should be mentioned is cgx. It is an environment which comes together with the CalculiX package; cgx allows geometries and meshes to be created. It has advanced structural meshing algorithms implemented. The program interface is very basic and requires some practice to be efficiently used, however, work with cgx becomes rewarding when some experience has been gained. Unfortunately, up to now, only hexagonalelement meshes can be saved in the OpenFOAM format. Thus, cgx can generate STL surface meshes which can be used by other meshing algorithms. tq413u-e/ I 2010 BOP s.c.,

6 408 P. Sosnowski and J. Pozorski Meshers Netgen and engrid Open-source codes allow unstructured grids of good quality to be created. In particular, the Netgen program provides a very efficient meshing algorithm. The program itself provides sufficient functionality. On the other hand, it does not give access to several helpful tools(such as near-wall boundary layer mesh creators). Another program, engrid, supports those features, while using the same, efficient algorithm within itself. It also provides full export compatibility with OpenFOAM. AnexampleofameshcreatedusingcgxandenGridcanbeseeninFigure1. Figure 1. Mesh created using cgx and engrid Post-processing tool ParaView One of the important steps while performing numerical simulations is the post-processing part. The open-source community has produced tools which can beasgood(orevenbetter)asmanycommercialsolutions.oneofthemis the ParaView visualisation software. The program makes it possible to visualize multiple formats of data, create animations, screenshots, etc. At the same time ParaView has an easy to operate and intuitive interface and no special training is required to fully use its capabilities Advantages of OpenFOAM OpenFOAMdiffersfrommostofthenumericallibrariesbythewayittakes care of implementation of differential transport equations. Thanks to its highlevel,objectorientedc++structure,theequationscanbeputintocodeinavery clear and easy way[4, 5]. For example, a transport equation: t (ρ sc p,s T s )= (κ T s )+ Q rad +P willberepresentedinopenfoambysuchanobjectasinfigure2. tq413u-e/ I 2010 BOP s.c.,

7 Open-Source CFD Analysis of Multi-domain Unsteady Heating fvmatrix Eqn{ fvm::ddt(rhos*cps, Ts) == fvm::laplacian(k, Ts) +fvc::div(qrad) +P }; Figure 2. OpenFOAM s representation of a transport equation It can be easily seen that the representation is very intuitive. Furthermore, an engineer does not have to know exactly how the fvmatrix class works. Instead, it is enough for him to understand and remember its functionality. This substantially accelerates the development process. 4. Results for test cases The following part describes the process of testing the OpenFOAM environmentandcreationofasolverwhichwasusedinthemainsimulation Solver icofoam The first test involved checking icofoam. It is a solver included in OpenFOAM releases which allows incompressible flow cases to be stimulated. It does not include an energy equation. The studied domain was a two-dimensional square cavity with a moving top wall. Three tests were performed, each with a different Reynoldsnumber.TheresultswerecomparedwiththepaperofGhiaetal.[6]. The data obtained from icofoam agreed well with those from the reference. This allows us to assume that the algorithms implemented in OpenFOAM work correctly. Forthenexttest,athirddimensionwasadded.Thenewlycreatedwallswere chosentobeperiodic.thatwayaninfinitecavitywithamovingtopwallwas modelled.thetestwasaimedatcheckingwhetherthesamesolverwouldbeable to recognize and properly handle such an extended case. The results confirmed the expectations Modified icofoam solver The third test involved a modification of icofoam by adding mass force to the momentum equation and including the temperature equation as a passive scalar. The studied case consisted of an infinite, two-dimensional, vertical channel. The initial temperature distribution across the channel was set to be parabolic. The channel walls were held at different, fixed temperatures(isothermal boundary condition). The calculations were performed until a steady state laminar flow was reached. As expected, the resulting velocity field had a parabolic profile, and the temperature ended up with a constant gradient, linear profile. tq413u-e/ I 2010 BOP s.c.,

8 410 P. Sosnowski and J. Pozorski 4.3. Rayleigh-Bénard convection This analysis tested the equation set which was used in the main program. The studied problem was the Rayleigh-Bénard natural convection process[3]. The case consisted of two infinite, horizontal plates of which the lower one was hotter than the upper one. To simplify the model, the Boussinesq approximation was used, hence the fluid density was considered to be constant. For this setup, two characteristic states could be observed. In the former, the fluid stopped moving due to its viscosity and the heat was transported by molecular diffusion. The latter state was observed when the so-called convective cells appeared inside the domain. The fluid circulated between hotter(lower) and colder(top) walls, so that the heat was transferred mostly by convection. The tests were performed for stable, unstable, and marginal-state configurations. The final results are presented in Figure 3. Here again, the results matched the expectations. This allowed us to start working on the final, multi-region solver. Figure 3. Rayleigh-Bénard convection; final simulation state:(top) stable configuration, (bottom) unstable configuration 5. Results for generic automotive headlight The open-source solver developed and tested for heat transfer due to natural convectionwasusedforsimulationofheatingofaheadlightwithap21wbulb, commonly used in the automotive industry. To simplify the model, calculations were made in two dimensions. The case consisted of nine sub-domains: filament, gas inside the bulb, glass, gas inside the bulb base, bulb thread, socket, box, gasinsidethebox,andgassurroundingthebox.themeshusedispresentedin tq413u-e/ I 2010 BOP s.c.,

