Computational Fluid Dynamics Research Projects at Cenaero (2011)

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1 Computational Fluid Dynamics Research Projects at Cenaero (2011) Cenaero ( is an applied research center focused on the development of advanced simulation technologies for aeronautics. Located at the Aéropôle de Gosselies in Belgium, it employs about 50 highly skilled researchers working on virtual manufacturing, multiscale material modeling, CFD-based multi-physics and optimization. Cenaero offers to highly skilled and motivated students with backgrounds in engineering, computer science and mathematics to join its research projects for training and/or to perform their master s graduation thesis. The positions are open to students attending a Belgian university and students from EU countries. Interested candidates should send a cover letter and a resume via to with mention to the reference number. TR-CFD : Application of DES Models for Airframe Noise Computations TR-CFD : Application of LES for the Flow around a High Pressure Turbine Blade TR-CFD : Validation and Optimization of the Flow in a Tiltrotor Nacelle TR-CFD : Evaluation of DES and RANS Approaches for the Flow in a Street Canyon Configuration TR-CFD : Comparison of Fluent and OpenFOAM on a Building CFD Benchmark TR-CFD : Application of Partioned Coupling Strategy for the Aeroelastic Simulation of a Bridge TR-CFD : Simulation of the Flow in a Centrifugal Compressor TR-CFD : Simulation of the Unsteady Flow in an Axial Compressor with Technological Effects TR-CFD : Development of a Passive Scalar Diffusion Model for CFD Analysis of Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Areas TR-CFD : Development of Advanced Turbulence Modeling in an Unstructured Grid Solver TR-CFD : Extension and Validation of an Unstructured Flow Solver for Compressor Stage Simulations TR-CFD : Development of a Conjugate Heat Transfer Module in an Unstructured Grid Solver TR-CFD : Development of a Partioned Coupling Strategy for Aerothermal Simulations TR-CFD : Multi-criteria analysis of CFD-based and zonal models on published and industrial benchmarks for building applications

2 Title: Application of DES Models for Airframe Noise Computations Stokes solver ( which features a combination of finite volume and finite element discretizations on unstructured meshes. Detached- and large-eddy simulation models have been implemented. The goal of this work is to contribute to the validation process (code-tocode and/or experimental comparisons) for the simulation of the separated flow around an airfoil trailing edge and a simplified landing gear configuration (see for more details). For that purpose the candidate will create or clean an appropriate CAD model, generate a suitable three-dimensional mesh, perform unsteady CFD analyses and exploit the obtained numerical results. A possible work extension is the propagation of the noise sources with an acoustic software. The candidate should possess a good background in computational fluid dynamics, some experience with CAD modeling software, and a strong motivation. Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

3 Title: Application of LES for the Flow around a High Pressure Turbine Blade Stokes solver ( which features a combination of finite volume and finite element discretizations on unstructured meshes. Recently we have implemented detached- as well as large-eddy simulation models and added turbomachinery capabilities to this solver in order to perform single row (stator or rotor) computations. The goal of this work is to study the feasibility of using LES-type models (as opposed to RANS-type models) for the simulation of the highly complex flow around a high pressure turbine blade. For that purpose the candidate will create or clean an appropriate CAD model, generate a suitable three-dimensional mesh, perform unsteady CFD analyses and exploit the obtained numerical results. The candidate should possess a good background in computational fluid dynamics and turbomachinery, some experience with CAD modeling software, and a strong motivation. Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

4 Title: Validation and Optimization of the Flow in a Tiltrotor Nacelle Stokes solver ( which features a combination of finite volume and finite element discretizations on unstructured meshes. The solver has been used to perform preliminary computations of the flow in a tiltrotor nacelle. The goal of this work is to further contribute to the validation process with the experimental data obtained at the wind tunnels of the Universities of Liège and Milan. Starting from an existing CAD model, the candidate will generate suitable three-dimensional meshes, perform aerodynamical simulations and exploit the obtained numerical results. As a parameterized version of the CAD model has been developed recently, a possible extension of the work will be to investigate several designs through automatic optimization. For this purpose, an in-house optimizer ( will used to try to reduce the total pressure distortion in the compressor inlet plane. The candidate should possess a good background in computational fluid dynamics, some experience with CAD modeling and meshing software, and a strong motivation. Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

