POLITECNICO DI MILANO Department of Energy

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1 1D-3D coupling between GT-Power and OpenFOAM for cylinder and duct system domains G. Montenegro, A. Onorati, M. Zanardi, M. Awasthi +, J. Silvestri + ( ) Dipartimento di Energia - Politecnico di Milano ( + ) Gamma Technologies Inc.

2 What is OpenFOAM? OpenFOAM is an open source, freely available CFD Toolbox, licensed under the GNU General Public Licence, written in highly efficient C++ object-oriented programming. Currently it is the most advanced research CFD code. It can simulate almost any problem in computational continuum mechanics. It uses finite volume numerics to solve systems of partial differential equations ascribed on any 3D unstructured mesh of polyhedral cells. Domain decomposition parallelism is fundamental to the design of OpenFOAM and integrated at a low level so that solvers can generally be developed without the need for any parallel-specific coding.

3 The ENGINE library The Internal Combustion Engine Group of Politecnico di Milano has contributed to develop the engine library: Moving mesh algorithms Spray modeling Combustion process modeling 1D-3D coupling interface Non-linear acoustics modeling DPF modeling GT-Power / OpenFOAM coupling Closed valve cylinder modeling (Diesel and S.I.) Intake and exhaust systems modeling

4 Cylinder coupling Values are passed from GT-Power to OpenFOAM at the beginning of the 3D simulation: Initial pressure Initial temperature Initial swirl and tumble coefficient Initial turbulence level EGR, fuel, products and oxidant mass fractions Other parameters, such as injection law, IVC,EVO and others, are set recurring to standard OpenFOAM dictionaries Istantaneous values of pressure, temperature, turbulence and mass fraction of EGR, products, oxidant and fuel are passed back to GT-Power at each htime step

5 Fully Automatic Mesh Adaption (FAMA) can be used when the piston can be meshed by means of a layered grid The mesh is moved and layers of cells are added or removed, during the compression and expansion stroke respectively, according to user defined tolerances

6 MUliple p Mesh to Mesh Interpolation p (MUMMI) can be used when the engine geometry is complex (bowl in GDI engines) The mesh is automatically remapped to a new mesh whenever the mesh quality deteriorates excessively The set of meshes must be provided at the beginning of the calculation. Meshes can be created exploiting the built in mesh generator (blockmesh) or adopting OpenFOAM compatible mesh generators (Gambit, ProAM, ICEM, NetGen...)

7 OpenFOAM can follow the time step given by the 1D model or it can perform subcycling according to the Courant number required by the 3D

8 Duct system coupling Vl Values are passed dfrom GTP GT-Power to OpenFOAM at each time 1D values can be assigned uniformly at the interface A coupling procedure based on the solution of the Riemann problem allows to assign non uniform fields compatible with the 3D solution Transport of chemical species will be implemented to track different gas compositions such as EGR inside of intake systems

9

10 Thank you for your attention ti

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