9 Open-Source CFD Analysis of Multi-domain Unsteady Heating Figure 4. Unstructured mesh used in the main simulation Figure4.Itconsistedofaround100000cells.Thetimestepwaschosentobe t=10 4 s. Thefirstsimulationswereperformedonacoarsemeshof5500cells.They were aimed at testing the solver and producing first results. An analysis of those resultsledustoremovethefilamentandreplaceitwithafixedvalueboundary condition. It appeared that the model could not fully simulate the real process, since it lacked radiation effects Velocity and temperature fields ThemainsimulationlastedforoverthreeweeksoftheCPUtime.160seconds of full computational time(temperature + velocity) were generated and followed by another seconds of temperature simulation. The results obtained fromthefullsimulationcanbedividedintotwoparts.thefirstonelastedupto 30seconds.Bythattime,thegasinsidethebulbwasnearlyinasteadystate.In addition,theglassofthebulbstartedtoheatthegasinsidethebox.thisresulted increatingaheatflowwhichwaspointeddirectlyupwardsfromthebulb.the results are illustrated in Figure 5(left). Aftert=30s,theflowstartedtomoveleftwards,towardsthewallofthe box.agreatvortexwasgeneratedinsidethebox.thisfactwasaresultofthe simplificationtotwodimensions.thegaswhichwasheatedbythebottomofthe tq413u-e/ I 2010 BOP s.c.,

10 412 P. Sosnowski and J. Pozorski bulbtendedtomoveupwards.sinceithadnootherwayout,itmovedaround thebulb.atthesametimeitpoweredthebigvortex,andmovedthehorizontal flowtotheleft.theresultstillthattimeareshowninfigure5(right). Att=160sthevelocityfieldwasfrozenandaveraged(Figure6).Afterthat the simulation was performed only for the temperature field. Without this action, the calculations would have had to continue for several months(the simulation was running on a personal computer with a 2.1GHz dual-core processor, 3GB RAM).Att=3000s,thetemperaturereachedasteadystateinallcontrolpoints, and the simulation was stopped(figure 7). Figure5.Transienttemperaturefieldsat:(left)t=30s,(right)t=160s Figure 6. Stream lines of averaged velocity field tq413u-e/ I 2010 BOP s.c.,

11 Open-Source CFD Analysis of Multi-domain Unsteady Heating Discussion Figure 7. Steady-state temperature field The obtained results matched the expectations qualitatively. A so called hotspot wasobservedintheupperpartontheglassofthebulb,cf.figure7,in agreement with the experimental evidence[2]. On the other hand, a simplification ofthephysicalmodel(bynotincludingradiation)ledtoahighervalueof temperature at the hot spot than the temperature obtained during the experiment.thisopensafieldforfurtherdevelopmentofphysicalmodelsusedinthe solver. At the same time, a significant dependency of the temperature distribution on the mesh quality was observed near the interfaces of the sub-domains. It was caused by the properties of the selected coupling model. This problem occurred intheinitialstateofthesimulation(aroundt=4s).itcanbeseeninfigure8. Thisfactpointsouttotheneedofaspecificnear-wallmeshhandlingwhileusing the model, and indicates the direction of future studies on the coupling problem. 6. Conclusions Thepaperhasshownthatitispossibletosimulateadvancedheatandfluid flow phenomena using open-source programs and environments. The OpenFOAM solver was further developed by adding the consistency conditions for conjugate heat transfer. The described solver made it possible to simulate the temperature tq413u-e/ I 2010 BOP s.c.,

12 414 P. Sosnowski and J. Pozorski Figure 8. Temperature bubbles caused by unstructured mesh effects at solid-fluid interface field behaviour for a multi-domain computation where thermal convection and conduction were the main heat transfer factors. In addition, several free, advanced numerical programs for pre-processing and post-processing were used for the purpose, as described in the text. Acknowledgements The paper presents some of the results obtained in the Master Thesis of P. S., partly prepared at the University of Trieste (Italy) in the group of Prof. Vincenzo Armenio, in association with Eng. Antonio Filipuzzi from Centro Ricerche Plasta-Optica(Udine, Italy). The authors also wish to thank the OpenFOAM community for their continuing efforts in developing open-source CFD software. References [1] Fletcher C A J 1988 Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics, Springer [2] Filipuzzi A and Zanoletti F 2007 EnginSoft CAE User s Meeting 2007 [3] Atkinson J and Rubin H 2001 Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Marcel Dekker Inc. [4] 2008 OpenFOAM Programmers Guide, OpenCFD Limited [5] 2008 OpenFOAM User Guide, OpenCFD Limited [6]GhiaU,GhiaKNandShinCT1982J.Comput.Phys tq413u-e/ I 2010 BOP s.c.,

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