5 Title: Evaluation of DES and RANS Approaches for the Flow in a Street Canyon Configuration Stokes solver which features a combination of finite volume and finite element discretizations on unstructured meshes. Detached- and large-eddy simulation models have been implemented. The goal of this work is to compare the accuracy of the so-called RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) and DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) approaches for computing the flow generated by the wind in a street canyon configuration. The two approaches will be validated and compared on a public available test case. For that purpose the candidate will create or clean an appropriate CAD model, generate a suitable three-dimensional mesh, perform steady and unsteady CFD analyses and exploit the obtained numerical results. The candidate should possess a good background in computational fluid dynamics, some experience with CAD modeling software, and a strong motivation. Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

6 Title: Comparison of Fluent and OpenFOAM on a Building CFD Benchmark In the frame of its building applications, Cenaero plans to compare different CFD software solutions in terms of cost, expertise and skills, restitution time and accuracy. More specifically, Cenaero plans to compare open source and commercial software such as OpenFOAM and Fluent. Based on a CFD building application benchmark, the candidate will create or clean an appropriate CAD model, generate a suitable three-dimensional mesh, perform RANS CFD analyses with Fluent and OpenFOAM, compare and exploit the obtained numerical results in terms of accuracy, cost, required expertise and skills, restitution time,... The candidate should possess a good background in computational fluid dynamics, heat transfer and natural convection problems, some experience with CAD modeling software, and a strong motivation. Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

7 Title: Application of Partioned Coupling Strategy for the Aeroelastic Simulation of a Bridge A large class of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems require the simultaneous application of computational fluid dynamics, computational structural dynamics and/or computational thermodynamics codes. Since each discipline has developed powerful specialized tools, a partitioned procedure is preferred for solving coupled field nonlinear FSI problems. To perform aeroelastic simulations, Cenaero has coupled its domain decomposition based parallel three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver ( to a commercial finite element solver (Samcef Mecano). Steady and unsteady aeroelastic responses of several wings and a regional aircraft have been simulated by considering the flow as inviscid. The goal of this work is to apply the existing methodology to the unsteady aeroelastic response of a bridge. For that purpose the candidate will generate a suitable threedimensional mesh, perform unsteady viscous simulations around the undeformed configuration, integrate the existing fluid and structural models into the aeroelastic simulation loop, conduct several aeroelastic analyses and exploit the obtained numerical results. The candidate should possess a good background in computational fluid dynamics, some experience with CAD modeling software, and a strong motivation. Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

8 Title: Simulation of the Flow in a Centrifugal Compressor Cenaero has developed an expertise in the flow simulation of axial compressors and turbines. For that purpose, the mesh generator Autogrid5 and the CFD code elsa for are used. Developed by Onera, elsa is a multi-block structured cell centered, finite volume, implicit solver. The goal of this work is to investigate the modifications required by the computational chain available at Cenaero for axial compressors in order to extend it to centrifugal ones. For that purpose the candidate will create or clean an appropriate CAD model, generate a suitable three-dimensional multi-block structured mesh, perform aerodynamical analyses and compare the obtained numerical results with available experimental data. The candidate should possess a good background in computational fluid dynamics and turbomachinery as well as a strong motivation. Duration: 5-7 months (1 student) Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

9 Title: Simulation of the Unsteady Flow in an Axial Compressor with Technological Effects Cenaero possesses an expertise in the flow simulation of axial compressors and turbines. For that purpose, the mesh generator Autogrid5 and the CFD code elsa for are used. Developed by Onera, elsa is a multi-block structured cell centered, finite volume, implicit solver. Recently, Cenaero has extended its expertise to the simulation of unsteady flows with elsa. The goal of this work is to perform unsteady simulations (with sliding mesh and phase lag approaches) of a compressor with rim seals in order to investigate the seal leakage flow features and their influence on the flow in the main flowpath. For that purpose the candidate will start from an existing CAD model, generate a suitable three-dimensional multi-block structured mesh, perform aerodynamical analyses and compare the obtained numerical results with available experimental data and previously obtained numerical results with a mixing plane approach. The candidate should possess a good background in computational fluid dynamics and turbomachinery as well as a strong motivation. Duration: 5-7 months (1 student) Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

10 Title: Development of a Passive Scalar Diffusion Model for CFD Analysis of Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Areas Stokes solver which features a combination of finite volume and finite element discretizations on unstructured meshes. Reynold-Averaged Navier-Stokes models (RANS) as well as detached- and large-eddy simulation models (DES/LES) are available. In the frame of building applications, Cenaero uses these techniques to model the wind flow and its impact on pedestrian comfort in urban areas. In order to develop our comfort estimate capabilities, we are looking for a candidate to implement a pollutant dispersion module in the CFD solver developed by Cenaero. This includes the implementation of the finite element discretization of a turbulent diffusion equation of a passive scalar. Simple academic test-cases will serve to validate the algorithm. The candidate should possess a good background in computational fluid dynamic and diffusion problems. The candidate should equally be proficient in C++ programming, and strongly motivated. Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

