CFD Grows Up! Martin W. Liddament Ventilation, Energy and Environmental Technology (VEETECH Ltd) What is Computational Fluid Dynamics?

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1 CIBSE/ASHRAE Meeting CFD Grows Up! Martin W. Liddament Ventilation, Energy and Environmental Technology (VEETECH Ltd) 10 th December 2003 What is Computational Fluid Dynamics? CFD is a numerical means by which: Air Flow Distribution; Flow Velocity; Temperature Distribution; Contaminant Distribution; Fire and Smoke Movement. can be predicted within a space. CFD can also be used to predict outdoor flow patterns 1

2 How does CFD Work? A space is divided into a series of control volumes in which the equations governing air flow, thermal transport and pollutant transport are solved Assembling the Governing Equations Air Flow Laminar Flow (e.g. displacement ventilation) Navier Stokes Equations ; Turbulent Flow (e.g. mixing diffusers) k-ε Models (Turbulent diffusivity expressed in terms of kinetic energy of turbulence and the dissipation rate of kinetic energy of turbulence. LES Large Eddy Simulation (Characteristics of large eddies incorporated into grid (has proved successful but not yet in common use. Requires significant processing time) 2

3 Assembling the Governing Equations Driving Forces Forced Convection (mechanical flow, wind driven, circulating fans) - Isothermal (uniform temperature) conditions; Free Convection (buoyancy driven e.g. self driven convection currents) - non isothermal, vertical force (rising of hot air); Mixed Convection (combined forced and free convection). Assembling the Governing Equations ollutants Emission / Sink Rate Location Time Dependency 3

4 Structure of Transport Equations Unsteady Term (i.e. Time Dependent) Convection Term Diffusion Term Source Term Dealing with Solid Boundaries Flow: Boundary Layer Theory; No Tangential Flow Turbulent/Laminar (Local Re No) Thermal Heat Transfer Coefficient; Temperature; Grid Spacing 5mm from wall; Grid Expansion ratio

5 Dealing With Inlets Must accurately reflect: Air velocity; Volume flow rate; Turbulence Solution of Transport Equations SIMLE Semi Implicit Method for ressure Linked Equations (Developed by atankar and Spalding at Imperial College ~ 1970 s) Start Assume initial pressure distribution Evaluate resultant flow velocities Apply pressure correction Evaluate new velocities Evaluate ollutant Transport Convergence? Test for compliance with continiuty equation Evaluate temperature and turbulence Stop 5

6 Other Issues Convergence Criteria Mass balance error e.g. < 1% Solution Time Can be hours or even days Grid Dependency Solve for more than one grid density Some Examples 6

7 Mixing Ventilation ollutant Concentration Is uniform Contaminant Removal Effectiveness Concentration at location 1 Concentration at the exhaust terminal (C e ) 1 2 Displacement Ventilation Concentration at location (C p ) Concentration at location 2 Displacement systems are designed to plume around thermal sources ollutant gathers above occupied zone ollutant Concentration is Non-Uniform.. Age of Air Example Simple Office Outlet Vent Room=(4.0,2.7,3.0) Inlet Vent Monitor Desk Window 7

8 Example Building Up a Network Room=(4.0,2.7,3.0) Outlet Vent Start=(3.2,2.7,1.3) Len=(-.4,0,0.4) =0 Inlet Vent Star=t(0,2.4,0.9) Len=(0,0.04,1.2) Vel=(2.0,0,0) DCoef=1.0 Turb=0.1 Monitor Start=(1.8,0.75,1.3) Len=(0.4,0.4,0.4) T=50 Hf=200 Temp=12 Conc=0 Desk Start(1,0.7,1) Len=(2,0.05,1.0) T=24 Hf=0 Window Start=(4,0.6,0.5) Len=(0,1.7,2.0) T=28 Hf=0 Example Typical Results 8

9 Results - 3D Visualisation Results Streamlines 9

10 Example Displacement Ventilation Displacement Ventilation Age of Air Thermal Comfort rediction 10

11 Indoor Air Quality rediction 1 2 Natural ventilation Buoyancy-driven flow in an atrium 11

12 Cross Contamination Between Apartments High Rise Ventilation Stack Top - Floor Apartment Contaminated With ollutant From Ground Floor Apartment robable Cause of Spread of SARS Lui & Moser IJV Feb 2003 Wind Flow over Buildings 12

13 Fire Spread Summary CFD is an effective tool for assessing and visualising flow related behaviour. It can be used to analyse a wide variety of prblems including air flow, temperature and pollutant distribution. CAUTION! CFD is VERY Seductive. Work must be supported by conventional analysis 13

14 Where is it ossible to get CFD Code? Commercial Code FLOWVENT (Flowmerics); CFX (Harwell); HOENIX (Cham); STAR-CD VORTEX (Reading/Greenwich Universities)*. ublic Domain TEACH (forerunner of HOENIX); EXACT3 (from NIST in US)*. * On CD-ROM CD to Take Away Full Version of VORTEX CFD (Valid to 15 th Jan 2004) FORTRAN Source Code: EXACT3 (3-D CFD Simulation Code) Some Copies of: The International Journal of Ventilation for light Christmas Reading 14

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