11 Title: Development of Advanced Turbulence Modeling in an Unstructured Grid Solver Stokes solver ( which features a combination of finite volume and finite element discretizations on unstructured meshes. Turbulence modeling is currently performed by solving the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model. The code has been organized such that multiple-equation turbulence models can be easily implemented and solved. Based on a literature review, the purpose of this work is to select and implement a modern turbulence model for RANS-type applications. Simple academic test-cases will serve to validate the implementation. The candidate should possess a good background in computational fluid dynamics and turbulence modeling. The candidate should equally be proficient in C++ programming, and strongly motivated. Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

12 Title: Extension and Validation of an Unstructured Flow Solver for Compressor Stage Simulations Stokes solver ( which features a combination of finite volume and finite element discretizations on unstructured meshes. Recently we have added turbomachinery capabilities to this solver in order to perform single row (stator or rotor) computations. The goal of this work is to implement a mixing plane boundary condition in order to perform stage steady-state computations. The essential idea behind the mixing plane concept is that each fluid zone (stator and rotor) is solved as a steady-state problem. At some prescribed iteration interval, the flow data at the mixing plane interface are averaged in the circumferential direction. In order to validate the developments, the candidate will create or clean an appropriate CAD model, generate a suitable three-dimensional mesh, perform CFD analyses and exploit the obtained numerical results. The candidate should possess a good background in computational fluid dynamics and turbomachinery. The candidate should equally be proficient in C++ programming, and strongly motivated. Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

13 Title: Development of a Conjugate Heat Transfer Module in an Unstructured Grid Solver Stokes solver ( which features a combination of finite volume and finite element discretizations on unstructured meshes. The code has been organized such that multiple coupled problems can be solved on (different domains) of the same mesh. Since the mesh is common, all interfaces are conformal. An example of such a multidisciplinary computation is the conjugate eat transfer (CHT) problem, in which the heat conduction in solid parts of the domain is coupled to the fluid flow in the remainder. The purpose of this work is to implement a CHT module for the CFD solver developed by Cenaero. This includes the implementation of the finite element discretization for the Fourier equation of heat conduction and for the coupling boundary conditions. Simple academic test-cases will serve to validate the coupling algorithm. Depending on progress, research into optimizing parallel performance will be considered. The candidate should possess a good background in computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer. The candidate should equally be proficient in C++ programming, and strongly motivated. Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

14 Title: Development of a Partioned Coupling Strategy for Aerothermal Simulations A large class of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems require the simultaneous application of computational fluid dynamics, computational structural dynamics and/or computational thermodynamics codes. Since each discipline has developed powerful specialized tools, a partitioned procedure is preferred for solving coupled field nonlinear FSI problems. To perform aeroelastic simulations, Cenaero has coupled its domain decomposition based parallel three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver ( to a commercial finite element thermal solver (Samcef Mecano) through the MpCCI library. Steady aerothermal simulations of cooled turbine blades as well as heat exchangers have been performed. The goal of this work is to develop a similar coupling strategy with an in-house thermomechanical finite element solver ( and to apply the developed methodology to the steady aerothermal response of air cooled oil cooling heat exchanger. For that purpose the candidate will create or clean an appropriate CAD model, generate a suitable three-dimensional mesh, perform aerodynamical and aerothermal analyses and exploit the obtained numerical results. The candidate should possess a good background in computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer. The candidate should equally be proficient in C++ programming, and strongly motivated. Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

15 Title: Multi-criteria analysis of CFD-based and zonal models on published and industrial benchmarks for building applications In the frame of its building applications, Cenaero plans to compare different CFD software and zonal models in terms of cost, expertise and skills, restitution time and accuracy. More specifically, Cenaero plans to compare open-source and commercial software such as OpenFOAM and Fluent with the multi-zone model TRNSYS. Based on a CFD building application benchmark, the candidate will create an appropriate TRNSYS model, perform unsteady simulation, compare and exploit the obtained numerical results in terms of accuracy, cost, expertise and skills, restitution time,... The candidate should possess a good background in multi-zone approaches, heat transfer and natural convection problems, some experience with CFD modeling software, and a strong motivation. Duration: 3 5 months (1 student) Reference: TR-CFD Last updated February 14, 2011

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